OAI Archive: CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences ePrint Archive

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100 entries most recently downloaded from the archive "CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences ePrint Archive"

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  1. Hokky Situngkir, Exploitation of Memetics for Melodic Sequences Generation.
    Music, or in narrower sense, melodic contours of the aesthetically arranged pitches and the respective durations attracts our cognition since the beginning and now shaping the way we think in the complex life of culture. From evolutionary school of thoughts we could learn our perspective of seeing the musical diversity of folk songs in Indonesian archipelago by hypothesizing the aligning memes throughout the data sets. By regarding the memeplexes constructed from the the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law in melodic sequences and some mathematical (...)
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  2. Hokky Situngkir & Ardian Maulana, Coalitions in Multiparty System: Empirical Reflection of the Indonesian Regional Elections.
    A lot of changing in recent Indonesian political dynamics with eventual fact shows how political recruitment for legislative and executive chairs in national as well as regional levels in direct voting systems have brought the patterns of coalitions among political parties into interesting focus of observation. We evaluate the Regional Elections data held since June 2005 to September 2008 as election matrix. The matrix is then transformed into the ultrametric space yielding the hierarchical trees based on proximity on inter-party coalition. (...)
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  3. Dr Gualtiero Piccinini, Scientific Methods Must Be Public, and Descriptive Experience Sampling Qualifies.
    Hurlburt and Schwitzgebel’s groundbreaking book, Describing Inner Experience: Proponent Meets Skeptic, examines a research method called Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES). DES, which was developed by Hurlburt and collaborators, works roughly as follows. An investigator gives a subject a random beeper. During the day, as the subject hears a beep, she writes a description of her conscious experience just before the beep. The next day, the investigator interviews the subject, asks for more details, corrects any apparent mistakes made by the subject, (...)
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  4. Alexandra Elbakyan, Consciousness in Mixed Systems: Merging Artificial and Biological Minds Via Brain-Machine Interface.
    The rapidly developing field of Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) technology seeks to establish a direct communication-and-control channel between human brain and machines. Practical applications for BMI include restoration of lost vision and motor functions, and even extending normal human capabilities. But unfortunately current BMI systems are far too poor to achieve even a level of performance that is comparable to what humans are normally capable of, let alone improving it. And this situation holds on for quite a while. The possible solution (...)
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  5. Christophe Menant (2010). Evolutionary Advantages of Inter-Subjectivity and Self-Consciousness Through Improvements of Action Programs (2010). Dissertation, Tucson TSC 2010
    Evolutionary advantages of consciousness and intersubjectivity are part of current philosophical debates on the nature of consciousness. Both are linked and intersubjectivity is sometimes considered as a form of consciousness [1]. Regarding the evolution of consciousness, studies tend to focus on phenomenal consciousness [2]. We would like here to bring the focus on self-consciousness and continue the build up of a corresponding evolutionary scenario. We also propose to introduce a possible evolutionary link between self-consciousness and phenomenal consciousness. Our starting point (...)
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  6. Livia Colle, Francesca M. Bosco & Maurizio Tirassa (2009). The Complexity of Theory of Mind. Cogprints 18 (1):323-324.
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  7. Francesca M. Bosco, Livia Colle, Silvia De Fazio, Adele Bono, Saverio Ruberti & Maurizio Tirassa (2009). Th.O.M.A.S.: An Exploratory Assessment of Theory of Mind in Schizophrenic Subjects. Cogprints 18 (1):306-319.
    A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects, to determine whether some components are more impaired than others. We developed a Theory of Mind Assessment Scale and administered it to 22 persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (...)
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  8. Chuck Stieg, Putting the Philosophy of Science Into Mind: Knowing Minds by Models.
    The philosophy of science can provide fruitful contributions to other areas of philosophy. In this paper, I argue that the application of work on the nature of theories helps to resolve a long-standing dispute on the philosophy of mind over mindreading. The Theory Theory and the Simulation Theory are two competing accounts of how it is that we explain and predict the actions and mental states of others. I discuss each view as well as some of their weaknesses. I suggest (...)
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  9. Norman G. Vinson & Janice A. Singer (2008). A Practical Guide to Ethical Research Involving Humans. In Cogprints.
    The popularity of empirical methods in software engineering research is on the rise. Surveys, experiments, metrics, case studies, and field studies are examples of empirical methods used to investigate both software engineering processes and products. The increased application of such methods has also brought about an increase in discussions about adapting these methods to the particularities of software engineering. In contrast, the ethical issues raised by empirical methods have received little attention in the software engineering literature. In this chapter, we (...)
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  10. Marcelo Masson Maroldi, The Sellars's Functionalism: A Historical Research.
    Philosopher Wilfrid Sellars was one of the contemporary functionalism precursors when he conceived mental states as theoretical entities identified with functional states, conception defended mainly in his most relevant work Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind, broadly discussed on the academic context of analytical tradition. On this book, Sellars introduces his explanation of mental, gathering on the same thesis private events, intententionality , a public language and a system based on rules defined intersubjectivity Therefore, this work intends to show how (...)
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  11. Benoit Hardy-Vallee (2007). Decision-Making: A Neuroeconomic Perspective. Philosophy Compass 2 (6):939-953.
    This article introduces and discusses from a philosophical point of view the nascent field of neuroeconomics, which is the study of neural mechanisms involved in decision-making and their economic significance. Following a survey of the ways in which decision-making is usually construed in philosophy, economics and psychology, I review many important findings in neuroeconomics to show that they suggest a revised picture of decision-making and ourselves as choosing agents. Finally, I outline a neuroeconomic account of irrationality.
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  12. Prof Ignazio Licata (2008). Logical Openness in Cognitive Models. Epistemologia:177-192.
    It is here proposed an analysis of symbolic and sub-symbolic models for studying cognitive processes, centered on emergence and logical openness notions. The Theory of logical openness connects the Physics of system/environment relationships to the system informational structure. In this theory, cognitive models can be ordered according to a hierarchy of complexity depending on their logical openness degree, and their descriptive limits are correlated to Gödel-Turing Theorems on formal systems. The symbolic models with (...)
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  13. Mani A., "Possible Definitions of an 'a Priori' Granule in General Rough Set Theory" by A. Mani.
    We introduce an abstract framework for general rough set theory from a mereological perspective and consider possible concepts of ’a priori’ granules and granulation in the same. The framework is ideal for relaxing many of the relatively superfluous set-theoretic axioms and for improving the semantics of many relation based, cover-based and dialectical rough set theories. This is a relatively simplified presentation of a section in three different recent research papers by the present author.
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  14. Hokky Situngkir, The Phylomemetics of Batik.
    The paper reports the analysis of phylomemetic tree onto batik motifs developed uniquely in all corners of living and in the heart of tradition of Indonesian people. The diversity is visualized, be it classical traditional motifs and the ones recognized to be recently innovated. This is the first important thing we can learn about through the phylomemetic tree, i.e.: as a visualization of creativity landscapes of Indonesian batik. The second thing to be learnt is that we could see the clustering (...)
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  15. Dr Ravishankar Ayyadevara, On Causal and Constructive Modeling of Belief Change.
    The process of changing beliefs as a result of accepting the new information is often called Belief revision. It occupies a central position in the area of philosophy, theoretical computer science and logic. However, problem of Belief revision in general is how an agent revises her current beliefs when new information obtained from reliable and evidential source contradicts some of the old beliefs, while preserving the core beliefs. One of the key aspects of the problem of changing beliefs is to (...)
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  16. Dr Steven Ravett Brown (2009). Reentrant Emergence. Cogprints.
    Emergent properties (EPs) are not causally reducible to the properties of a complex system’s elements. If a system’s properties cannot be reduced to those of any of its components, then that system is effectively a singular entity (SE). EPs are thus not properties of known complexes, but of SEs. A precise description of the parameters necessary to observe a physical system as an SE is thus necessary to establish under what conditions properties are understood as emergent. That description is provided (...)
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  17. Prof Ignazio Licata & Prof Gianfranco Minati (2009). Creativity as Cognitive Design the Case of Mesoscopic Variables in Meta-Structures. In Cogprints. [Book Chapter] (in Press)
    Creativity is an open problem which has been differently approached by several disciplines since a long time. In this contribution we consider as creative the constructivist design an observer does on the description levels of complex phenomena, such as the self-organized and emergent ones ( e.g., Bènard rollers, Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactions, flocks, swarms, and more radical cognitive and social emergences). We consider this design as related to the Gestaltian creation of a language fit for representing natural processes and the observer in (...)
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  18. Dr Fainos Mangena, Beings of a Life-Span Are Equal: Rebutting Singer's Sentience and Naess' Deep Ecology Criteria for Moral Standing.
    This article critically explores the assumptions of anthropocentricism, as well as the sentience and deep ecology arguments. While Peter Singer argues for the extension of moral standing to some non-human beings because they are sentient, Arne Naess believes that all living beings should be accorded moral standing because they have inherent value. I argue that both arguments present some difficulties. Sentience, for instance, may not be limited to a mere feeling of pain and pleasure because it also encapsulates aims, values (...)
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  19. Prof Antonella Carassa & Prof Marco Colombetti (2009). Joint Meaning. Cogprints.
    In this paper we want to reconcile two apparently conflicting intuitions: the first is that what a speaker means is just a function of his or her communicative intentions, independently of what the hearer understands, and even of the actual existence of a hearer; the second is that when communication is carried out successfully, the resulting meaning is, in some important sense, jointly construed by the speaker and the hearer. Our strategy is to distinguish between speaker’s meaning, understood as a (...)
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  20. Nagarjuna G. (2009). Collaborative Creation of Teaching-Learning Sequences and an Atlas of Knowledge. Mathematics Teaching-Research Journal Online 3 (N3):23-40.
    Our focus in the article is to introduce a simple methodology of generating teaching-learning sequences using the semantic network techinque, followed by the emergent properties of such a network and their implications for the teaching-learning process (didactics) with marginal notes on epistemological implications. A collaborative portal for teachers, which publishes a network of prerequisites for teaching/learning any concept or an activity is introduced. The article ends with an appeal to the global community to contribute prerequisites of any subject to complete (...)
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  21. Nagarjuna G., Collaborative Creation of Teaching-Learning Sequences and an Atlas of Knowledge.
    The article is about a new online resource, a collaborative portal for teachers, which publishes a network of prerequisites for teaching/learning any concept or an activity. A simple and effective method of collaboratively constructing teaching­-learning sequences is presented. The special emergent properties of the dependency network and their didactic and epistemic implications are pointed. The article ends with an appeal to the global teaching community to contribute prerequisites of any subject to complete the global roadmap for an altas being built (...)
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  22. Dr Wayne Christensen (2007). The Evolutionary Origins of Volition. In Cogprints.
    It appears to be a straightforward implication of distributed cognition principles that there is no integrated executive control system (e.g. Brooks 1991, Clark 1997). If distributed cognition is taken as a credible paradigm for cognitive science this in turn presents a challenge to volition because the concept of volition assumes integrated information processing and action control. For instance the process of forming a goal should integrate information about the available action options. If the goal is acted upon these processes should (...)
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  23. Dr Wayne Christensen (2010). The Decoupled Representation Theory of the Evolution of Cognition--A Critical Assessment. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):361-405.
    Sterelny’s Thought in a Hostile World ([ 2003 ]) presents a complex, systematically structured theory of the evolution of cognition centered on a concept of decoupled representation. Taking Godfrey-Smith’s ([ 1996 ]) analysis of the evolution of behavioral flexibility as a framework, the theory describes increasingly complex grades of representation beginning with simple detection and culminating with decoupled representation, said to be belief-like, and it characterizes selection forces that drive evolutionary transformations in these forms of representation. Sterelny’s ultimate explanatory target (...)
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  24. Dr Paul Franceschi, A Characterization of the One-Sidedness Fallacy Within the Framework of the Cognitive Distortions.
    In this paper, I propose an accurate description of the cognitive process involved in the one-sidedness fallacy, a widespread type of fallacy. I describe first several characterizations of the one-sidedness fallacy, that are either inductive or deductive, or occurring at a meta-philosophical level. I recall, second, the framework of the cognitive distortions described in Franceschi (2007). I give then a definition of the one-sidedness fallacy, by describing it as a general cognitive distortion: the disqualification of one pole. I show finally (...)
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  25. Mr Debaprasad Mukherjee, Complexity, Biocomplexity, the Connectionist Conjecture and Ontology of Complexity.
    This paper develops and integrates major ideas and concepts on complexity and biocomplexity - the connectionist conjecture, universal ontology of complexity, irreducible complexity of totality & inherent randomness, perpetual evolution of information, emergence of criticality and equivalence of symmetry & complexity. This paper introduces the Connectionist Conjecture which states that the one and only representation of Totality is the connectionist one i.e. in terms of nodes and edges. This paper also introduces an idea of Universal Ontology of Complexity and develops (...)
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  26. Dr Petros A. M. Gelepithis, Outline of a New Approach to the Nature of Mind.
    I propose a new approach to the constitutive problem of psychology ‘what is mind?’ The first section introduces modifications of the received scope, methodology, and evaluation criteria of unified theories of cognition in accordance with the requirements of evolutionary compatibility and of a mature science. The second section outlines the proposed theory. Its first part provides empirically verifiable conditions delineating the class of meaningful neural formations and modifies accordingly the traditional conceptions of meaning, concept and thinking. This analysis is part (...)
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  27. Prof Max Velmans (2009). How to Define Consciousness—and How Not to Define Consciousness. Cogprints.
    Definitions of consciousness need to be sufficiently broad to include all examples of conscious states and sufficiently narrow to exclude entities, events and processes that are not conscious. Unfortunately, deviations from these simple principles are common in modern consciousness studies, with consequent confusion and internal division in the field. The present paper gives example of ways in which definitions of consciousness can be either too broad or too narrow. It also discusses some of the main ways in which pre-existing theoretical (...)
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  28. Prof Max Velmans (2009). Psychophysical Nature. In Cogprints.
    There are two quite distinct ways in which events that we normally think of as “physical” relate in an intimate way to events that we normally think of as “psychological”. One intimate relation occurs in exteroception at the point where events in the world become events as-perceived. The other intimate relationship occurs at the interface of conscious experience with its neural correlates in the brain. The chapter examines each of these relationships and positions them within a dual-aspect, reflexive model of (...)
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  29. Mr Blake K. Winter, Berkeley's Arguments on Realism and Idealism.
    We analyse Berkeley's argument that realism cannot be defined, and show that his epistemological assumptions lead to the inevitable conclusion that solipsism is the only definable metaphysics. We conclude with a discussion of what this means for the realism/idealism debate, and also with a discussion of the possibility for apodictic evidence in this matter.
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  30. Dr Lambros Malafouris (2008). Is It 'Me' or is It 'Mine'? The Mycenaean Sword as a Body-Part. In Cogprints.
    This paper argues that material culture has the ability to change and shape our bodies by transforming and extending the boundaries of our body schema. To explore this argument I concentrate on the relationship between the Mycenaean body and the Mycenaean sword. Focusing on the early Mycenaean period I propose that the centre of consciousness and bodily awareness for the Mycenaean person, and for the warrior in particular, is not some ‘internal’ Cartesian ‘I’, but the tip of the sword. Through (...)
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  31. Paulo Vélez León (2006). Aproximaciones a la ¿Obra de Arte? [Approaches to ¿Artwork?]. In Cogprints.
    Algunas de las preguntas fundamentales de la filosofía del arte son: 1) ¿Qué es una obra de arte?, 2) ¿Qué es Arte?, 3) ¿Qué es el arte? Responderlas es determinar el sentido del arte. Este tipo de preguntas están planteadas bajo la fórmula ¿Qué es X?, es decir, preguntas en las cuales en lo simple esta lo complejo, preguntas en donde lo simple no quiere decir que sean sencillas; son preguntas que traen dentro de si su naturaleza y carácter metafísico-ontológico-gnoseológico, (...)
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  32. Chuck Stieg (2008). The Intentionality of Plover Cognitive States. Cogprints 8 (August):6.
    This paper attempts to clarify and justify the attribution of mental states to animals by focusing on two different conceptions of intentionality: instrumentalist and realist. I use each of these general views to interpret and discuss the behavior and cognitive states of piping plovers in order to provide a substantive way to frame the question of animal minds. I argue that attributing mental states to plovers is warranted for instrumentalists insofar as it is warranted for similar human behavior. For realists (...)
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  33. Paulo Vélez León, Aproximaciones a la Ontología Del Arte [Approaches to the Ontology of Art].
    El presenta trabajo describe y caracteriza de manera breve y concisa lo que podría ser una ontología del arte. En la primera sección se presentan las dificultades actuales, así como las nociones y preguntas principales de la ontología. En la sección segunda, en base de los aportes del NCOR, se bosqueja las definiciones y caracterizaciones actuales de la ontología, se hace especial hincapié, en la ontología aplicada. En la tercera y cuarta sección se caracteriza y configura lo que podría ser (...)
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  34. Dr Lambros Malafouris (2007). The Sacred Engagement: Outline of a Hypothesis About the Origin of Human 'Religious Intelligence'. In Cogprints.
    The question that motivates the central hypothesis advanced in this paper regarding the emergence of early religious thinking is the following: ‘why does religion need material culture?’ What basic functional or symbolic need renders material culture an indispensable and universal component of religion and ritual activity? A common temptation, obvious in a number of recent archaeological and anthropological studies, is to seek an answer in the field of memory (Boyer 1993; 1996; 1998; 2001; McCauley and Lawson 2002; Whitehouse 2000; 2004; (...)
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  35. Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2006). A Proposal to Refine Concept Mapping for Effective Science Learning. In A. J. Canas & J. D. Novak (eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology Proc. of the Second Int. Conference on Concept Mapping.
    Concept maps are found to be useful in eliciting knowledge, meaningful learning, evaluation of understanding and in studying the nature of changes taking place during cognitive development, particularly in the classroom. Several experts have claimed the effectiveness of this tool for learning science. We agree with the claim, but the effectiveness will improve only if we gradually introduce a certain amount of discipline in constructing the maps. The discipline is warranted, we argue, because science thrives to be an unambiguous and (...)
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  36. Nagarjuna G., A Proposal to Refine Concept Mapping for Effective Science Learning.
    Concept maps are found to be useful in eliciting knowledge, meaningful learning, evaluation of understanding and in studying the nature of changes taking place during cognitive development, particularly in the classroom. Several experts have claimed the effectiveness of this tool for learning science. We agree with the claim, but the effectiveness will improve only if we gradually introduce a certain amount of discipline in constructing the maps. The discipline is warranted, we argue, because science thrives to be an unambiguous and (...)
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  37. Dr Lambros Malafouris (2007). At the Potter's Wheel: An Argument for Material Agency. In Cogprints.
    Consider a potter throwing a vessel on the wheel. Think of the complex ways brain, body, wheel and clay relate and interact with one another throughout the different stages of this activity and try to imagine some of the resources (physical, mental or biological) needed for the enaction of this creative process. Focus, for instance, on the first minutes of action when the potter attempts to centre the lump of clay on the wheel. The hands are grasping the clay. The (...)
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  38. Hokky Situngkir & Deni Khanafiah, Computational Batik Motif Generation: Innovation of Traditional Heritage by Fractal Computation.
    Human-computer interaction has been the cause of the emerging innovations in many fields, including in design and art, architectural, technological artifacts, and even traditional heritage. In the case of Indonesian traditional heritages, the computation of fractal designs has been introduced to develop batik design – the genuine textile art and skill that becomes a symbol of Indonesian culture. The uniqueness of Batik, which depicted in the richness of its motifs, is regarded as one of interesting aspect to be researched and (...)
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  39. Mr Blake Winter, Thoughts, Things, and Theories.
    We to critique the following question: can we have reasonable certainty that the terms in speculative or empirical theories correspond meaningfully to things in the ontological structure of the world, or are they only convenient fictions useful for predicting phenomena? We first justify this question as meaningful, and capable of admitting a meaningful answer. We then analyze question itself with examples from physics and biology. We conclude that we can be reasonably certain that the terms in an empirical theory have (...)
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  40. Mr Blake Winter, On Incompatibilist Free Will.
    We consider the possibility of defining some kind of activity which meets the intuitive requirements of incompatibilist free will. Our analysis of this will be done in a fashion which in some ways parallels the work of Pink on this matter. We will then consider the evidence of such free will, both from an introspective perspective and from a scientific perspective. In the latter we consider neurological and psychological evidence.
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  41. Mr Blake K. Winter, Divisibility, Logic, Radical Empiricism, and Metaphysics.
    We will explore the problem of the manner in which the world may be divided into parts, and how this affects the application of logic. We will also consider how this affects the problem of knowing the world. Such considerations bring us to discuss how the divisibility of the world relates to idealism, realism, and the radical empiricist program of James. The epistemological difficulties sometimes associated with realism will in particular be shown to be in principle the result of misunderstanding (...)
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  42. Dr John R. Skoyles (1992). The Authority of Science - and its Enemies. Cogprints.
    Successful scientists pick out one philosopher as having articulated the rationality of what they do as scientists. He is Sir Karl Popper FRS. But Popper's ideas play no part in contemporary philosophy. As Popper has said "Here I am being showered with honours as no professional philosopher before me; yet three generations of professional philosophers know nothing about my work" (Bartley, 1982). How did this situation arise? I suggest, because philosophers use a false analogy to model the nature of authority (...)
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  43. Mr Christian Flender, Dr Kirsty Kitto & Prof Peter Bruza, Nonseparability of Shared Intentionality.
    According to recent studies in developmental psychology and neuroscience, symbolic language is essentially intersubjective. Empathetically relating to others renders possible the acquisition of linguistic constructs. Intersubjectivity develops in early ontogenetic life when interactions between mother and infant mutually shape their relatedness. Empirical findings suggest that the shared attention and intention involved in those interactions is sustained as it becomes internalized and embodied. Symbolic language is derivative and emerges from shared intentionality. In this paper, we present a formalization of shared intentionality (...)
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  44. Dr H. Stefan Bracha & Dr Jack D. Maser (2008). Anxiety and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Context of Human Brain Evolution:A Role for Theory in Dsm-V? Cogprints.
    The “hypervigilance, escape, struggle, tonic immobility” evolutionarily hardwired acute peritraumatic response sequence is important for clinicians to understand. Our commentary supplements the useful article on human tonic immobility (TI) by Marx, Forsyth, Gallup, Fusé and Lexington (2008). A hallmark sign of TI is peritraumatic tachycardia, which others have documented as a major risk factor for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). TI is evolutionarily highly conserved (uniform across species) and underscores the need for DSM-V planners to consider the inclusion of evolution (...)
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  45. Bernard J. Baars, J. B. Newman & John G. Taylor (1998). Neuronal Mechanisms of Consciousness: A Relational Global Workspace Approach. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A.C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press 269-278.
    This paper explores a remarkable convergence of ideas and evidence, previously presented in separate places by its authors. That convergence has now become so persuasive that we believe we are working within substantially the same broad framework. Taylor's mathematical papers on neuronal systems involved in consciousness dovetail well with work by Newman and Baars on the thalamocortical system, suggesting a brain mechanism much like the global workspace architecture developed by Baars (see references below). This architecture is relational, in the sense (...)
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  46. Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora, Intrinsic Contextuality as the Crux of Consciousness.
    A stream of conscious experience is extremely contextual; it is impacted by sensory stimuli, drives and emotions, and the web of associations that link, directly or indirectly, the subject of experience to other elements of the individual's worldview. The contextuality of one's conscious experience both enhances and constrains the contextuality of one's behavior. Since we cannot know first-hand the conscious experience of another, it is by way of behavioral contextuality that we make judgements about whether or not, and to what (...)
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  47. John Collier, Autonomy in Anticipatory Systems: Significance for Functionality, Intentionality and Meaning.
    Abstract Many anticipatory systems cannot in themselves act meaningfully or represent intentionally. This stems largely from the derivative nature of their functionality. All current artificial control systems, and many living systems such as organs and cellular parts of organisms derive any intentionality they might have from their designers or possessors. Derivative functionality requires reference to some external autonomously functional system, and derivative intentionality similarly requires reference to an external autonomous intentional system. The importance of autonomy can be summed up in (...)
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  48. Serge Patlavskiy (1999). Elaboration of the New Paradigm of Interdisciplinary Investigations. Philosophical Explorations.
    In the article, the problem of creating a theoretical system for approaching the complex phenomena of Reality is discussed. The idea is expressed that epistemology, as the theory of cognitive process, has a dissociative character. The postulate of an integrated informational system is formulated. Such postulate is a suggested basis for creation of a unified methodology of cognition which makes it possible to elaborate a new paradigm of interdisciplinary investigations as a separate scientific discipline which has its own methods and (...)
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  49. Nicholas Humphrey (1997). Varieties of Altruism - and the Common Ground Between Them. Social Research 64.
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  50. Nicholas Humphrey & Daniel C. Dennett (1989). Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder. Philosophical Explorations.
  51. William J. Clancey (1991). Situated Cognition: Stepping Out of Representational Flatland. Philosophical Explorations.
    Descriptions of novice-expert differences, reasoning strategies, explanation-based learning, etc. are descriptions of how people create and use models within a representational language, when interacting with their environment in cycles of perceiving and acting. To complement these descriptions, we need to understand how representational languages are created.
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  52. Dahlia W. Zaidel (1994). A View of the World From a Split-Brain Perspective. In [Book Chapter].
    The extent to which observed behavior in the complete commissurotomy patients is supported by only one hemisphere would depend on individual differences interacting with a variety of factors such as genetics, intelligence, and so on. The lesson imparted here is that there is sufficient functional redundancy in the neocortex so that the capacity to maintain a wide range of abilities is within the control of one hemisphere. And, yet, as seen in what is missing in the patients' behavior, one hemisphere (...)
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  53. Dahlia W. Zaidel & Asa Kasher (1989). Hemispheric Memory for Surrealistic Versus Realistic Paintings. Philosophical Explorations.
    The issue of hemispheric processing of art works, either alone or in relation to a certain aspect of language, was investigated in normal subjects. Three experiments were performed. In the first, memory for surrealistic versus realistic pictures was investigated. In the second, memory for metaphoric versus literal titles of these pictures was measured. In the third, memory for the paintings was determined as a function of the same titles. The results of the first experiment showed a right visual field (RVF) (...)
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  54. Bernard J. Baars & Katharine A. McGovern (1996). Cognitive Views of Consciousness: What Are the Facts? How Can We Explain Them? In Max Velmans (ed.), The Science of Consciousness. Routledge
    At this instant you, the reader, are conscious of some aspects of the act of reading --- the color and texture of THIS PAGE, and perhaps the inner sound of THESE WORDS. But you are probably not aware of the touch of your chair at this instant; nor of a certain background taste in your mouth, nor that monotonous background noise, the soft sound of music, or the complex syntactic processes needed to understand THIS PHRASE; nor are you now aware (...)
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  55. B. Edmonds, Towards a Descriptive Model of Agent Strategy Search.
    It is argued that due to the complexity of most economic phenomena, the chances of deriving correct models from a priori principles are small. Instead are more descriptive approach to modelling should be pursued. Agent-based modelling is characterised as a step in this direction. However many agent-based models use off-the-shelf algorithms from computer science without regard to their descriptive accuracy. This paper attempts an agent model that describes the behaviour of subjects reported by Joep Sonnemans as accurately as possible. It (...)
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  56. Dan Sperber (2000). Metarepresentations in an Evolutionary Perspective. In [Book Chapter] (in Press). Oxford University Press
    Humans are expert users of metarepresentations. How has this human metarepresentational capacity evolved? In order to contribute to the ongoing debate on this question, the chapter focuses on three more specific issues: i. How do humans metarepresent representations? ii. What came first: language, or metarepresentations? iii. Do humans have more than one metarepresentational ability?
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  57. Marion Blute, Learning Theory and the Evolutionary Analogy.
    In this article, past comparisons of learning and evolution as analogous processes are discussed and some inaccuracies and omissions in those discussions are pointed out. The evolutionary analogy is examined for its ability to suggest solutions to five fundamental theoretical issues about learning - superstitions, why a reinforcer has the effect it does, the relationship among various procedures yielding learning, the relevance of the matching law to the problem of what reinforces an avoidance response, and whether behavioral and cognitive views (...)
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  58. Siu L. Chow (1995). In Defense of Experimental Data in a Relativistic Milieu. Philosophical Explorations.
    The objectivity and utility of experimental data as evidential support for knowledge-claims may be found suspect when it is shown that the interpretation of experimental data is inevitably complicated by social factors like experimenter effects, subject effects and demand characteristics, social factors which affect experimental data are themselves sensitive to societal conventions or cultural values, all observations are necessarily theory-dependent, and experimental data have limited generality because they are collected in artificial settings. These critiques of experimental data are answered by (...)
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  59. Max Velmans (1999). When Perception Becomes Conscious. British Journal of Psychology 90 (4):543-566.
    The study of preconscious versus conscious processing has an extensive history in cognitive psychology, dating back to the writings of William James. Much of the experimental work on this issue has focused on perception, conceived of as input analysis, and on the relation of consciousness to attentional processing. The present paper examines when input analysis becomes conscious from the perspectives of cognitive modelling, methodology, and a more detailed understanding of what is meant by "conscious processing." Current evidence suggests that perception (...)
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  60. Shaheen E. Lakhan & Meenakshi K. Khurana (2008). Intellectual Property, Copyright, and Fair Use in Education. Cogprints.
    As with other rights, such as liberty and organization, intellectual property (IP) rights are often overlooked or disregarded simply because they are intangible. Yet, IP rights are essential to the workings of our society, and upholding them means greater freedom to invent, create, and advance.
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  61. Allison Barnes & Paul Thagard (1996). Emotional Decisions. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum 426--429.
  62. Douglas M. Snyder (1991). An Alternative View of Schizophrenic Cognition. Philosophical Explorations.
    An alternative view to the traditionally held view that schizophrenia is characterised by severely disordered cognition is presented. It is possible that apparently self- contradictory expressions of schizophrenics are well-formed communicative expressions of highly ordered cognitive systems. Building on the premise that behavior is in general communicative, and using Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem from logic as a model, it is shown that the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia may indicate truths that cannot be derived within highly ordered cognitive systems.
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  63. Bruce J. MacLennan, Mixing Memory and Desire: Want and Will in Neural Modeling.
    Values are critical for intelligent behavior, since values determine interests, and interests determine relevance. Therefore we address relevance and its role in intelligent behavior in animals and machines. Animals avoid exhaustive enumeration of possibilities by focusing on relevant aspects of the environment, which emerge into the (cognitive) foreground, while suppressing irrelevant aspects, which submerge into the background. Nevertheless, the background is not invisible, and aspects of it can pop into the foreground if background processing deems them potentially relevant. Essential to (...)
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  64. Deleted Deleted (forthcoming). Deleted. Deleted.
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  65. Leslie Marsh (2008). Introduction to the Special Issue “Perspectives on Social Cognition”. Marsh, Leslie (2008) Introduction to the Special Issue “Perspectives on Social Cognition”. [Journal (on-Line/Unpaginated)] (in Press).
    Introduction to the special issue “Perspectives on Social Cognition”.
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  66. Keith Stenning & Robert Inder (1995). Applying Semantic Concepts to the Media Assigment Problem in Multi-Media Communication. In [Book Chapter].
    Our long term goal is an understanding of human communication in terms which would provide the basis for rational design. The kernel would be a theory of the cognitive consequences of allocating the same information to different media and modalities, based on the user's information processing characterised in computational terms. Our theory of the cognitive consequences of media/modality allocation starts from an analysis of differences in logical expressiveness of graphical and linguistic representations (Stenning \& Oberlander (1994, 1995)). This semantic approach (...)
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  67. Siu L. Chow (1989). Significance Tests and Deduction: Reply to Folger (1989). Philosophical Explorations.
    Shows that agreeing with Folger's (1989) methodological observations does not mean that it is incorrect to use significance tests. This contention is based on the dynamics of theory corroboration, with reference to which the following distinctions are illustrated, namely, the distinctions between (a) statistical hypothesis testing, theory corroboration, and syllogistic argument, (b) a responsible experimenter and a cynical experimenter, (c) logical validity and methodological correctness, and (d) warranted assertability and truth.
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  68. Siu L. Chow (1988). Significance Test or Effect Size? Philosophical Explorations.
    I describe and question the argument that in psychological research, the significance test should be replaced by a more informative index in the case of theory-corroboration experimentation because it has been made on the basis of some debatable assumptions about the rationale of scientific investigation. The rationale of theory-corroboration experimentation requires nothing more than a binary decision about the relation between two variables. This binary decision supplies the minor premise for the syllogism implicated when a theory is being tested. Some (...)
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  69. Siu L. Chow (1994). The Experimenter's Expectancy Effect: A Meta-Experiment. Philosophical Explorations.
    The claim that the outcome of an experiment may be determined by what its experimenter expects to obtain was empirically assessed with a meta-experiment. Three groups of experimenters were asked to conduct Rosenthal & Fode's (1963a) photorating task under two conditions which jointly satisfied the formal requirement of an experiment. The three groups of experimenters were given different information about the expected outcome. There was no evidence of experimenter's expectancy effect when it was properly defined in terms of the difference (...)
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  70. Leslie Marsh (2006). Review of Rob Wilson's Boundaries of the Mind: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences: Cognition. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations 19 (4).
    Review of Rob Wilson?s Boundaries of the Mind: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences: Cognition.
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  71. Leslie Marsh (2006). Review of Teed Rockwell's Neither Brain nor Ghost: A Nondualist Alternative to the Mind-Brain Identity Theory. [REVIEW] [Journal (on-Line/Unpaginated)].
    Review of Teed Rockwell’s Neither Brain nor Ghost: A Nondualist Alternative to the Mind-Brain Identity Theory.
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  72. Leslie Marsh (2005). Review Essay: Dennett's Sweet Dreams Philosophical Obstacles to a Science of Consciousness. Marsh, Leslie (2005) Review Essay.
    Review Essay: Dennett’s Sweet Dreams Philosophical Obstacles to a Science of Consciousness.
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  73. Dylan Evans, From Moods to Modules: Preliminary Remarks for an Evolutionary Theory of Mood Phenomena.
    In the past few decades, research in the psychology of emotion has benefited greatly from being located in a firm evolutionary framework. It is argued that research in the psychology of mood might attain equal rigour by taking a similar approach. An evolutionary framework for mood research would be based on evolutionary psychology, the main thesis of which is the Massive Modularity Hypothesis. Translating the folk-psychological language of moods into the scientific language of modules might clarify many theoretical questions and (...)
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  74. Keith Stenning & Peter Yule (1997). Image and Language in Human Reasoning: A Syllogistic Illustration. Philosophical Explorations.
    Existing accounts of syllogistic reasoning oppose rule-based and model-based methods. Stenning \& Oberlander show that the latter are isomorphic to well-known graphical methods, when these are correctly interpreted. We here extend these results by showing that equivalent sentential implementations exist, thus revealing that all these theories are members of a family of abstract {\it individual identification algorithms} variously implemented in diagrams or sentences. This abstract logical analysis suggests a novel {\it individual identification task} for observing syllogistic reasoning processes. Comparison of (...)
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  75. Keith Stenning & Oliver Lemon (1999). Aligning Logical and Psychological Perspectives on Diagrammatic Reasoning. Philosophical Explorations.
    We advance a theoretical framework which combines recent insights of research in logic, psychology, and formal semantics, on the nature of diagrammatic representation and reasoning. In particular, we wish to explain the varied efficacy of reasoning and representing with diagrams. In general we consider diagrammatic representations to be restricted in expressive power, and we wish to explain efficacy of reasoning with diagrams via the semantical and computational properties of such restricted `languages'. Connecting these foundational insights (from semantics and complexity theory) (...)
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  76. Dr Knud Thomsen, Is Quantum Mechanics Needed to Explain Consciousness ?
    In this short comment to a recent contribution by E. Manousakis [1] it is argued that the reported agreement between the measured time evolution of conscious states during binocular rivalry and predictions derived from quantum mechanical formalisms does not require any direct effect of QM. The recursive consumption analysis process in the Ouroboros Model can yield the same behavior.
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  77. Farzad Didehvar & Mohammad Saleh Zareepour, Epistemological Observations About Mind-Machine Equivalence.
    One of the highly contraversial discussions in philosophy of mind is equivalence of human being mind and machines. Here we show that no one could prove that, in certain he is a machine.
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  78. Samir Karmakar (2007). Possibilities and Impossibilities of Meaning: A Study in Semantics. [Journal (on-Line/Unpaginated)].
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  79. Andrei Kirilyuk, The Last Scientific Revolution.
    Critically growing problems of fundamental science organisation and content are analysed with examples from physics and emerging interdisciplinary fields. Their origin is specified and new science structure (organisation and content) is proposed as a unified solution.
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  80. Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander (1997). A Cognitive Theory of Graphical and Linguistic Reasoning: Logic and Implementation. Cognitive Science. Philosophical Explorations.
    We discuss external and internal graphical and linguistic representational systems. We argue that a cognitive theory of peoples' reasoning performance must account for (a) the logical equivalence of inferences expressed in graphical and linguistic form; and (b) the implementational differences that affect facility of inference. Our theory proposes that graphical representations limit abstraction and thereby aid processibility. We discuss the ideas of specificity and abstraction, and their cognitive relevance. Empirical support comes from tasks (i) involving and (ii) not involving the (...)
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  81. Bruce Edmonds & Kerstin Dautenhahn, The Contribution of Society to the Construction of Individual Intelligence.
    It is argued that society is a crucial factor in the construction of individual intelligence. In other words that it is important that intelligence is socially situated in an analogous way to the physical situation of robots. Evidence that this may be the case is taken from developmental linguistics, the social intelligence hypothesis, the complexity of society, the need for self-reflection and autism. The consequences for the development of artificial social agents is briefly considered. Finally some challenges for research into (...)
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  82. Nicholas Humphrey, The Uses of Consciousness.
    Reflexive consciousness evolved in the context of early human social life, as a means by which 'natural psychologists' could develop working models of their own and others' minds.
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  83. Brian D. Josephson & H. M. Hauser (1981). Multistage Acquisition of Intelligent Behaviour. Kybernetes 10:11–15.
    Human skills are acquired not by a single uniform process, but in a series of stages, as Piaget has shown. We have investigated such a sequential process by taking as an illustrative example the game of table tennis. The aims in each stage of learning are qualitatively different, and we show in detail how knowledge gained during one stage provides essential information for subsequent stages. Conclusions are drawn which may be important for artificial intelligence work generally. The question of practical (...)
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  84. Edward H. Hagen, Response to Buller.
    Buller recently posted a critique of evolutionary psychology (reproduced below). Although I disagree with many of his assertions, this is the most credible attempt to critique evolutionary psychology that I have encountered. Buller’s arguments regarding improper motivational inferences from evolutionary psychological explanations are largely correct--such inferences are indeed erroneous. Furthermore, the mistakes he identifies have been made by some prominent evolutionists including, apparently, W. D. Hamilton (Symons, personal communication). However, most evolutionary psychologists are not saying what he claims they are (...)
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  85. Walid Saba, A Note on Ontology and Ordinary Language.
    We argue for a compositional semantics grounded in a strongly typed ontology that reflects our commonsense view of the world and the way we talk about it. Assuming such a structure we show that the semantics of various natural language phenomena may become nearly trivial.
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  86. Dr Marvin Kirsh, Science, Language and Ontology: A Bird in the Hand is Worth Two in the Bush.
    A comment on: Language, logic and ontology: uncovering the structure of commonsense knowledge.
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  87. Erhard Bieberich, Structure in Human Consciousness: A Fractal Approach to the Topology of the Self Perceiving an Outer World in an Inner Space.
    In human consciousness a world of separated objects is perceived by an inner observer who is experienced as an undivided feeling of one-self. A topological correlation of the self to the world, however, entails a paradoxical situation by either merging all separated objects into one or splitting the self into as many subselves as there are objects perceived. This study introduces a model suggesting that the self is generated in a neural network by algorithmic compression of spatial and temporal information (...)
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  88. L. Gabora (1997). The Origin and Evolution of Culture and Creativity. Philosophical Explorations.
    Like the information patterns that evolve through biological processes, mental representations, or memes, evolve through adaptive exploration and transformation of an information space through variation, selection, and transmission. Since unlike genes, memes do not come packaged with instructions for their replication, our brains do it for them, strategically, guided by a fitness landscape that reflects both internal drives and a worldview that is continually updated through meme assimilation. This paper presents a model for how an individual becomes a meme-evolving agent (...)
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  89. Erhard Bieberich, In Search of a Neuronal Substrate of the Human Mind: New Concepts From "Topological Neurochemistry".
    Neurochemistry is a powerful discipline of modern neuroscience based on a description of neuronal function in terms of molecular reaction and interaction. This study aims at a neurochemical approach to the "hard" philosophical mind-body problem: the search for the neuronal correlate of consciousness. The scattered pattern of remote areas in the human brain simultaneously busy with the computation of single perceptions has left us with the unanswered questions why, where, and how the neuronal activity gives rise to a unified conscious (...)
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  90. Dr Marvin E. Kirsh, Cognition and Causation as Universal Phenomenom.
    A comment on the universality of all things.
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  91. Varol Akman (1998). Book Review -- John Haugeland (Editor), Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations.
    This is a review of Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence, edited by John Haugeland, published by MIT Press in 1997.
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  92. Antonio Leon, Hilbert's Machine and the Axiom of Infinity.
    Hilbert's machine is a supertask machine inspired by Hilbert's Hotel whose functioning leads to a contradiction that compromises the Axiom of Infinity.
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  93. Antonio Leon, The Aleph Zero or Zero Dichotomy.
    The Aleph Zero or Zero Dichotomy is a strong version of Zeno's Dichotomy II which being entirely derived from the topological successiveness of the w-order comes to the same Zeno's absurdity.
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  94. Jim Moore (1992). Book Review of The Egalitarians -- Human and Chimpanzee by Margaret Power. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations.
    This book combines some very interesting ideas with stunningly poor scholarship to create a potentially missleading book. Because the basic thesis -- that episodic extreme aggression seen among chimpanzees at Gombe and Mahale has been artificially induced by provisioning -- has been widely considered and parallels other criticisms of nonhuman primate data, there is a risk people unfamiliar with the chimpanzee data will accept her conclusions uncritically. At the same time, her attempt to integrate developmental psychology with (...)
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