OAI Archive: CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences ePrint Archive

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100 entries most recently downloaded from the archive "CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences ePrint Archive"

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  1. Hokky Situngkir, Exploitation of Memetics for Melodic Sequences Generation.
    Music, or in narrower sense, melodic contours of the aesthetically arranged pitches and the respective durations attracts our cognition since the beginning and now shaping the way we think in the complex life of culture. From evolutionary school of thoughts we could learn our perspective of seeing the musical diversity of folk songs in Indonesian archipelago by hypothesizing the aligning memes throughout the data sets. By regarding the memeplexes constructed from the the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law in melodic sequences and some mathematical (...)
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  2. Hokky Situngkir & Ardian Maulana, Coalitions in Multiparty System: Empirical Reflection of the Indonesian Regional Elections.
    A lot of changing in recent Indonesian political dynamics with eventual fact shows how political recruitment for legislative and executive chairs in national as well as regional levels in direct voting systems have brought the patterns of coalitions among political parties into interesting focus of observation. We evaluate the Regional Elections data held since June 2005 to September 2008 as election matrix. The matrix is then transformed into the ultrametric space yielding the hierarchical trees based on proximity on inter-party coalition. (...)
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  3. Dr Gualtiero Piccinini, Scientific Methods Must Be Public, and Descriptive Experience Sampling Qualifies.
    Hurlburt and Schwitzgebel’s groundbreaking book, Describing Inner Experience: Proponent Meets Skeptic, examines a research method called Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES). DES, which was developed by Hurlburt and collaborators, works roughly as follows. An investigator gives a subject a random beeper. During the day, as the subject hears a beep, she writes a description of her conscious experience just before the beep. The next day, the investigator interviews the subject, asks for more details, corrects any apparent mistakes made by the subject, (...)
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  4. Alexandra Elbakyan, Consciousness in Mixed Systems: Merging Artificial and Biological Minds Via Brain-Machine Interface.
    The rapidly developing field of Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) technology seeks to establish a direct communication-and-control channel between human brain and machines. Practical applications for BMI include restoration of lost vision and motor functions, and even extending normal human capabilities. But unfortunately current BMI systems are far too poor to achieve even a level of performance that is comparable to what humans are normally capable of, let alone improving it. And this situation holds on for quite a while. The possible solution (...)
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  5. Christophe Menant, Evolutionary Advantages of Inter-Subjectivity and Self-Consciousness Through Improvements of Action Programs (2010).
    Evolutionary advantages of consciousness and intersubjectivity are part of current philosophical debates on the nature of consciousness. Both are linked and intersubjectivity is sometimes considered as a form of consciousness [1]. Regarding the evolution of consciousness, studies tend to focus on phenomenal consciousness [2]. We would like here to bring the focus on self-consciousness and continue the build up of a corresponding evolutionary scenario. We also propose to introduce a possible evolutionary link between self-consciousness and phenomenal consciousness. Our starting point (...)
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  6. Livia Colle, Francesca M. Bosco & Maurizio Tirassa (2009). The Complexity of Theory of Mind. Cogprints 18 (1):323-324.
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  7. Francesca M. Bosco, Livia Colle, Silvia De Fazio, Adele Bono, Saverio Ruberti & Maurizio Tirassa (2009). Th.O.M.A.S.: An Exploratory Assessment of Theory of Mind in Schizophrenic Subjects. Cogprints 18 (1):306-319.
    A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind (ToM) deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects (first vs. second order, first vs. third person, egocentric vs. allocentric, beliefs vs. desires (...)
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  8. Chuck Stieg, Putting the Philosophy of Science Into Mind: Knowing Minds by Models.
    The philosophy of science can provide fruitful contributions to other areas of philosophy. In this paper, I argue that the application of work on the nature of theories helps to resolve a long-standing dispute on the philosophy of mind over mindreading. The Theory Theory and the Simulation Theory are two competing accounts of how it is that we explain and predict the actions and mental states of others. I discuss each view as well as some of their weaknesses. I suggest (...)
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  9. Norman G. Vinson & Janice A. Singer (2008). A Practical Guide to Ethical Research Involving Humans. In Cogprints.
    The popularity of empirical methods in software engineering research is on the rise. Surveys, experiments, metrics, case studies, and field studies are examples of empirical methods used to investigate both software engineering processes and products. The increased application of such methods has also brought about an increase in discussions about adapting these methods to the particularities of software engineering. In contrast, the ethical issues raised by empirical methods have received little attention in the software engineering literature. In this chapter, we (...)
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  10. Marcelo Masson Maroldi, The Sellars's Functionalism: A Historical Research.
    Philosopher Wilfrid Sellars was one of the contemporary functionalism precursors when he conceived mental states as theoretical entities identified with functional states, conception defended mainly in his most relevant work Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind, broadly discussed on the academic context of analytical tradition. On this book, Sellars introduces his explanation of mental, gathering on the same thesis private events, intententionality , a public language and a system based on rules defined intersubjectivity Therefore, this work intends to show how (...)
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  11. Benoit Hardy-Vallee (2007). Decision-Making: A Neuroeconomic Perspective. Philosophy Compass 2 (6):939-953.
    This article introduces and discusses from a philosophical point of view the nascent field of neuroeconomics, which is the study of neural mechanisms involved in decision-making and their economic significance. Following a survey of the ways in which decision-making is usually construed in philosophy, economics and psychology, I review many important findings in neuroeconomics to show that they suggest a revised picture of decision-making and ourselves as choosing agents. Finally, I outline a neuroeconomic account of irrationality.
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  12. Prof Ignazio Licata (2008). Logical Openness in Cognitive Models. Epistemologia:177-192.
    It is here proposed an analysis of symbolic and sub-symbolic models for studying cognitive processes, centered on emergence and logical openness notions. The Theory of logical openness connects the Physics of system/environment relationships to the system informational structure. In this theory, cognitive models can be ordered according to a hierarchy of complexity depending on their logical openness degree, and their descriptive limits are correlated to Gödel-Turing Theorems on formal systems. The symbolic models with low logical openness describe cognition by means (...)
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  13. Mani A., "Possible Definitions of an 'a Priori' Granule in General Rough Set Theory" by A. Mani.
    We introduce an abstract framework for general rough set theory from a mereological perspective and consider possible concepts of ’a priori’ granules and granulation in the same. The framework is ideal for relaxing many of the relatively superfluous set-theoretic axioms and for improving the semantics of many relation based, cover-based and dialectical rough set theories. This is a relatively simplified presentation of a section in three different recent research papers by the present author.
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  14. Hokky Situngkir, The Phylomemetics of Batik.
    The paper reports the analysis of phylomemetic tree onto batik motifs developed uniquely in all corners of living and in the heart of tradition of Indonesian people. The diversity is visualized, be it classical traditional motifs and the ones recognized to be recently innovated. This is the first important thing we can learn about through the phylomemetic tree, i.e.: as a visualization of creativity landscapes of Indonesian batik. The second thing to be learnt is that we could see the clustering (...)
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  15. Dr Ravishankar Ayyadevara, On Causal and Constructive Modeling of Belief Change.
    The process of changing beliefs as a result of accepting the new information is often called Belief revision. It occupies a central position in the area of philosophy, theoretical computer science and logic. However, problem of Belief revision in general is how an agent revises her current beliefs when new information obtained from reliable and evidential source contradicts some of the old beliefs, while preserving the core beliefs. One of the key aspects of the problem of changing beliefs is to (...)
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  16. Dr Steven Ravett Brown (2009). Reentrant Emergence. Cogprints.
    Emergent properties (EPs) are not causally reducible to the properties of a complex system’s elements. If a system’s properties cannot be reduced to those of any of its components, then that system is effectively a singular entity (SE). EPs are thus not properties of known complexes, but of SEs. A precise description of the parameters necessary to observe a physical system as an SE is thus necessary to establish under what conditions properties are understood as emergent. That description is provided (...)
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  17. Prof Ignazio Licata & Prof Gianfranco Minati (2009). Creativity as Cognitive Design the Case of Mesoscopic Variables in Meta-Structures. In Cogprints. [Book Chapter] (in Press).
    Creativity is an open problem which has been differently approached by several disciplines since a long time. In this contribution we consider as creative the constructivist design an observer does on the description levels of complex phenomena, such as the self-organized and emergent ones ( e.g., Bènard rollers, Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactions, flocks, swarms, and more radical cognitive and social emergences). We consider this design as related to the Gestaltian creation of a language fit for representing natural processes and the observer in (...)
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  18. Dr Fainos Mangena, Beings of a Life-Span Are Equal: Rebutting Singer's Sentience and Naess' Deep Ecology Criteria for Moral Standing.
    This article critically explores the assumptions of anthropocentricism, as well as the sentience and deep ecology arguments. While Peter Singer argues for the extension of moral standing to some non-human beings because they are sentient, Arne Naess believes that all living beings should be accorded moral standing because they have inherent value. I argue that both arguments present some difficulties. Sentience, for instance, may not be limited to a mere feeling of pain and pleasure because it also encapsulates aims, values (...)
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  19. Prof Antonella Carassa & Prof Marco Colombetti (2009). Joint Meaning. Cogprints.
    In this paper we want to reconcile two apparently conflicting intuitions: the first is that what a speaker means is just a function of his or her communicative intentions, independently of what the hearer understands, and even of the actual existence of a hearer; the second is that when communication is carried out successfully, the resulting meaning is, in some important sense, jointly construed by the speaker and the hearer. Our strategy is to distinguish between speaker’s meaning, understood as a (...)
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  20. Nagarjuna G. (2009). Collaborative Creation of Teaching-Learning Sequences and an Atlas of Knowledge. Mathematics Teaching-Research Journal Online 3 (N3):23-40.
    Our focus in the article is to introduce a simple methodology of generating teaching-learning sequences using the semantic network techinque, followed by the emergent properties of such a network and their implications for the teaching-learning process (didactics) with marginal notes on epistemological implications. A collaborative portal for teachers, which publishes a network of prerequisites for teaching/learning any concept or an activity is introduced. The article ends with an appeal to the global community to contribute prerequisites of any subject to complete (...)
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  21. Nagarjuna G., Collaborative Creation of Teaching-Learning Sequences and an Atlas of Knowledge.
    The article is about a new online resource, a collaborative portal for teachers, which publishes a network of prerequisites for teaching/learning any concept or an activity. A simple and effective method of collaboratively constructing teaching­-learning sequences is presented. The special emergent properties of the dependency network and their didactic and epistemic implications are pointed. The article ends with an appeal to the global teaching community to contribute prerequisites of any subject to complete the global roadmap for an altas being built (...)
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  22. Dr Wayne Christensen (2007). The Evolutionary Origins of Volition. In Cogprints.
    It appears to be a straightforward implication of distributed cognition principles that there is no integrated executive control system (e.g. Brooks 1991, Clark 1997). If distributed cognition is taken as a credible paradigm for cognitive science this in turn presents a challenge to volition because the concept of volition assumes integrated information processing and action control. For instance the process of forming a goal should integrate information about the available action options. If the goal is acted upon these processes should (...)
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  23. Dr Wayne Christensen (2010). The Decoupled Representation Theory of the Evolution of Cognition--A Critical Assessment. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):361-405.
    Sterelny’s Thought in a Hostile World ([ 2003 ]) presents a complex, systematically structured theory of the evolution of cognition centered on a concept of decoupled representation. Taking Godfrey-Smith’s ([ 1996 ]) analysis of the evolution of behavioral flexibility as a framework, the theory describes increasingly complex grades of representation beginning with simple detection and culminating with decoupled representation, said to be belief-like, and it characterizes selection forces that drive evolutionary transformations in these forms of representation. Sterelny’s ultimate explanatory target (...)
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  24. Dr Paul Franceschi, A Characterization of the One-Sidedness Fallacy Within the Framework of the Cognitive Distortions.
    In this paper, I propose an accurate description of the cognitive process involved in the one-sidedness fallacy, a widespread type of fallacy. I describe first several characterizations of the one-sidedness fallacy, that are either inductive or deductive, or occurring at a meta-philosophical level. I recall, second, the framework of the cognitive distortions described in Franceschi (2007). I give then a definition of the one-sidedness fallacy, by describing it as a general cognitive distortion: the disqualification of one pole. I show finally (...)
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  25. Mr Debaprasad Mukherjee, Complexity, Biocomplexity, the Connectionist Conjecture and Ontology of Complexity.
    This paper develops and integrates major ideas and concepts on complexity and biocomplexity - the connectionist conjecture, universal ontology of complexity, irreducible complexity of totality & inherent randomness, perpetual evolution of information, emergence of criticality and equivalence of symmetry & complexity. This paper introduces the Connectionist Conjecture which states that the one and only representation of Totality is the connectionist one i.e. in terms of nodes and edges. This paper also introduces an idea of Universal Ontology of Complexity and develops (...)
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  26. Dr Petros A. M. Gelepithis, Outline of a New Approach to the Nature of Mind.
    I propose a new approach to the constitutive problem of psychology ‘what is mind?’ The first section introduces modifications of the received scope, methodology, and evaluation criteria of unified theories of cognition in accordance with the requirements of evolutionary compatibility and of a mature science. The second section outlines the proposed theory. Its first part provides empirically verifiable conditions delineating the class of meaningful neural formations and modifies accordingly the traditional conceptions of meaning, concept and thinking. This analysis is part (...)
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  27. Prof Max Velmans (2009). How to Define Consciousness—and How Not to Define Consciousness. Cogprints.
    Definitions of consciousness need to be sufficiently broad to include all examples of conscious states and sufficiently narrow to exclude entities, events and processes that are not conscious. Unfortunately, deviations from these simple principles are common in modern consciousness studies, with consequent confusion and internal division in the field. The present paper gives example of ways in which definitions of consciousness can be either too broad or too narrow. It also discusses some of the main ways in which pre-existing theoretical (...)
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  28. Prof Max Velmans (2009). Psychophysical Nature. In Cogprints.
    There are two quite distinct ways in which events that we normally think of as “physical” relate in an intimate way to events that we normally think of as “psychological”. One intimate relation occurs in exteroception at the point where events in the world become events as-perceived. The other intimate relationship occurs at the interface of conscious experience with its neural correlates in the brain. The chapter examines each of these relationships and positions them within a dual-aspect, reflexive model of (...)
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  29. Mr Blake K. Winter, Berkeley's Arguments on Realism and Idealism.
    We analyse Berkeley's argument that realism cannot be defined, and show that his epistemological assumptions lead to the inevitable conclusion that solipsism is the only definable metaphysics. We conclude with a discussion of what this means for the realism/idealism debate, and also with a discussion of the possibility for apodictic evidence in this matter.
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  30. Dr Lambros Malafouris (2008). Is It 'Me' or is It 'Mine'? The Mycenaean Sword as a Body-Part. In Cogprints.
    This paper argues that material culture has the ability to change and shape our bodies by transforming and extending the boundaries of our body schema. To explore this argument I concentrate on the relationship between the Mycenaean body and the Mycenaean sword. Focusing on the early Mycenaean period I propose that the centre of consciousness and bodily awareness for the Mycenaean person, and for the warrior in particular, is not some ‘internal’ Cartesian ‘I’, but the tip of the sword. Through (...)
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  31. Paulo Vélez León (2006). Aproximaciones a la ¿Obra de Arte? Approaches to ¿Artwork? In Cogprints.
    Algunas de las preguntas fundamentales de la filosofía del arte son: 1) ¿Qué es una obra de arte?, 2) ¿Qué es Arte?, 3) ¿Qué es el arte? Responderlas es determinar el sentido del arte. Este tipo de preguntas están planteadas bajo la fórmula ¿Qué es X?, es decir, preguntas en las cuales en lo simple esta lo complejo, preguntas en donde lo simple no quiere decir que sean sencillas; son preguntas que traen dentro de si su naturaleza y carácter metafísico-ontológico-gnoseológico, (...)
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  32. Chuck Stieg (2008). The Intentionality of Plover Cognitive States. Cogprints 8 (August):6.
    This paper attempts to clarify and justify the attribution of mental states to animals by focusing on two different conceptions of intentionality: instrumentalist and realist. I use each of these general views to interpret and discuss the behavior and cognitive states of piping plovers in order to provide a substantive way to frame the question of animal minds. I argue that attributing mental states to plovers is warranted for instrumentalists insofar as it is warranted for similar human behavior. For realists (...)
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  33. Paulo Vélez León, Aproximaciones a la Ontología Del Arte (Approaches to the Ontology of Art).
    El presenta trabajo describe y caracteriza de manera breve y concisa lo que podría ser una ontología del arte. En la primera sección se presentan las dificultades actuales, así como las nociones y preguntas principales de la ontología. En la sección segunda, en base de los aportes del NCOR, se bosqueja las definiciones y caracterizaciones actuales de la ontología, se hace especial hincapié, en la ontología aplicada. En la tercera y cuarta sección se caracteriza y configura lo que podría ser (...)
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  34. Dr Lambros Malafouris (2007). The Sacred Engagement: Outline of a Hypothesis About the Origin of Human 'Religious Intelligence'. In Cogprints.
    The question that motivates the central hypothesis advanced in this paper regarding the emergence of early religious thinking is the following: ‘why does religion need material culture?’ What basic functional or symbolic need renders material culture an indispensable and universal component of religion and ritual activity? A common temptation, obvious in a number of recent archaeological and anthropological studies, is to seek an answer in the field of memory (Boyer 1993; 1996; 1998; 2001; McCauley and Lawson 2002; Whitehouse 2000; 2004; (...)
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  35. Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2006). A Proposal to Refine Concept Mapping for Effective Science Learning. In A. J. Canas & J. D. Novak (eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology Proc. of the Second Int. Conference on Concept Mapping.
    Concept maps are found to be useful in eliciting knowledge, meaningful learning, evaluation of understanding and in studying the nature of changes taking place during cognitive development, particularly in the classroom. Several experts have claimed the effectiveness of this tool for learning science. We agree with the claim, but the effectiveness will improve only if we gradually introduce a certain amount of discipline in constructing the maps. The discipline is warranted, we argue, because science thrives to be an unambiguous and (...)
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  36. Nagarjuna G., A Proposal to Refine Concept Mapping for Effective Science Learning.
    Concept maps are found to be useful in eliciting knowledge, meaningful learning, evaluation of understanding and in studying the nature of changes taking place during cognitive development, particularly in the classroom. Several experts have claimed the effectiveness of this tool for learning science. We agree with the claim, but the effectiveness will improve only if we gradually introduce a certain amount of discipline in constructing the maps. The discipline is warranted, we argue, because science thrives to be an unambiguous and (...)
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  37. Dr Lambros Malafouris (2007). At the Potter's Wheel: An Argument for Material Agency. In Cogprints.
    Consider a potter throwing a vessel on the wheel. Think of the complex ways brain, body, wheel and clay relate and interact with one another throughout the different stages of this activity and try to imagine some of the resources (physical, mental or biological) needed for the enaction of this creative process. Focus, for instance, on the first minutes of action when the potter attempts to centre the lump of clay on the wheel. The hands are grasping the clay. The (...)
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  38. Hokky Situngkir & Deni Khanafiah, Computational Batik Motif Generation: Innovation of Traditional Heritage by Fractal Computation.
    Human-computer interaction has been the cause of the emerging innovations in many fields, including in design and art, architectural, technological artifacts, and even traditional heritage. In the case of Indonesian traditional heritages, the computation of fractal designs has been introduced to develop batik design – the genuine textile art and skill that becomes a symbol of Indonesian culture. The uniqueness of Batik, which depicted in the richness of its motifs, is regarded as one of interesting aspect to be researched and (...)
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  39. Mr Blake Winter, Thoughts, Things, and Theories.
    We to critique the following question: can we have reasonable certainty that the terms in speculative or empirical theories correspond meaningfully to things in the ontological structure of the world, or are they only convenient fictions useful for predicting phenomena? We first justify this question as meaningful, and capable of admitting a meaningful answer. We then analyze question itself with examples from physics and biology. We conclude that we can be reasonably certain that the terms in an empirical theory have (...)
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  40. Mr Blake Winter, On Incompatibilist Free Will.
    We consider the possibility of defining some kind of activity which meets the intuitive requirements of incompatibilist free will. Our analysis of this will be done in a fashion which in some ways parallels the work of Pink on this matter. We will then consider the evidence of such free will, both from an introspective perspective and from a scientific perspective. In the latter we consider neurological and psychological evidence.
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  41. Mr Blake K. Winter, Divisibility, Logic, Radical Empiricism, and Metaphysics.
    We will explore the problem of the manner in which the world may be divided into parts, and how this affects the application of logic. We will also consider how this affects the problem of knowing the world. Such considerations bring us to discuss how the divisibility of the world relates to idealism, realism, and the radical empiricist program of James. The epistemological difficulties sometimes associated with realism will in particular be shown to be in principle the result of misunderstanding (...)
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  42. Dr John R. Skoyles (1992). The Authority of Science - and its Enemies. Cogprints.
    Successful scientists pick out one philosopher as having articulated the rationality of what they do as scientists. He is Sir Karl Popper FRS. But Popper's ideas play no part in contemporary philosophy. As Popper has said "Here I am being showered with honours as no professional philosopher before me; yet three generations of professional philosophers know nothing about my work" (Bartley, 1982). How did this situation arise? I suggest, because philosophers use a false analogy to model the nature of authority (...)
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  43. Mr Christian Flender, Dr Kirsty Kitto & Prof Peter Bruza, Nonseparability of Shared Intentionality.
    According to recent studies in developmental psychology and neuroscience, symbolic language is essentially intersubjective. Empathetically relating to others renders possible the acquisition of linguistic constructs. Intersubjectivity develops in early ontogenetic life when interactions between mother and infant mutually shape their relatedness. Empirical findings suggest that the shared attention and intention involved in those interactions is sustained as it becomes internalized and embodied. Symbolic language is derivative and emerges from shared intentionality. In this paper, we present a formalization of shared intentionality (...)
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  44. Dr H. Stefan Bracha & Dr Jack D. Maser (2008). Anxiety and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Context of Human Brain Evolution:A Role for Theory in Dsm-V? Cogprints.
    The “hypervigilance, escape, struggle, tonic immobility” evolutionarily hardwired acute peritraumatic response sequence is important for clinicians to understand. Our commentary supplements the useful article on human tonic immobility (TI) by Marx, Forsyth, Gallup, Fusé and Lexington (2008). A hallmark sign of TI is peritraumatic tachycardia, which others have documented as a major risk factor for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). TI is evolutionarily highly conserved (uniform across species) and underscores the need for DSM-V planners to consider the inclusion of evolution (...)
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  45. Iñigo Saez-Uribarri (2006). Cero Macareno's Tablet: Exploratory Data Analysis Around a Piece of Archeology (la Tableta de Cero Macareno: Análisis Exploratorio de Datos En Torno a Una Pieza de Arqueología). Cogprints.
    Cerro Macareno’s tablet is a piece of fired clay with many incisions that pose puzzling chronological and functional queries. The information provided by the incisions has been studied with the purpose of elucidating their function. Following a coding process, several statistical techniqueshave been used. It has been proven that incisions are not randomly distributed. And while the idea that they might stand for some kind of writing loses weight, the fact that the piece may be a record of some event (...)
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  46. Sidarta Ribeiro, Angelo Loula, Ivan Araújo, Ricardo Gudwin & Joao Queiroz (2006). Symbols Are Not Uniquely Human. Cogprints.
    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. (...)
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  47. Mr James Alexander, Conversations on the Search for a 'Physics & Chemistry – an Alchemy' of Innovation - Reward Systems.
    Bruno Latour in “How to evaluate innovation” develops a fairly simple well argumented procedure based upon the experimental sciences which may prove valuable to all. Latour suggests that the scientific method should be applied not only by scientists but even more so by major decision makers especially politician. Doing one's best and working for the better are some of the the questions discussed in this paper. Some of Latour's concepts are clarified by translation to simple graphical models. Models for failure (...)
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  48. Jacques Mallah, The Partial Brain Thought Experiment: Partial Consciousness and its Implications.
    The ‘Fading Qualia’ thought experiment of Chalmers purports to show that computationalism is very probably true even if dualism is true by considering a series of brains, with biological parts increasingly substituted for by artificial but functionally analagous parts in small steps, and arguing that consciousness would not plausibly vanish in either a gradual or sudden way. This defense of computationalism inspired an attack on computationalism by Bishop, who argued that a similar series of substitutions by parts that have the (...)
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  49. Huping Hu, Review of the Book “Quantum Enigma - Physics Encounters Consciousness”. [REVIEW]
    By explicitly discussing the connections between quantum mechanics and consciousness and bravely using the book containing these discussions as course material for students, the authors show the readers and teach the students that such connections are real and tangible not just pseudoscience or New Age mumbo-jumbo. In doing so, Rosenblum and Kuttner lead by example. Hopefully, other physicists and scientists in the academics would follow suit by breaking away from the invisible “prison” of conformity and orthodoxy, opening widely physicists’ closet (...)
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  50. Hokky Situngkir, The Global and Local in Phillips Curve.
    The debate over the Phillips Curve - as the relation between level of unemployment rate and inflation rate - in historical economics is shortly reviewed. By using the analysis in the Extreme Value Theory, i.e.: the rank order statistics the unemployment and inflation data over countries from various regions are observed. The calculations brought us to conjecture that there exists the general pattern that could lead from the relation between unemployment and inflation rate. However, the difference patterns as observed in (...)
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  51. Markus F. Peschl & Thomas Fundneider, Emergent Innovation—a Socio-Epistemological Innovation Technology. Creating Profound Change and Radically New Knowledge as Core Challenges in Knowledge Management.
    This paper introduces an alternative approach to innovation: Emergent Innovation. As opposed to radical innovation Emergent Innovation finds a balance and integrates the demand both for radically new knowledge and at the same time for an organic development from within the organization. From a knowledge management perspective one can boil down this problem to the question of how to cope with the new and with profound change in knowledge. This question will be dealt with in the first part of the (...)
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  52. John E. Stewart (2010). The Meaning of Life in a Developing Universe. Foundations of Science 15 (4):395-409.
    The evolution of life on Earth has produced an organism that is beginning to model and understand its own evolution and the possible future evolution of life in the universe. These models and associated evidence show that evolution on Earth has a trajectory. The scale over which living processes are organized cooperatively has increased progressively, as has its evolvability. Recent theoretical advances raise the possibility that this trajectory is itself part of a wider developmental process. According to these theories, the (...)
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  53. Dr Steven James Bartlett, Questioning the Standard of Normality: Steps to a More Effective Understanding of Mental Health.
    Psychological normality has remained one of the last as well as one of the most central unexamined presuppositions of current psychiatry and clinical psychology. With few exceptions in the literature, psychological normality has served as an unquestioned standard of mental health while the same standard has been used to equate deviations from normality with mental illness. This paper reviews some of the most compelling reasons to question this understanding both of mental health and of the psychological problems that many people (...)
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  54. Dr John R. Skoyles (2008). Why Our Brains Cherish Humanity: Mirror Neurons and Colamus Humanitatem. Cogprints.
    Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, (...)
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  55. Dr Skoyles Jr (1988). What is Popper's Problem? Cogprints.
    "We are not students of some subject matter but students of problems" Conjectures and Refutations, p. 67. But what problem was Popper a student of? Asked this question, Popper might no doubt reply that he has already answered it. And, of all philosophers, he has tried hardest to articulate what motivated his philosophy. Yet there is something missing. Other philosophers following Plato and Descartes have taken philosophy to be a search for the justification of our beliefs. Popper though has explicitly (...)
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  56. Dr John R. Skoyles, The Logic of Scientific Debate: Epistemological Quality Control Practices and Bayesian Inference – a Neopopperian Perspective.
    Science is about evaluation, persuasion and logic. In scientific debate, scientists collectively evaluate theories by persuading each other in regard to epistemological qualities such as deduction and fact. There is, however, a flaw intrinsic to evaluation-by-persuasion: an individual can attempt and even succeed in persuading others by asserting that their reasoning is logical when it is not. This is a problem since, from an epistemological perspective, it is not always transparent nor obvious when a persuasive assertion is actually deductively warranted. (...)
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  57. Jörg R. J. Schirra (2007). Review of Arno Ros: Materie Und Geist - Eine Philosophische Untersuchung (Matter and Mind - a Philosophical Investigation). [REVIEW] Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (1):83-88.
    Among the many fascinating questions that have driven our kind to perform science and philosophy, the question of the nature of the mind (or in an older terminology: the soul) is certainly the most exciting one. What are the relations between physical and mental events? Do animals have a mind? Do we have a free will or are all our actions just determined by neuro-physiologic mechanisms? Those questions form the background, in front of which Arno Ros has written a profound (...)
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  58. Jörg R. J. Schirra & Klaus Sachs-Hombach (2007). To Show and to Say: Comparing the Uses of Pictures and Language. Studies in Communication Sciences 7 (2):35–62.
    There has been a long tradition of characterizing man as the animal that talks. However, the remarkable ability of using pictures also only belongs to human beings, after all we know empirically so far. Are there conceptual reasons for that coincidence? Such a question belongs to the philosophy of language just as well as to philosophical visualistics. Comparing the two abilities to use words or pictures yields several similarities as well as distinctions. A well-known conceptual disparity between pictures and words (...)
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  59. Shaheen E. Lakhan & Meenakshi K. Khurana (2008). Intellectual Property, Copyright, and Fair Use in Education. Cogprints.
    As with other rights, such as liberty and organization, intellectual property (IP) rights are often overlooked or disregarded simply because they are intangible. Yet, IP rights are essential to the workings of our society, and upholding them means greater freedom to invent, create, and advance.
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  60. Dr John Yates (2008). Experimental Philosophy and the Mbi. Cogprints.
    Various facets of the MBI are discussed, and how it can be used in connection with experimental philosophy, experimental psychology and neuroscience. Brief historical references are given. The large implications of the MBI with regards to McTaggart's paradox and the resolution of the difficulties with quantum mechanics is mentioned. Later sections deal with the mereological fallacy, multiple universes, teletransportation, mind cloning and mind splitting. Dreamwork is chosen as a prime example of the use of the MBI and recent work by (...)
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  61. Dr Amelia Sparavigna, Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals.
    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral (...)
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  62. Hokky Situngkir, Evolutionary Economics Celebrates Innovation and Creativity Based Economy.
    The paper draws issue on the evolutionary economics that open our mind on seeing economy as growing and living organism with any characters of robustness, self-organization, adaptation, and evolution. This has been recognized, as in global picture, we enter the phase in which information and knowledge acquisition rapidly plays a major role in economy. The discussions is presented by demonstrating some qualitative properties and theoretical explorations on long range historical economic growth and development and thus followed by some highlights on (...)
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  63. Carlos Hernandez, Ricardo Sanz & Ignacio Lopez, Consciosusness in Cognitive Architectures. A Principled Analysis of Rcs, Soar and Act-R.
    This report analyses the aplicability of the principles of consciousness developed in the ASys project to three of the most relevant cognitive architectures. This is done in relation to their aplicability to build integrated control systems and studying their support for general mechanisms of real-time consciousness. To analyse these architectures the ASys Framework is employed. This is a conceptual framework based on an extension for cognitive autonomous systems of the General Systems Theory (GST). A general qualitative evaluation criteria for cognitive (...)
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  64. Mr DF Nel & Prof JH Kroeze, Information Technology as an Agent of Post-Modernism.
    Society is in a tumultuous state. Today’s Western society is characterized by disillusionment, doubt, irony, fragmentation and plurality. With the failure of Modernism and the rise to prominence of Nihilism, Post-Humanism, Post-Structuralism and Individualism, society has entered a thoroughly Post-Modern era. Over the past couple of decades humanity has increasingly turned to Information Technology as the great enabler. Through the capabilities that Information Technology offers, undreamed heights of scientific and technological progress have been reached in an amazingly short span of (...)
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  65. Dr John Yates (2008). Category Theory Applied to a Radically New but Logically Essential Description of Time and Space. Cogprints.
    McTaggart's ideas on the unreality of time as expressed in "The Nature of Existence" have retained great interest for many years for scholars, academics and other philosophers. In this essay, there is a brief discussion which mentions some of the high points of this philosophical interest, and goes on to apply his ideas to modern physics and neuroscience. It does not discuss McTaggart's C and D series, but does emphasise how the use of derived versions of both his A and (...)
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  66. B., F.
    Along with advances in brain technologies comes the ability to enhance the cognitive and affective states of normal people. In this essay, I examine a relatively young technology used in cognitive neuroscience called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). I explain what it is, how it works and what some of its applications are. I suggest that a potential source of reservation one might have regarding brain-altering enhancement is the threat it seemingly poses to the subjective importance of mental states. I then (...)
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  67. Chuck Stieg, Mental Representations: The New Sense-Data?
    The notion of representation has become ubiquitous throughout cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience and the cognitive sciences generally. This paper addresses the status of mental representations as entities that have been posited to explain cognition. I do so by examining similarities between mental representations and sense-data in both their characteristics and key arguments offered for each. I hope to show that more caution in the adoption and use of representations in explaining cognition is warranted. Moreover, by paying attention to problematic notions (...)
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  68. Chuck Stieg (2009). Is Phenomenal Consciousness a Complex Structure? Cogprints 51 (4):152-61.
    Evolutionary explanations of psychological phenomena have become widespread. This paper examines a recent attempt by Nichols and Grantham (2000) to circumvent the problem of epiphenomenalism in establishing the selective status of consciousness. Nichols and Grantham (2000) argue that a case can be made for the view that consciousness is an adaptation based on its complexity. I set out this argument and argue that it fails to establish that phenomenal consciousness is a complex system. It is suggested that the goal of (...)
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  69. Vito Evola (2008). La Metafora Come Carrefour Cognitivo Del Pensiero E Del Linguaggio. In Cogprints.
    Nell’ultimo trentennio, le scienze cognitive hanno proposto una teoria alternativa a quelle che intendevano la metafora come strumento linguistico, cioè che il processo metaforico si potesse ridurre al livello letterale, semantico o pragmatico. Secondo la teoria della metafora concettuale, la metafora è un modo di rappresentare ed organizzare il nostro mondo, piuttosto che uno strumento semplicemente decorativo del linguaggio avente un ruolo puramente comunicativo. Questo shift paradigmatico ha influenzato anche altri aspetti delle scienze cognitive. In questo contributo si vuole delineare (...)
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  70. Dennis Nicholson, Towards a Scientific Account of Experience.
    I outline and develop a particular physicalist perspective on qualia, and suggest that it may be the basis of a correct account of the relationship of mental states to the physical world. Assume that a quale is a perspective on a physical state in the organism – the reality as known as distinct from the reality as such – but that the perspective, though it entails irreducible experiential knowledge, has no physical substance over that encompassed in the physical state itself. (...)
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  71. Lambros Malafouris (2007). Before and Beyond Representation: Towards an Enactive Conception of the Palaeolithic Image. In Malafouris, Lambros (2007) Before and Beyond Representation: Towards an Enactive Conception of the Palaeolithic Image. [Book Chapter].
    For most archaeologists the meaning of prehistoric art appears to be grounded upon, if not synonymous with, the notion of representation and symbolism. This paper explores the possibility that the depictions we see already 30,000 years before present, for instance, at the caves of Chauvet and Lascaux, before and beyond representing the world, they first bring forth a new process of acting within this world and at the same time of thinking about it. It is argued that the unique ability (...)
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  72. Clément Vidal (2008). What is a Worldview? In (ed.), [Book Chapter] (in Press).
    The first part of this paper proposes a precise definition of what a worldview is, and why there is a necessity to have one. The second part suggests how to construct integrated scientific worldviews. For this attempt, three general scientific approaches are proposed: the general systems theory as the endeavor for a universal language for science, a general problem-solving approach and the idea of evolution, broadly construed. We close with some remarks about limitations of scientific worldviews.
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  73. Max Velmans (2007). Psychophysical Nature. In Harald Atmanspacher & Hans Primas (eds.), [Book Chapter] (in Press). Springer.
    There are two quite distinct ways in which events that we normally think of as “physical” relate in an intimate way to events that we normally think of as “psychological”. One intimate relation occurs in exteroception at the point where events in the world become events as-perceived. The other intimate relationship occurs at the interface of conscious experience with its neural correlates in the brain. The chapter examines each of these relationships and positions them within a dual-aspect, reflexive model of (...)
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  74. Max Velmans (2007). The Co-Evolution of Matter and Consciousness. Velmans, Prof Max (2007) the Co-Evolution of Matter and Consciousness. [Journal (Paginated)] 44 (2):273-282.
    Theories about the evolution of consciousness relate in an intimate way to theories about the distribution of consciousness, which range from the view that only human beings are conscious to the view that all matter is in some sense conscious. Broadly speaking, such theories can be classified into discontinuity theories and continuity theories. Discontinuity theories propose that consciousness emerged only when material forms reached a given stage of evolution, but propose different criteria for the stage at which this occurred. Continuity (...)
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  75. Deleted Deleted (forthcoming). Deleted. Deleted.
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  76. Vito Evola, St. Paul's Error: The Semantic Changes of Body and Soul in the Western World.
    Historically Christianity owes much to Judaism. St. Paul’s Christianity, however, changed the way of thinking of many of the first Jews because of a new way of reasoning about selfhood, the human body, and human cognition. Without wanting to treat certain theological concepts, I want to underline how modern science’s view of the person is closer to traditional Judaism than it is to Christianity, and how Paul’s “error” was diffused throughout the Western world, by analyzing the semantics of linguistic references (...)
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  77. Vito Evola, “Io Sono Evoluto E Quello È Un Uomo di Neanderthal”: Un'analisi Linguistica Cognitivista Del Concetto di Evoluzione.
    “Evoluzione” è una parola usata ormai frequentemente dall’uomo comune nonché in tutte le discipline, umanistiche e scientifiche. Culturalmente radicata, è diventata una metafora potente. Una definizione corrente è “sviluppo lento e graduale; svolgimento da una forma a un’altra, generalmente più completa e perfetta” (Garzanti). In questi termini non si parla soltanto dell’evoluzione biologica dell’uomo, ma anche dell’evoluzione del linguaggio, della società, della cognizione umana – a prescindere da un’effettiva conoscenza delle teorie evoluzionistiche. L’evoluzione, in quanto teoria biologica, rimanda quasi automaticamente (...)
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  78. Vito Evola, How Body and Soul Interact with the Spiritual Mind.
    Cognitive Linguistics as an enterprise provides new theoretical and methodological instruments in understanding the relationship between people’s thoughts and the language they use. Spiritual and religious experiences (particularly the ones involving some type of revelation from or communication with a transcendent being) are especially interesting since they involve some type of external, physically invisible force or agent, contributing an “ineffable” quality to the phenomenon. However, people can and do describe such events, and metaphors and blends pervade the representations of certain (...)
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  79. Vito Evola, Multimodal Semiotics of Spiritual Experiences: Representing Beliefs, Metaphors, and Actions.
    Traditionally, spiritual experiences have been considered "ineffable," but metaphors pervade the representations of certain concepts of the transcendental in an attempt to talk about such abstract ideas. Whether it be during the description of a vision or simply talking about morality, people use conceptual metaphors to reason and talk about these concepts. Many representations of God, spirits, or the afterlife are culturally based, but whereas some may differ based on individual experiences, others seem to have a more universal character. From (...)
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  80. Vito Evola, Cognitive Linguistics and the Evolution of Body and Soul in the Western World: From Ancient Hebrew to Modern English.
    A philological and comparative analysis of the lexical items concerning personhood in Ancient Hebrew, Ancient Greek and Modern English reveals semantic shifts concerning the relative lexical concepts. Ancient Hebrew presents an essentially holistic idea of personhood, whereas, via Biblical translations and Greek philosophical influences, the Western World has conceptualized humans as being dualistic in nature. I analyze the polysemy and semantic shifts in the lexicon used for "body" and "soul" in Ancient Hebrew and Ancient Greek, which are the two linguistic (...)
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  81. Vito Evola, Multimodal Semiotics of Representing God and the Self: A Cognitive Linguistic View of Metaphors and Gestures in Religious Discourse.
    I will explore some of my conclusions concerning conceptual metaphors collected during a series of interviews, in particular with two Christian street preachers. The data includes speech, gesture, and commented drawings of God, themselves and paradise. Some of the metaphors analyzed are: metaphors for God (FATHER, SHEPHERD, LOVER, etc); GOOD/GOD IS UP; BAD IS DOWN; STRICT FATHER vs. NURTURING PARENT; MORAL ACCOUNTABILITY. This data demonstrates that the more entrenched a frame of mind is, the less plastic it is, because the (...)
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  82. Christophe Menant, Evolution as Connecting First-Person and Third-Person Perspectives of Consciousness (2008).
    First-person and third-person perspectives are different items of human consciousness. Feeling the taste of a fruit or being consciously part of a group eating fruits call for different perspectives of consciousness. The latter is about objective reality (third-person data). The former is about subjective experience (first-person data) and cannot be described entirely by objective reality. We propose to look at how these two perspectives could be rooted in an evolutionary origin of human consciousness, and somehow be connected. Our starting point (...)
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  83. Christophe Menant, From Meaningful Information to Representations, Enaction and Cognition (2008).
    The notions of information, representation and enaction entertain historical and complex relations with cognition. Historical relations because representational structures belong to the central hypothesis of cognitive sciences. Complex relations because cognitive sciences apply the notion of representation to animals, humans and robots, and also because the enactive approach tends to disregard the GOFAI type of representations. In this wide horizon of relations, we propose to look at a systemic approach that could bring up a common denominator for information and representations (...)
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  84. Situngkir Hokky, Conjectures to the Memes of Indonesian Songs.
    From the works of mathematical properties of songs, we construct the phylomemetic trees of Indonesian ethnic and traditional songs. The memeplexes are then reflected by the used notes and respective durations as they exhibit the Zipf-Mandelbrot law, the gyration coefficient, “spiraling effects”, and the dynamic entropy shown in the structure of the songs. The cladistic techniques yielding phylomemetic tree shows widespread innovations of the songs sampled in the observation. This is however reflects the cultural evolutionary models for the innovations involve (...)
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  85. Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora, Intrinsic Contextuality as the Crux of Consciousness.
    A stream of conscious experience is extremely contextual; it is impacted by sensory stimuli, drives and emotions, and the web of associations that link, directly or indirectly, the subject of experience to other elements of the individual's worldview. The contextuality of one's conscious experience both enhances and constrains the contextuality of one's behavior. Since we cannot know first-hand the conscious experience of another, it is by way of behavioral contextuality that we make judgements about whether or not, and to what (...)
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  86. John Collier, Autonomy in Anticipatory Systems: Significance for Functionality, Intentionality and Meaning.
    Abstract Many anticipatory systems cannot in themselves act meaningfully or represent intentionally. This stems largely from the derivative nature of their functionality. All current artificial control systems, and many living systems such as organs and cellular parts of organisms derive any intentionality they might have from their designers or possessors. Derivative functionality requires reference to some external autonomously functional system, and derivative intentionality similarly requires reference to an external autonomous intentional system. The importance of autonomy can be summed up in (...)
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  87. Serge Patlavskiy (1999). Elaboration of the New Paradigm of Interdisciplinary Investigations. Philosophical Explorations.
    In the article, the problem of creating a theoretical system for approaching the complex phenomena of Reality is discussed. The idea is expressed that epistemology, as the theory of cognitive process, has a dissociative character. The postulate of an integrated informational system is formulated. Such postulate is a suggested basis for creation of a unified methodology of cognition (investigation) which makes it possible to elaborate a new paradigm of interdisciplinary investigations as a separate scientific discipline which has its own methods (...)
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  88. Nicholas Humphrey (1997). Varieties of Altruism - and the Common Ground Between Them. Social Research.
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  89. Nicholas Humphrey & Daniel C. Dennett (1989). Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder. Philosophical Explorations.
  90. Dahlia W. Zaidel (1994). A View of the World From a Split-Brain Perspective. In [Book Chapter].
    The extent to which observed behavior in the complete commissurotomy patients is supported by only one hemisphere would depend on individual differences interacting with a variety of factors such as genetics, intelligence, and so on. The lesson imparted here is that there is sufficient functional redundancy in the neocortex so that the capacity to maintain a wide range of abilities is within the control of one hemisphere. And, yet, as seen in what is missing in the patients' behavior, one hemisphere (...)
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  91. Dahlia W. Zaidel & Asa Kasher (1989). Hemispheric Memory for Surrealistic Versus Realistic Paintings. Philosophical Explorations.
    The issue of hemispheric processing of art works, either alone or in relation to a certain aspect of language, was investigated in normal subjects. Three experiments were performed. In the first, memory for surrealistic versus realistic pictures was investigated. In the second, memory for metaphoric versus literal titles of these pictures was measured. In the third, memory for the paintings was determined as a function of the same titles. The results of the first experiment showed a right visual field (RVF) (...)
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  92. B. Edmonds, Towards a Descriptive Model of Agent Strategy Search.
    It is argued that due to the complexity of most economic phenomena, the chances of deriving correct models from a priori principles are small. Instead are more descriptive approach to modelling should be pursued. Agent-based modelling is characterised as a step in this direction. However many agent-based models use off-the-shelf algorithms from computer science without regard to their descriptive accuracy. This paper attempts an agent model that describes the behaviour of subjects reported by Joep Sonnemans as accurately as possible. It (...)
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  93. William J. Clancey (1991). Situated Cognition: Stepping Out of Representational Flatland. Philosophical Explorations.
    Descriptions of novice-expert differences, reasoning strategies, explanation-based learning, etc. are descriptions of how people create and use models within a representational language, when interacting with their environment in cycles of perceiving and acting. To complement these descriptions, we need to understand how representational languages are created.
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  94. Dan Sperber (2000). Metarepresentations in an Evolutionary Perspective. In , [Book Chapter] (in Press). Oxford University Press.
    Humans are expert users of metarepresentations. How has this human metarepresentational capacity evolved? In order to contribute to the ongoing debate on this question, the chapter focuses on three more specific issues: i. How do humans metarepresent representations? ii. What came first: language, or metarepresentations? iii. Do humans have more than one metarepresentational ability?
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