OAI Archive: Lund University Publications

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100 entries most recently downloaded from the archive "Lund University Publications"

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  1. Ingar Brinck, Göran Hermerén, Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin, Why Metaphysicians Do Not Explain.
    The paper discusses the concept of explanation in metaphysics. Different types of explanation are identified and explored. Scientific explanation is compared with (alleged) metaphysical explanation. The comparison illustrates the difficulties with applying the concept of explanation in metaphysics.
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  2. Lena Lindgren, Concepts of Legitimacy: Continuity and Change.
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  3. Monne Wihlborg, Making the Gender Aspect Visible in Qualitative Research About Learning. A Question of Trustworthiness and Credibility in Variations.
    This paper suggests that there is a substantial risk when it comes to ensuring that we distinguish between gender-influenced experiences visible in qualitative research results/outcomes. The question is whether the object of inquiry in qualitative research in general allows other voices to be heard than the majority/mainstream voice. Or is there a risk that some voices will drown in the voice of the mainstream (norm) and then not be heard in the description of variations? Based on the idea that qualitative (...)
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  4. Anders Ågård, Ethical Issues in Cardiology Patients' Views of Information and Decision-Making.
    The over-riding aim of this thesis was to obtain a deeper understanding of the way patients with cardiac problems view both information related to their health and medical decisions and their role in decision-making processes. An important objective was to identify reasons why patients do not ask for or assimilate information or why they do not want or feel that they are able to influence medical decisions.

    The starting point for the investigations was five ethical problem areas in cardiology (...)
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  5. Paul Davidsson, On the Concept of Concept in the Context of Autonomous Agents.
    This paper deals with some fundamental questions regarding the concept of concept in the context of autonomous agents. The most basic of these is defining what it actually means for someone
    to have a concept. Rather than trying to state a number of conditions that should be satisfied in order to have the concept, it is concluded that having a concept is a matter of degree, which can be defined in terms of the functions the concept can serve. The more (...)
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  6. Henrik Frisk, Improvisation and the Self: To Listen to the Other.
    To listen to the other: This phrase raises an incalculable number of issues. One of the central topics in teaching improvisation is learning how to listen to those with whom one plays, but in my experience the most difficult task is listening to the self. The point of listening to the other in performance is obviously not to completely give up the self, nor is it to become the other,
    but to attune to, or find resonance with, the other. It (...)
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  7. Patrizio Lo Presti, Procedural Reasonableness and Normativity of Argumentation.
    Pragma-dialectical argumentation theory has received criticism from epistemological argumentation theorists. While the former emphasizes argumentation as aimed at resolving differences of opinion through adequate procedures, the latter emphasizes that argumentation is aimed at reaching a justified conclusion of the argumentation. In this paper pragma-dialectics is analyzed and two objections considered. The first objection pertains to the pragma-dialectical definition of reasonable argumentation, the other to the lack of an account of normativity of argumentation in pragma-dialectics. It is argued that the objections (...)
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  8. Christopher Collstedt, The Descents of Military Violence Against Civilians: A History of the Present.
    Inspired by the works of Michel Foucault and Erling Sandmo, this article explores contemporary discourses of military violence against civilians from a genealogical perspective. The purpose is to shed light on the historicity of certain structures of knowledge, thoughts, politics and ethics that are fundamental for the ways in which military violence against civilians is put into words, interpreted and explained in various situations and contexts today. My main argument is that the descents of Swedish contemporary discourse on military violence (...)
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  9. Reza Banakar, The Identity Cricis of a "Stepchild&Quot.
    This paper explores the lack of common basic assumptions among different theoretical orientations which constitute the field of sociology of law. It argues that sociology of law lacks theoretical coherence and is, therefore, unable to produce fundamental paradigms. The solution to the paradigmatic shortcomings of sociology of law is, then, sought outside the traditional framework of law and sociology.
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  10. Reza Banakar, H.L.A. Hart: A Review of Nicola Lacey's "A Life of H L A Hart&Quot. [REVIEW]
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  11. Reza Banakar & Max Travers, Law, Sociology and Method.
    Socio-Legal research is, in some respects, founded on a paradox in that, while it claims or aspires to be an interdisciplinary subject with particular ties with sociology, the majority of its practitioners are based in law schools, and have not received any systematic training in either sociological theory or research methods. There are, of course, many academics from other disciplines who have contributed to the field over the years, and whose studies appear on undergraduate reading lists. There has also been (...)
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  12. Reza Banakar, Normativity in Legal Sociology: Methodological Reflections on Law and Regulation in Late Modernity.
    The field of socio-legal research has encountered three fundamental challenges over the last three decades – it has been criticized for paying insufficient attention to legal doctrine, for failing to develop a sound theoretical foundation and for not keeping pace with the effects of the increasing globalization and internationalization of law, state and society. This book examines these three challenges from a methodological standpoint. It addresses the first two by demonstrating that legal sociology has much to say about justice as (...)
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  13. Jens Ulrik Hansen, Pluralistic Ignorance : A Case for Social Epistemology and Epistemic Logic.
    In this paper the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance is discussed and it is argued why it is of relevance for epistemic logic and social psychology. Roughly put, pluralistic ignorance is the case when a group of interacting agents all experience a discrepancy between their private opinions and the perceived opinions of the others. After introducing the phenomenon, numerous features of pluralistic ignorance that are of interest for epistemic logic and social epistemology, are discussed. This discussion serves two purposes: It recaps (...)
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  14. Peter Bednar & Christine Welch, Second Order Discourse: Critically-Informed Research.
    Researchers who desire to bring about change in organizational settings require approaches to inquiry which can go beyond superficial appearances and prejudice. In seeking to go beyond mere examination of socio technical systems researchers have developed a proliferation of different approaches. Many of these have drawn upon social and human sciences to ground methods and assumptions in philosophical descriptions. However, critically informed researchers, in their efforts to make inquiries into organizational systems, may find it difficult to differentiate between approaches. Many (...)
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  15. Monica Lindberg Falk, Thailand. Modern Buddhism and Buddhadasa Bhikkhu: A Social History.
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  16. Martin Gansten, Realism and Idealism in Rāmānuja's Self-Body Metaphor.
    The ontology of Rāmānuja, as expressed in his Gītābhāṣya and other works, centres on the doctrine of coordinate predication (sāmānādhikaraṇya), expressed through the metaphor of the self-body relationship (ātma-śarīra-bhāva). This metaphor, employed to define the ontological status of God (Nārāyaṇa), the individual selves and the world, also serves as a strategy for reconciling apparently conflicting passages in the Bhagavadgītā and other authoritative texts of Vedānta. The view emerging from a close reading of Rāmānuja’s writings is one of universal realism grounded (...)
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  17. Göran Sonesson, Current Issues in Pictorial Semiotics. Lecture One: The Quadrature of the Hermeneutic Circle.
    The first lecture will present pictorial semiotics within the framework of general semiotic theory. It will construe semiotics as a particular point of view taken on everything which is human or, more generally, endowed with life, rather than simply the continuation of the mixed or separate doctrines due to Saussure and Peirce. The historical part will describe briefly the development of pictorial semiotics and the peculiarities of its different schools and traditions, following upon the somewhat premature founding gesture attributed to (...)
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  18. Reza Banakar, Can Legal Sociology Account for the Normativity of Law?
    This paper challenges the assumption that legal sociology should apply itself to the external or factual properties of the law and leave the internal and normative aspects of legal phenomena to doctrinal scholars and moral philosophers. It argues that legal sociology explores the normative contexts of the law and other social systems, but being restricted by its “scientific” mode of expression it describes and analyses them in sociological rather than moral terms. Legal sociology is, and should be seen as, a (...)
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  19. Anders Burman, A Comment to Mario Blaser's 'Ontological Conflicts and the Stories of Peoples In Spite of Europe: Towards a Conversation on Political Ontology'.
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  20. Peter Bengtsen & Matilda Arvidsson, Law, Street Art and Spatial Justice.
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  21. Johannes Persson & Nils-Eric Sahlin, A Philosophical Account of Interventions and Causal Representation in Nursing Research: A Discussion Paper.
    BACKGROUND: Representing is about theories and theory formation. Philosophy of science has a long-standing interest in representing. At least since Ian Hacking's modern classic Representing and Intervening (1983) analytical philosophers have struggled to combine that interest with a study of the roles of intervention studies. With few exceptions this focus of philosophy of science has been on physics and other natural sciences. In particular, there have been few attempts to analyse the use of the notion of intervention in other disciplines (...)
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  22. Mattias Kärrholm, Building Type Production and Everyday Life: Rethinking Building Types Through Actor-Network Theory and Object-Oriented Philosophy.
    The aim of this paper is to reconceptualise ‘building type’ in order to better account for its general role in society and everyday life. The paper merges the concept of building type with actor-network theory and object-oriented philosophy in order to develop the concept of ‘territorial sorts’ as a way of widening building-type research and making it more useful for investigating how building types are actually produced, not just in terms of the work done by different kinds of authorities, such (...)
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  23. Henrik Rydell Johnsén, The Early Jesus Prayer and Meditation in Greco-Roman Philosophy.
    This article deals with the early development of the Jesus prayer in Early Christian monasticism of the 4th to the 7th century. It proceeds in two steps. First, a quite uniform matrix of practices and aims related to three early monastic authors (John Cassian, Diadochus of Photike, and John Climacus) is discerned. It is evident that the practice is not clearly defined in this period. It is also apparent that the practice evolves in conversation with other similar practices, like the (...)
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  24. Joel Parthemore, The 'Final Frontier' as Metaphor for Mind: Opportunities to Re-Conceptualize What It Means to Be Human.
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  25. Thord Svensson, The Balance of Meaning : Exploring the Possibility of a Recognition-Transcendent Meaning of Religious and Existentially Important Terms.
    Can we be mistaken or ignorant about the meaning of our own words? This dissertation explores this question. More specifically it investigates to what extent and in what sense, if at all, the semantic meaning of religious and existentially important words – like ‘God’, ‘friendship’, ‘justice’ or ‘life’ – can be recognition-transcendent to the competent user of them. The possibility of words having such a meaning is assumed to presuppose a delicate balance: The meaning must be external and objective enough (...)
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  26. Rickard Lagervall, The Universal and the Particularistic.
    One of the main themes in modern Islamic debate has been the relationship between universal and cultural particularistic norms regulating human affairs, the sphere which in classical Islamic tradition is designated as mu´amalat. A recurrent topic of contest has been the universal character of international conventions on human rights.
    In this paper I will discuss two attempts at accommodation by two Moroccan philosophers who will serve as exponents of two positions in this debate. Muhammad ´Abid al-Jabiri (1936-2010) justified a (...)
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  27. Damien Motte & Robert Bjärnemo, A Note on the Debate on Scientific Process Vs. Design Process.
    It has been often claimed that the scientific process is quite opposite to the design process, mainly based on the former’s analysis of existing phenomena in order to develop a theory, while the design process is an act of synthesis that creates something new in the world. In the light of the developments that led to this conception, and with reference to the current views of the scientific process, we maintain that the scientific process has more similarities with the design (...)
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  28. Samuel Rubenson, Antony and Ammonas. Conflicting or Common Tradition in Early Egyptian Monasticism.
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  29. Annika Wallin, A Peace Treaty for the Rationality Wars? External Validity and its Relation to Normative and Descriptive Theories of Rationality.
    If we know that certain ways of making decisions are associated with real-life success, is this then how we should decide? In this paper the relationship between normative and descriptive theories of decision-making is examined. First, it is shown that the history of the decision sciences ensures that it is impossible to separate descriptive theories from normative ones. Second, recent psychological research implies new ways of arguing from the descriptive to the normative. The paper ends with an evaluation of how (...)
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  30. Robert Willim, Rendering Culture: Elsewhereness, The Ethnographic, The Surreal.
    Where are the ends of ethnography? How detached can a site-specific work be? The point of departure for discussing these questions is Elsewhereness, a series of site specific experimental films, by Anders Weberg and Robert Willim. These take the possibilities for digital media in relation to site specific art to its extremes, juxtaposing the nomadic with the placebound. The works in the series are made solely from audio and video material found on the web, material that emanates from a specific (...)
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  31. Artur Nilsson, Personality Psychology as the Integrative Study of Traits and Worldviews.
    Previous attempts to construct an integrative framework for personality psychology are primarily descriptions of what the field looks like today rather than analyses of its logical structure and
    therefore threaten to reify and perpetuate the current structure of the field. I aim here to draw attention to logically important points that may help to integrate the field and suggest
    potentially fruitful research paths that are unrealized due to historical contingency. My point of departure is that the crucial defining (...)
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  32. Artur Nilsson, Toward an Integrative Personality Psychology.
    Previous attempts to construct an integrative framework for personality psychology are primarily descriptions of what
    the field looks like today rather than analyses of its logical structure and research possibilities. I aim to draw attention
    to logically important points that may help to integrate the field and suggest potentially fruitful research paths that
    are unrealized due to historical contingency. My point of departure is that the crucial defining feature of personality
    psychology is that it studies human (...)
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  33. Artur Nilsson, Humanism and Normativism: Two Fundamental Aspects of the Personal Worldview.
    Broad systems of meaning permeating a person’s worldview are crucial to personality, because they organize beliefs,
    values, and attitudes and imbue lives with meaning and direction. Yet they have attracted little research. Humanism
    and Normativism are arguably the broadest worldview constructs to date, encompassing attitudes about human
    nature, society, morality, affect, and epistemology. According to Polarity Theory, they are antithetical: Humanism
    glorifies humanity, portraying human beings as intrinsically valuable, whereas Normativism portrays human worth as
    contingent (...)
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  34. Linus Broström, The Substituted Judgment Standard. Studies on the Ethics of Surrogate Decision Making.
    Patients who are incompetent need a surrogate decision maker to make treatment decisons on their behalf. One of the main ethical questions that arise in this context is what standard ought to govern such decision making. According to the Substituted Judgment Standard (SJS), a surrogate ought to make the decision that the patient would have made, had he or she been competent. Although this standard has sometimes been criticized on the grounds of being difficult to apply, it has found wide (...)
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  35. Anita Lundqvist, When Birth Turns to Loss and Grief - Experiences, Views and Care in Neonatal End-of-Life Practice.
    The aim was to describe the neonatal end-of-life practice and illuminate Swedish women's lived experiences of the threat and the reality of their neonate's dying and death as well as the care received. A further aim was to explore Muslim women's view of current Swedish neonatal-end-of-life care. In a questionnaire with close-ended questions 144 registered nurses described their experiences, behavior and attitudes in Swedish NICUs towards parents who are reluctant to see, touch, and hold the dying or dead neonate. The (...)
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  36. Marie Omnell-Persson, Utilization and Allocation of Organs for Transplantation - Medical and Ethical Aspects.
    Great efforts have been made to find solutions to the shortage of organs, such as extending the donor pool by accepting so-called marginal donors and development of transplantation of organs from animals (xenotransplantation, xt). Due to the scarcity of organs, there is a long tradition of prioritizing among patients on the waiting list for transplantation. Rules for allocation of organs have been developed within organ exchange organizations, such as Scandiatransplant, the forum for exchange of organs within the Nordic countries. The (...)
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  37. Ingrid Runeson, Children's Participation in Decision-Making in Health Care.
    The main purpose was to investigate children's participation in the decision-making processes in health care. Twenty-four children (0-18 år)admitted to hospital, their parents, and the staff present were observed during totally 135 hours in order to (i) identify the children's needs, (ii) their participation in the decision-making processes, and (iii) their parents' participation. Twenty-six children (6-17 years) and 21 parents were interviewed about their experiences of hospital stay, and finally 92 health care professionals described situations containing different degrees of children's (...)
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  38. Robert Pallbo, Mind in Motion: The Utilization of Noise in the Cognitive Process.
    The brain is not silent. Even in the absence of stimuli are the neurons activated every now and then in what is called "spontaneous" or "background activity" which provides a noisy background to the operation of the brain. This work shows how this noise can be utilized in the cognitive process. That is, rather than being treated as a nuisance, noise is given a functional role in the brain´s activity. More than this, the role noise is given is a very (...)
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  39. Åsa Andersson, Power and Social Ontology.
    This work presents an account of social power based on recent advances in social ontology. It is argued that a conceptual analysis of social power can be informed by developments in social ontology, but also that this field can be enriched, and in fact requires, an analysis of this central social concept. Social power is dependent on the existence of various kinds of social phenomena, such as institutions and social structures, in order to exist. Consequently, a precise analysis of these (...)
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  40. Johan Modée, Artifacts and Supraphysical Worlds: A Conceptual Analysis of Religion.
    It is a contested question in contemporary theories of religion whether the concept of religion can be defined in a sound way or not. Many theorists maintain that a universal but delimiting definition is impossible. In this study, by contrast, it is argued that a conceptual analysis of religion that holds universally is perfectly possible because the following thesis can be seen as a necessary and sufficient conceptual condition of what religion is: (R) X is a religion if and only (...)
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  41. Kyriakos Theodoridis (2005). Kripke on Necessity - A Metaphysical Investigation. Dissertation, Lund University
    I undertake a metaphysical investigation of Saul Kripke's modern classic, Naming and Necessity (1980). The general problem of my study may be expressed as follows: What is the metaphysical justification of the validity and existence of the pertinent classes of truths, the necessary a posteriori and the contingent a priori, according to the Kripke Paradigm? My approach is meant to disclose the logical and ontological principles underlying Kripke's arguments for the necessary a posteriori and the contingent a priori respectively. The (...)
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  42. Johannes Stripple, Climate Change After the International : Rethinking Security, Territory and Authority.
    What does a politics after the international mean? Many strands of contemporary scholarship converge on the image of the international as obsolete, but strongly diverge on the contours of the kinds of politics that are superseding it. The modern state has been pivotal to the meaning of security, territory and authority?concepts central to the idea of the international?but they do not necessarily have to be tied to the state. Johannes Stripple offers a critique of International Relations theory combined with a (...)
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  43. Eva-Lotta Grantén, Patterns of Care: Relating Altruism in Sociobiology and the Christian Tradition of Agape.
    The purpose of this study is to relate sociobiological theories of altruism to theories within the Christian tradition of agape. Firstly, it discusses the relation between scientific, ethical and theological understandings of altruism, and argues that it is possible to compare discussions of benevolent acts towards others or other-directedness. Such acts are determined in content by the extent and recipients, and the content make recognisable patterns. A care-pattern is defined as the giver of the benevolent act having a relation to (...)
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  44. Anna-Sofia Maurin (2002). If Tropes. Dissertation, Lund University
    The treatise attempts to approach and deal with some of the most fundamental problems facing anyone who wishes to uphold some version of the so-called theory of tropes. Three assumptions serve as a basis for the investigation: (i) tropes (i.e. particular properties) exist, (ii) only tropes exist (that is, tropes are the only basic or fundamental kinds of entities), and (iii) a one-category trope-theory along these lines should be developed so that the tropes it postulates are able to serve as (...)
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  45. Jan Morén, Emotion and Learning - A Computational Model of the Amygdala.
    The amygdala is a small subcortical structure that has long been implicated in the conditioning of fear and other emotions. It is heavily interconnected to a number of both cortical and subcortical structures and is thus well placed to integrate sensory inputs from multiple areas to produce emotional reactions directly as well as influence learning and attention systems. Data suggests that the amygdala works in close cooperation with the orbitofrontal cortex; the amygdala learns emotional reactions to stimuli, while the orbitofrontal (...)
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  46. Johan Brännmark (2002). Morality and the Pursuit of Happiness: A Study in Kantian Ethics. Dissertation, Lund University
    This work seeks to develop a Kantian ethical theory in terms of a general ontology of values and norms together with a metaphysics of the person that makes sense of this ontology. It takes as its starting point Kant’s assertion that a good will is the only thing that has an unconditioned value and his accompanying view that the highest good consists in virtue and happiness in proportion to virtue. The soundness of Kant’s position on the value of the good (...)
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  47. James M. Starr, Sharers in Divine Nature: 2 Peter 1:4 in Its Hellenistic Context.
    This book offers a theological study of an expression unique in biblical literature concerning the purpose of life: “that you might become sharers in divine nature” (2 Peter 1:4). Following an analysis of the text-immanent features in 2 Peter 1:1—11, the study delineates comparable notions of “sharers in divine nature” in selected writings that were current in the first century and contrasts these with 2 Peter. The comparative material includes the writings of the Old Testament, Josephus, Philo, Plutarch, Stoicism, Pauline (...)
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  48. Jane Mattisson, Knowledge and Survival in the Novels of Thomas Hardy.
    Abstract This thesis identifies two different kinds of knowledge in Thomas Hardy's novels: the everyday, passed on from generation to generation, which is non-academic and closely bound to the local environment and its traditions; and the specialised, recorded in the printed word, which is the product of formal education and independent of the local community and its traditions. These two kinds of epistemological competence determine one's ability to adapt and survive in a changing society. It is argued that everyday knowledge (...)
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  49. Mikael Klintman, Nature and the Social Sciences: Examples From the Electricity and Waste Sectors.
    The book has two interrelated objectives. One objective is meta-theoretical and concerns the exploration of theoretical debates connected to issues of studying society and environmental problems; another objective is empirical/analytical, referring to the analysis of "green" public participation in the electricity and waste sectors in Sweden, and partly in the Netherlands as well as the UK. The metatheoretical part draws the conclusion that the ontology of critical realism, combined with a problem-subjectivist tenet, is a particularly fruitful basis for the social (...)
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  50. Piotr Szybek, Staging Science. Some Aspects of the Production and Distribution of Science Knowledge.
    The dissertation presents a phenomenological view on the interaction between science knowledge and prescientific knowledge. Drawing on Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and Lévinas the human bodily grounded existence is described, the central feature of this existence being its responsivity to the Other. This responsivity is presented as the starting point for the production of science knowledge, thus making science knowledge always situated as knowledge-put-to-use. The presentation is using the metaphor of a "stage of events", which presents events as if staged on a (...)
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  51. Michael Ranta, Theories and Observations in the History of Art.
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