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  1. Robert H. Blank (1981). Bioethical Decisions: The Political Context and Challenges. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (3-4):163-179.
    Rapid advances in biomedicine, accompanied by changing social values, are thrusting bioethical decision making into the political spectrum. This article examines the forces which are politicizing bioethical decisions and demonstrates the challenges they raise. It also presents an overview of the current political context and concludes that American political institutions and processes are not well-suited for dealing with these intense, sensitive bioethical issues. Although the article reflects skepticism concerning the ability of the political system to fulfill the expansive demands confronting (...)
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  2. Janice R. Dillon (1981). Informed Consent and the Disclosure of Risks of Treatment: The Supreme Court of Canada Decides. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (3-4):156-162.
    The requirement for disclosure of risks of treatment as part of informed consent came before the Supreme Court of Canada in two 1980 cases. The Court found the duty of disclosure of risks to be based in negligence and not battery. The scope of the duty is not to be determined by medical evidence alone and requires the physician to disclose the nature of the proposed treatment, its gravity, any material risks and any special or unusual risks as well as (...)
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  3. Peter Grantham (1981). Ethical Issues and the Family Doctor. Bioethics Quarterly 3 (3-4):180-189.
    Issues recognized as having ethical or moral components are becoming increasingly common, for society in general, the health care system and for general practitioner/family physicians in particular. Some of the peculiar problems for GP's relate to the provision of continuing, comprehensive, primary medical care to large numbers of individuals who provide extensive potential for conflict between all the involved elements: patients, physicians, families, consultants and societal attitudes. There is a need for more formal education programs.
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  4. Carson Strong (1981). Positive Killing and the Irreversibly Unconscious Patient. Bioethics Quarterly 3 (3-4):190-205.
    Various arguments have been given against positive euthanasia, but little attention has been given to the question of whether these arguments are uniformly effective in all contexts. There appears to be a range of cases, involving non-voluntary killing of irreversibly unconscious patients, in which these arguments do not succeed. Various reasons have been given in support of positive killing in such cases. It can be argued that there is a range of cases for which a policy of allowing positive killing (...)
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  5. Robert M. Veatch (1981). Patients' Rights and Physician Accountability: Problems with PSROs. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (3-4):137-155.
    The author examines the ethical underpinnings of the Professional Standard Review Organizations (PSROs). Four normative problems are explored in order of their importance: the problem of bureaucracy incapable of responding sensitively to individual cases; the problem of cost consciousness overcoming the commitment to quality; the problem of commitment to highest quality interfering with other social values and goals; and the problem of value judgments being made by professionals rather than patients whose rights and interests are most directly at stake. Though (...)
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  6. Robert J. Wilkus (1981). Carson Strong's “Positive Killing and the Irreversibly Unconscious Patient”: A Commentary. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (3-4):206-207.
    There is general agreement that death of the entire brain results in death of the person, and that such a condition can exist in a body which is still technically “alive.”1,2 Dr. Strong additionally contends that in cases of irreversible coma, since cognitive abilities characteristic of the person are no longer manifest and cannot be expected to reappear, such an individual no longer has the “right to life” and somatic death can be initiated by “positive killing.” This, the author claims, (...)
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  7. Ronald E. Cranford & Barbara K. Patrick (1981). Confirmatory Tests in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: The Role of the Radioisotope Brain Scan. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):67-72.
    In recent years physicians have used a variety of laboratory studies as confirmatory tests in the diagnosis of brain death. The most widely used test has been the EEG. However, with the development of newer technologies capable of measuring other parameters of brain functions, other laboratory studies are playing an increasingly important role in confirming brain death. In this article, we discuss the role of one of these newer tests, the radioactive brain scan, and compare its advantages and limitations with (...)
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  8. Michael J. Flower (1981). Taking DNA to Market and Regulatory Default. Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):112-127.
    The public debate on recombinant DNA research has ended even though significant issues of public interest remain undecided or untouched. The reason for the termination of other than muted public discussion is not simply the removal of an initial fear of catastrophic biohazards. With the cessation of public debate over such hazards came also the dissolution of most public forums. The ends to which recombinant DNA research and development ought to be directed are not matters of public debate. With the (...)
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  9. Jane D. Hoyt (1981). “No Dr. Blue/Do Not Resuscitate”. Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):128-132.
    In December 1980 an elementary school teacher in Minnesota obtained a Restraining Order to ensure that a severely brain damaged friend would receive emergency medical care in her nursing home if she needed it. This situation focussed attention on the need for better understanding, among medical professionals and consumers alike, of the significance of a “No Dr. Blue/Do Not Resuscitate” order.
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  10. Paul R. Johnson (1981). Selective Nontreatment and Spina Bifida: A Case Study in Ethical Theory and Application. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):91-111.
    Defective newborn children are to be considered human persons. Thus, primary duty in proxy consent is to act with the infant's best interest in mind. This duty may at times override the otherwise prima facie right to life, but only under restricted circumstances. Refinements of McCormick's “relational potential” criteria and of ordinary-extraordinary means analysis prove useful in such decisions. Utilitarian considerations of social consequences have impact but can be kept subsidiary. The importance for decision making of available child support services (...)
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  11. E. W. Keyserlingk (1981). Doing Ethics and Reforming Health Law—A Canadian Experience. Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):73-90.
    This paper will begin with a brief account of the mandate and description of the Law Reform Commission of Canada and its Protection of Life Project, secondly, point to a limitation imposed upon it by the nature of health law in Canada and, thirdly propose some basic questions which such commissions have both the luxury and the duty to wrestle with and resolve. In my view it is these fundamental challenges which ought to be the major components of the standards (...)
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  12. Lindsay G. Arthur (1981). In Re Sharon Siebert: Decision Regarding a Brain-Damaged Adult. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):10-15.
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  13. Jane A. Boyajian (1981). Decision-Making for the Incompetent: Exemplars and Questions From Siebert. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):3-9.
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  14. Ronald A. Carson, Jaime L. Frias & Richard J. Melker (1981). Case Study: Research with Brain-Dead Children. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):50-53.
    The esophageal obturator airway (EOA) is a device used throughout the United States to facilitate artificial respiration of critically ill patients who are not hospitalized. Its use is restricted to persons who are over 15 years old because obturators for children are not available. A protocol submitted to an institutional review board (IRB) intended to develop EOAs suitable for use in children. The investigators proposed to perform preliminary testing of these devices on children who had sustained irreversible loss of brain (...)
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  15. Ronald E. Cranford & Mary S. Schneider (1981). Siebert Commentary: Medical-Legal Issues. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):16-20.
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  16. Judith Bartholomew Gagnon (1981). Selected Books. Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):58-62.
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  17. Edward W. Keyserlingk (1981). Artificial Insemination and in Vitro Fertilization. Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):35-49.
    This paper explores some of the ethical (and legal) implications of artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization. In both cases the emphasis is on the interests of the potential child. It concludes that in neither case is great optimism or great pessimism appropriate. About AID, much of the legal and ethical concern has been other than child-centered, and has focused mainly on the interests of parents and donors. Three aspects expecially remain troubling: donor selection, record-keeping and disclosure and the testing (...)
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  18. Susan Sherwin (1981). The Concept of a Person in the Context of Abortion. Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):21-34.
    The paper investigates the significance of the question of the fetus's status as a person for resolving the moral issues of abortion. It considers and evaluates several proposed solutions to this question. It also attempts to explain how different questions about the permissibility of abortion are appropriate to discussions at different levels of decision-making: the pregnant woman, the health professional, and the social policy level. The author's own conclusions to all these questions are offered along with other popular views.
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  19. Robert M. Veatch (1981). Commentary: Research on “Nonconsentables”. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):54-57.
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  20. Ronald E. Cranford & Barbara Killpatrick (1981). Tests in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: The Role of the Radioisotope Brain Scan. Bioethics Quarterly 3:67-72.