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Forthcoming articles
  1. Henrik Andersson (forthcoming). Propping Up the Collapsing Principle. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-12.
    According to a standard account of incomparability, two value bearers are incomparable if it is false that there holds a positive value relation between them. Due to the vagueness of the comparative predicates it may also be indeterminate as to which relation that holds - for each relation it is neither true nor false that it holds. John Broome has argued that indeterminacy cannot coexist with incomparability and since there seems to exist indeterminacy there cannot exist incomparability. At the core (...)
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  2. Stephen M. Campbell (forthcoming). When the Shape of a Life Matters. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-11.
    It seems better to have a life that begins poorly and ends well than a life that begins well and ends poorly. One possible explanation is that the very ‘shape’ of a life can be good or bad for us. If so, this raises a tough question: when can the shape of our lives be good or bad for us? In this essay, I present and critique an argument that the shape of a life is a non-synchronic prudential value—that is, (...)
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  3. Fritz J. McDonald (forthcoming). Review of Korsgaard's The Constitution of Agency (2008, OUP). [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice.
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  4. Michael Moehler (forthcoming). Rational Cooperation and the Nash Bargaining Solution. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    In a recent article, McClennen (2012) defends an alternative bargaining theory in response to his criticisms of the standard Nash bargaining solution as a principle of distributive justice in the context of the social contract. McClennen rejects the orthodox concept of expected individual utility maximizing behavior that underlies the Nash bargaining model in favor of what he calls full rationality, and McClennen’s full cooperation bargaining theory demands that agents select the most egalitarian strictly Pareto-optimal distributional outcome that is strictly Pareto-superior (...)
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  5. Travis J. Rodgers & Brandon Warmke (forthcoming). Situationism Versus Situationism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    Most discussions of John Doris’s situationism center on what can be called descriptive situationism, the claim that our folk usage of global personality and character traits in describing and predicting human behavior is empirically unsupported. Philosophers have not yet paid much attention to another central claim of situationism, which says that given that local traits are empirically supported, we can more successfully act in line with our moral values if, in our deliberation about what to do, we focus on our (...)
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  6. Caj Strandberg (forthcoming). Options for Hybrid Expressivism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-21.
    In contemporary metaethics, various versions of hybrid expressivism have been proposed according to which moral sentences express both non-cognitive attitudes and beliefs. One important advantage with such positions, its proponents argue, is that they, in contrast to pure expressivism, have a straightforward way of avoiding the Frege-Geach problem. In this paper, I provide a systematic examination of different versions of hybrid expressivism with particular regard to how they are assumed to evade this problem. The major conclusion is that none of (...)
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  7. Bill Wringe (forthcoming). Perp Walks as Punishment. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    When Dominique Strauss-Kahn, then head of the IMF, was arrested on charges of sexual assault arising from events that were alleged to have occurred during his stay in an up-market hotel in New York, a sizeable portion of French public opinion was outraged - not by the possibility that a well-connected and widely-admired politician had assaulted an immigrant hotel worker, but by the way in which the accused had been treated by the American authorities. I shall argue that in one (...)
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  8. Michael Yudanin (forthcoming). Can Positive Duties Be Derived From Kant's Categorical Imperative? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-20.
    Kant’s moral philosophy usually considers two types of duties: negative duties that prohibit certain actions and positive duties commanding action. With that, Kant insists on deriving all morality from reason alone. Such is the Categorical Imperative that Kant lays at the basis of ethics. Yet while negative duties can be derived from the Categorical Imperative and thus from reason, the paper argues that this is not the case with positive duties. After answering a number of attempts to derive positive duties (...)
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  9. Jennifer L. Zamzow (forthcoming). Rules and Principles in Moral Decision Making: An Empirical Objection to Moral Particularism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-12.
    It is commonly thought that moral rules and principles, such as ‘Keep your promises,’ ‘Respect autonomy,’ and ‘Distribute goods according to need (merit, etc.),’ should play an essential role in our moral deliberation. Particularists have challenged this view by arguing that principled guidance leads us to engage in worse decision making because principled guidance is too rigid and it leads individuals to neglect or distort relevant details. However, when we examine empirical literature on the use of rules and principles in (...)
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  10. Sandrine Berges (forthcoming). Is Motherhood Compatible with Political Participation? Sophie de Grouchy's Care-Based Republicanism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    Motherhood, as it is practiced, constitutes an obstacle to gender equality in political participation. Several options are available as a potential solution to this problem. One is to advice women not to become mothers, or if they do, to devote less time and energy to caring for their children. However this will have negative repercussions for those who need to be cared for, whether children, sick people or the elderly. A second solution is to reject the view that political participation (...)
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  11. Gesa Lindemann (forthcoming). From the Critique of Judgment to the Principle of the Open Question. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-17.
    The relevance of Kant to Plessner’s work was long all but ignored and there is hardly any mention of Plessner in the Kant literature. The Plessner renaissance beginning in the 1990s, however, has brought with it a stronger focus on the methodological construction of his theory, so that the Kant connection has at least been acknowledged, but the particular relevance of Kant’s Critique of Judgement (Kant 1790/2007) has not been systematically explicated. In this essay, I investigate the connection between Kant’s (...)
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  12. Julia Peters (forthcoming). On Automaticity as a Constituent of Virtue. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-11.
    A large part of the current debate among virtue ethicists focuses on the role played by phronesis, or wise practical reasoning, in virtuous action. The paradigmatic case of an action expressing phronesis is one where an agent explicitly reflects and deliberates on all practical options in a given situation and eventually makes a wise choice. Habitual actions, by contrast, are typically performed automatically, that is, in the absence of preceding deliberation. Thus they would seem to fall outside of the primary (...)
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  13. Tom Bates (forthcoming). Mixed Traits and Dispositions: Critical Discussion of Christian Miller, ‘Moral Character: An Empirical Theory’ and ‘Character and Moral Psychology’. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-4.
    “Moral Character: An Empirical Theory” and “Character and Moral Psychology” represent part of the research output of the Templeton-funded Character Project, which was headed by Christian Miller. In ‘Moral Character’, Miller develops his “mixed trait” account of character. The first two parts consist in conceptual background and the empirical grounding for his account . In part three Miller develops and describes his account, before showing the extent of its application in part four . In ‘Character and Moral Psychology”, he gives (...)
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  14. Karin Edvardsson Björnberg (forthcoming). Historic Injustices and the Moral Case for Cultural Repatriation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    It is commonly argued that cultural objects ought to be returned to their place of origin in order to remedy injustices committed in the past. In this paper, it is shown that significant challenges attach to this way of arguing. Although there is considerable intuitive appeal in the idea that if somebody wrongs another person then she ought to compensate for that injustice, the principle is difficult (albeit not impossible) to apply to wrongdoings committed many decades or centuries ago. It (...)
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  15. James W. Boettcher (forthcoming). Against the Asymmetric Convergence Model of Public Justification. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    Compared to standard liberal approaches to public reason and justification, the asymmetric convergence model of public justification allows for the public justification of laws and policies based on a convergence of quite different and even publicly inaccessible reasons. The model is asymmetrical in the sense of identifying a broader range of reasons that may function as decisive defeaters of proposed laws and policies. This paper raises several critical questions about the asymmetric convergence model and its central but ambiguous presumption against (...)
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  16. George Crowder (forthcoming). Value Pluralism, Diversity and Liberalism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    Few would disagree that contemporary society is characterized by ‘pluralism’, but what this means is widely disputed. Among the many senses of pluralism current in contemporary political theory, ‘value pluralism’ is one of the most keenly contested. The classic account is found in Isaiah Berlin, who sees basic human values as irreducibly multiple, often conflicting, and sometimes incommensurable with one another.Berlin’s pluralist views are scattered throughout his work, but major statements include the Introduction and last section of ‘Two Concepts of (...)
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  17. Ashley Dressel (forthcoming). “Directed Obligations and the Trouble with Deathbed Promises”. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-13.
    On some popular accounts of promissory obligation, a promise creates an obligation to the person to whom the promise is made (the ‘promisee’). On such accounts, the wrong involved in breaking a promise is a wrong committed against a promisee. I will call such accounts ‘directed obligation’ accounts of promissory obligation. While I concede that directed obligation accounts make good sense of many of our promissory obligations, I aim to show that directed obligation accounts, at least in their current forms, (...)
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  18. Wim Dubbink (forthcoming). A Moral Grounding of the Duty to Further Justice in Commercial Life. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-19.
    This paper argues that economic agents, including corporations, have the duty to further justice, not just a duty merely to comply with laws and do their share. The duty to further justice is the requirement to assist in the establishment of just arrangements when they do not exist in society. The paper is grounded in liberal theory and draws heavily on one liberal theorist, Kant. We show that the duty to further justice must be interpreted as a duty of virtue (...)
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  19. Gideon Elford (forthcoming). Pains of Perseverance: Agent-Centred Prerogatives, Burdens and the Limits of Human Motivation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    An important question in recent work in political philosophy concerns whether facts about individuals’ motivational deficiencies are facts to which principles of justice are sensitive. In this context, David Estlund has recently argued that the difficulties individuals’ face in motivating themselves to act do not affect the content of normative principles that apply to them. Against Estlund, the paper argues that in principle the motivational difficulties individuals face can affect the content of normative principles that apply to them. This argument (...)
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  20. Megs S. Gendreau (forthcoming). Who? Moral Condemnation, PEDs, and Violating the Constraints of Public Narrative. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    Despite the numerous instances of PED use in professional sports, there continues to be a strong negative moral response to those athletes who dope. My goal is to offer a diagnosis of this response. I will argue that we do not experience such disdain because these athletes have broken some constitutive rule of sport, but because they have lied about who they are. In violating the constraints of their own public narratives, they make both themselves and their choices unintelligible. This (...)
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  21. Karin Jønch-Clausen & Klemens Kappel (forthcoming). Social Epistemic Liberalism and the Problem of Deep Epistemic Disagreements. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    Recently Robert B. Talisse has put forth a socio-epistemic justification of liberal democracy that he believes qualifies as a public justification in that it purportedly can be endorsed by all reasonable individuals. In avoiding narrow restraints on reasonableness, Talisse argues that he has in fact proposed a justification that crosses the boundaries of a wide range of religious, philosophical and moral worldviews and in this way the justification is sufficiently pluralistic to overcome the challenges of reasonable pluralism familiar from Rawls. (...)
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  22. Adam Kadlac (forthcoming). The Virtue of Hope. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    I argue that hope is a virtue insofar as it (1) leads to a more realistic view of the future than dispositions like optimism and pessimism, (2) promotes courage, and (3) encourages an important kind of solidarity with others. In light of this proposal, I consider the relationship between hope and our beliefs about what is good as well as the conditions under which hope may fail to be a virtue.
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  23. Rainer Kattel (forthcoming). Brian Leiter and Neil Sinhababu (Eds), Nietzsche and Morality. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice.
    Brian Leiter and Neil Sinhababu (eds), Nietzsche and Morality Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s10677-008-9134-6 Authors Rainer Kattel, Tallinn University of Technology Ehitajate tee 5 19086 Tallinn Estonia Journal Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Online ISSN 1572-8447 Print ISSN 1386-2820.
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  24. Christos Kyriacou (forthcoming). Critical Discussion of David Velleman, Foundations for Moral Relativism, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2013. Pp. X +109. Price: £12.95. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-6.
    Foundations for Moral Relativism consists of five self-standing, though loosely related, essays on the nature of agency and its metaethical foundations. The essays do not aspire to offer any grand theory of agency or metaethics, but only to lay out some of the foundations for such theories. These foundations portray how agency in general is constructed in the social context of a community, how moral agency in particular is constructed in the social context of a community, and how a derivative (...)
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  25. Hallvard Lillehammer & Niklas Möller (forthcoming). We Can Believe the Error Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-7.
    Bart Streumer argues that it is not possible for us to believe the error theory, where by ‘error theory’ he means the claim that our normative beliefs are committed to the existence of normative properties even though such properties do not exist. In this paper, we argue that it is indeed possible to believe the error theory. First, we suggest a critical improvement to Streumer’s argument. As it stands, one crucial premise of that argument—that we cannot have a belief while (...)
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  26. Kevin Macnish (forthcoming). An Eye for an Eye: Proportionality and Surveillance. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-20.
    It is often claimed that surveillance should be proportionate, but it is rarely made clear exactly what proportionate surveillance would look like beyond an intuitive sense of an act being excessive. I argue that surveillance should indeed be proportionate and draw on Thomas Hurka’s work on proportionality in war to inform the debate on surveillance. After distinguishing between the proportionality of surveillance per se, and surveillance as a particular act, I deal with objections to using proportionality as a legitimate ethical (...)
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  27. Andrew James McAninch (forthcoming). Acting for a Reason and Following a Principle. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-13.
    According to an influential view of practical reason and rational agency, a person acts for a reason only if she recognizes some consideration to be a reason, where this recognition motivates her to act. I call this requirement the guidance condition on acting for a reason. Despite its intuitive appeal, the guidance condition appears to generate a vicious regress. At least one proponent of the guidance condition, Christine M. Korsgaard, is sensitive to this regress worry, and her appeal in recent (...)
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  28. Irina Meketa (forthcoming). “Honor Among (the Beneficiaries of) Thieves”. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    Traditional accounts of the fair play principle suggest that, under appropriate conditions, those who benefit from the cooperative labor of others acquire an obligation of repayment. However, these accounts have had little to say about the nature of such obligations within morally or legally problematic cooperative schemes, taking the matter to be either straightforward or unimportant. It is neither. The question of what sorts of fair play obligations obtain for those who benefit from illicit cooperative activity is a matter of (...)
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  29. D. Mokrosinska (forthcoming). Annabelle Lever: On Privacy. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-2.
    “On Privacy” introduces philosophical arguments bearing on contemporary debates about privacy protection. The book, written for a non-academic audience, focuses on the value of privacy. Lever’s approach is refreshing. First, she sidesteps the controversies over defining privacy, settling for concepts generally associated with privacy: seclusion and solitude, anonymity and confidentiality, intimacy and domesticity. Second, Lever moves beyond the traditional arguments that value privacy because it protects the interests of individuals: what is at stake in protecting privacy is not only individual (...)
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  30. Christopher Morgan-Knapp & Charles Goodman (forthcoming). Consequentialism, Climate Harm and Individual Obligations. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    Does the decision to relax by taking a drive rather than by taking a walk cause harm? In particular, do the additional carbon emissions caused by such a decision make anyone worse off? Recently several philosophers have argued that the answer is no, and on this basis have gone on to claim that act-consequentialism cannot provide a moral reason for individuals to voluntarily reduce their emissions. The reasoning typically consists of two steps. First, the effect of individual emissions on the (...)
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  31. Lasse Nielsen (forthcoming). Why Health Matters to Justice: A Capability Theory Perspective. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-13.
    The capability approach, originated by Amartya Sen is among the most comprehensive and influential accounts of justice that applies to issues of health and health care. However, although health is always presumed as an important capability in Sen’s works, he never manages to fully explain why health is distinctively valuable. This paper provides an explanation. It does this by firstly laying out the general capability-based argument for health justice. It then discusses two recent attempts to justify why health is distinctively (...)
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  32. Francesca Pasquali (forthcoming). Juha Räikkä: Social Justice in Practice. Questions in Ethics and Political Philosophy. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-3.
    In Social Justice in Practice, Juha Räikkä addresses a wide variety of subjects, tackling each one with competence and originality. The twelve essays collected in the book cover topics such as the relationship between theory and practice, the impact of “ideal justice” and its requirements on individuals’ expectations, the difficulties connected to the selection of second-best options and the role of presumption rules. In addition, Räikkä focuses on conspiracy theories, on the right to privacy, on the possibility of concealing information (...)
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  33. Michael Popejoy (forthcoming). Self-Representation & Good Determination. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-10.
    I argue that a distinction made in recent literature in the philosophy of mind between self-organizing and self-governing systems can serve as the basis of a principled distinction between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ determination on the part of the compatibilist with respect to freedom or control. I first consider two arguments for the claim that causal determinism undermines control: the Consequence Argument as presented by Peter van Inwagen, and the Four Case Argument of Derk Pereboom. I then elucidate the difference between (...)
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  34. Tisha M. Rajendra (forthcoming). The Rational Agent or the Relational Agent: Moving From Freedom to Justice in Migration Systems Ethics. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    Most accounts of immigration ethics implicitly rely upon neoclassical migration theory, which understands migration as the result of poverty and unemployment in sending countries. This paper argues that neoclassical migration theory assumes an account of the human person as solely an autonomous rational agent which then leads to ethics of migration which overemphasize freedom and self-determination. This tendency to assume that migration works as neoclassical migration theory describes is shared by political philosophers, such as Joseph Carens, Michael Walzer, and David (...)
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  35. Tom Roberts (forthcoming). Emotional Regulation and Responsibility. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    I argue that one’s responsibility for one’s emotions has a two-fold structure: one bears direct responsibility for emotions insofar as they are the upshot of first-order evaluative judgements concerning reasons of fit; and one bears derivative responsibility for them insofar as they are consequences of activities of emotional self-regulation, which can reflect one’s take on second-order reasons concerning the strategic, prudential, or moral desirability of undergoing a particular emotion in a particular context.
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  36. David Rocheleau-Houle (forthcoming). Julia Markovits: Moral Reason. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-2.
    Julia Markovits’ Moral Reason is a defense of internalism about moral reasons and a desire-based account of reasons for action. Even though she defends this position, she does not consider herself committed to relativism and to a desire-based understanding of what reasons there are. Indeed, it is crucial to make a distinction between two kinds of inquiry about reasons for action. On one side, we find “analytic inquiry” where the purpose is to define what reasons are. On the other, we (...)
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  37. Hanno Sauer (forthcoming). Nancy E. Snow and Franco V. Trivigno : The Philosophy and Psychology of Character and Happiness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-3.
    Do people have character traits? What is happiness? These two questions seem at best loosely related to each other, but The Philosophy and Psychology of Character and Happiness, edited by Nancy E. Snow and Franco V. Trivigno does a formidable job at showing how intimately connected they are, and how fruitful it can be to bring the concepts and theories developed in debates about the former to bear on issues concerning the latter, and vice versa.The present volume brings together some (...)
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  38. Hanno Sauer (forthcoming). Being Amoral. Psychopathy and Moral Incapacity, Thomas Schramme. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-3.
    Philosophers and psychologists love psychopaths. They seem like a test case which was tailor-made for them to probe their most contested claims and theories. What is the psychological basis of moral judgment? Are moral beliefs intrinsically motivational? How should psychological disorders be defined, if they should be defined at all? Under what conditions can agents be reasonably held responsible for their conduct?Being Amoral. Psychopathy and Moral Incapacity, edited by Thomas Schramme brings together some of the world’s leading experts on psychopathy (...)
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  39. Yujia Song (forthcoming). How to Be a Proponent of Empathy. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    A growing interest across disciplines in the nature of empathy has sparked a debate over the place of empathy in morality. Proponents are eager to capitalize on the apparent close connection between empathy and altruism, while critics point to serious problems in our exercise of empathy - we are naturally biased, empathize too much or too little, and prone to making all sorts of mistakes in empathizing. The proponents have a promising response, that it is not empathy simpliciter, but empathy (...)
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  40. Earl Spurgin (forthcoming). An Emotional-Freedom Defense of Schadenfreude. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    Schadenfreude is the emotion we experience when we obtain pleasure from others’ misfortunes. Typically, we are not proud of it and admit experiencing it only sheepishly or apologetically. Philosophers typically view it, and the disposition to experience it, as moral failings. Two recent defenders of Schadenfreude, however, argue that it is morally permissible because it stems from judgments about the just deserts of those who suffer misfortunes. I also defend Schadenfreude, but on different grounds that overcome two deficiencies of those (...)
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  41. Mari Stenlund (forthcoming). Is There a Right to Hold a Delusion? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice.
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  42. Peter Stone (forthcoming). Nicole Hassoun. Globalization and Global Justice: Shrinking Distance, Expanding Obligations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. US$88 Hardcover. Pp. 235. ISBN 9781107010307. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-3.
    The title of Nicole Hassoun’s recently-published book, Globalization and Global Justice: Shrinking Distance, Expanding Obligations, is a bit misleading. It implies that the book will demonstrate that globalization is leading to increased interconnectedness and interdependence (“shrinking distance”), and that as a result a more demanding set of principles of justice have become applicable in the global context (“expanding obligations”). But while the book does address questions of globalization and global justice, its primary contribution is a novel argument for the existence (...)
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  43. Demetris Tillyris (forthcoming). 'Learning How Not to Be Good': Machiavelli and the Standard Dirty Hands Thesis. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.
    ‘It is necessary to a Prince to learn how not to be good’. This quotation from Machiavelli’s The Prince has become the mantra of the standard dirty hands (DH) thesis. Despite its infamy, it features proudly in most conventional expositions of the dirty hands (DH) problem, including Michael Walzer’s original analysis. In this paper, I wish to cast a doubt as to whether the standard conception of the problem of DH—the recognition that, in certain inescapable and tragic circumstances an innocent (...)
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  44. Peter Timmerman (forthcoming). Contractualism and the Significance of Perspective-Taking. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-17.
    Many of us think that perspective-taking is relevant to moral judgment. In this paper I claim that Scanlon’s contractualism provides an appealing and distinctive account of why this is so. Contractualism interprets our moral judgments as making claims about the reasons of individuals in various situations, reasons that we can only recognise by considering their perspectives. Contractualism thereby commits itself to the view that our capacity for moral judgment depends on our capacity for perspective-taking. I show that neither utilitarianism nor (...)
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  45. Patrick A. Tully (forthcoming). Arbitrariness, Irrationality, and the Sterility Objection: A Reply to Anderson. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-10.
    Does the contemporary Natural Law position that only heterosexual couples are capable of marriage rest upon an “arbitrary and irrational distinction between same-sex couples and sterile heterosexual couples?” Anderson (Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (4):759–775, 2013: 759). There are many who think so. In a recent article in these pages, Erik Anderson offers his case that these critics are correct. In what follows I examine Anderson’s argument and conclude that, whether or not one ultimately agrees with the New Natural (...)
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  46. Marcel van Ackeren & Martin Sticker (forthcoming). Kant and Moral Demandingness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    We discuss the demandingness of Kant’s ethics. Whilst previous discussions of this issue focused on imperfect duties, our first aim is to show that Kantian demandingness is especially salient in the class of perfect duties. Our second aim is to introduce a fine-grained picture of demandingness by distinguishing between different possible components of a moral theory which can lead to demandingness: (i) a required process of decision making, (ii) overridingness and (iii) the stringent content of demands, due to a standpoint (...)
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  47. Anthony Wrigley (forthcoming). Moral Authority and Proxy Decision-Making. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-17.
    IntroductionExtended decision-making through the use of proxy decision-makers has been enshrined in a range of International Codes, Professional Guidance and Statute,For example, the UK Mental Capacity Act section 9.1; The General Medical Council ; the US National Guardianship Association ; Nuffield Council on Bioethics ; CIOMS-WHO section 6. Court cases such as Re Quinlan in the US have also contributed to establishing the groundings for the legal status of the proxy, albeit in terms of who might be suitable as a (...)
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