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Forthcoming articles
  1. Werner Sauer (forthcoming). Erneuerung der Philosophia Perennis. Grazer Philosophische Studien 58:119-149.
    Die ersten vier von Brentanos 25 Habilitationsthesen fordern eine Erneuerung der Philosophie - worauf diese Forderung jedoch abzielt, ist nicht so klar. Vielfach wird behauptet, daß dieses Ziel eng verwandt mit der Konzeption einer wissenschaftlichen Philosophie im Sinne Russells und des Logischen Empirismus sei. Diese insbesondere auch von Rudolf Haller vertretene Auffassung setzt aber voraus, daß der katholisch-klerikale Kontext, in den der junge Priester Brentano eingebunden war, nur die unwesentliche Hülle eines eigentlichen Kernes bildet. Dagegen wird gezeigt, daß dieser Kontext (...)
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  2. Rudolf Haller (forthcoming). Ein abschließendes Vorwort. Grazer Philosophische Studien 58:9-12.
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  3. Herbert Hochberg (forthcoming). Facts, Truths and the Ontology of Logical Realism. Grazer Philosophische Studien 58:23-92.
    The paper sets out a version of a correspondence theory of truth that deals with a number of problems such theories traditionally face, problems associated with the names of Bradley, Meinong, Camap, Russell, Wittgenstein and Moore and that arise in connection with attempts to analyze facts of various logical forms. The line of argument employs a somewhat novel application of Russell's theory of definite descriptions. In developing a form of "logical realism" the paper takes up various ontological issues regarding classes, (...)
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  4. Allan Janik (forthcoming). Paul Engelmann's Role In Wittgenstein's Philosophical Development. Grazer Philosophische Studien 58:279-295.
    It was Paul Engelmann who stimulated Wittgenstein to consider art as the avenue of access to what is higher, the "mystical" in the Tractatus. Unlike the course of their personal friendship, it is not easy to reconstruct the nature of their philosophical confrontation with one another. In the light of their correspondence, Wittgenstein's notebooks and the bit we know from biographers, Wittgenstein's development in the period immediately before he met Engelmann is sketched, discussing the influence of Hertz and Weininger, and (...)
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  5. Roger Schmit (forthcoming). Moritz Schlick und Edmund Husserl. Grazer Philosophische Studien 58:223-244.
    Sowohl in seiner Habilitationsschrift Das Wesen der Wahrheit nach der modernen Logik (1910) als auch in Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre (1918) setzt Moritz Schhck sich kritisch mit der Phänomenologie Husserls auseinander. Im Zentrum der Kritik steht neben dem Anschauungsbegriff die Hypostasierung der logischen Bedeutungen. Es läßt sich zeigen, daß die Auseinandersetzung mit Husserl eine wesentliche Rolle in der Herausbildung der lingualistischen Bedeutungstheorie Schlicks spielt.
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  6. Rosaria Egidi (forthcoming). Phänomenologie und Grammatik in Wittgenstein. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:185-205.
    Die Aufgabe, die diese Arbeit sich stellt, ist, zwei entscheidende Momente in der Entwicklung der philosophischen Psychologie Wittgensteins zu verdeutlichen. Darüber hinaus wird versucht, einige Hinweise auf Material zu geben, das bei einer weitergreifenden und gründlicheren Rekonstruktion dieser Momente zu berücksichtigen wäre: (A) das Moment der phänomenologischen "Versuchung" im Kontext der ersten und mittleren Phase des Wittgensteinschen Denkens und (B) das Moment der grammatischen Wende, die seine spätere Deutung der visuellen Phänomene einleitet und die sich als die Ausarbeitung seiner antipsychologischen (...)
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  7. Gottlob Frege, Allan Janik & Christian Paul Berger (forthcoming). Briefe an Ludwig Wittgenstein aus den Jahren 1914-1920. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:5-33.
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  8. Guido Frongia (forthcoming). Wittgenstein on Breaking Rules. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:263-284.
    Among the rules which govern the "language-games" discussed by Wittgenstein there are some which seem to have particular functions which can be more effectively brought to light by considering the logical and pragmatic effects of their breakage. Indeed, if we extend progressively the analysis of possible breakages of such rules from particular language-games to broader and broader areas of language, we arrive at a point where (as happened in the Tractatus) it seems possible to draw a limit between what, in (...)
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  9. Aldo Gargani (forthcoming). Wittgensteins ethische Einstellung. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:67-84.
    Es gibt eine enge Verbindung zwischen Wittgensteins ethischer Einstellung und seiner Ablehnung des philosophischen Theoretisierens. Wittgenstein betrachtet es als Aufgabe des Menschen, in sich selbst mit Mut hinunterzusteigen, um durch eine sprachliche Analyse seine innere Natur zu enthüllen. Wittgenstein arbeitet den Unterschied zwischen oberflächlichen und tiefergehenden ethischen Einstellungen als sprachphilosophischen Unterschied zwischen Oberflächengrammatik und Tiefengrammatik heraus. Die von Wittgenstein so bezeichnete Oberflächengrammatik ruft die grammatischen Täuschungen hervor, die für die Sublimierung und Idealisierung der philosophischen Theorien verantwortlich sind.
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  10. Rudolf Haller (forthcoming). Bemerkungen zur Egologie Wittgensteins. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:353-373.
    In Wittgensteins früher Ich-Lehre wird die Existenz eines metaphysischen Subjekts, eines von Gott und Welt unabhängigen Ich angenommen, das nicht nur als eine Grenze ontologisch bestimmt wird. Wittgensteins spätere Frage nach dem "diametralen Gegenteil des Solipsismus" gibt einige Rätsel auf: Es kann kein Realismus sein. Was ist es sonst? Wittgensteins Betrachtungen der Jahre nach 1929 ändern die Gesichtspunkte der Interpretation. Unmittelbare Erfahrungen sind so wenig personbezogen wie der Hinweis auf ein Subjekt notwendig ist für die Beschreibung einer Erfahrung. Wittgensteins anti-cartesischer (...)
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  11. S. Stephen Hilmy (forthcoming). Wittgenstein and Behaviourism. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:335-352.
    Many have interpreted Wittgenstein as advocating a form of behaviourism. Through an examination of Wittgenstein's own remarks about behaviourism, and further textual evidence from his notebooks, it is shown that categorizing Wittgenstein as a 'behaviourist', of whatever ilk, serves not merely to obstruct an appreciation of his thinking, but perversely to distort Wittgenstein's views by flying in the face of the central critical thrusts of his later philosophy.
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  12. Hidè Ishiguro (forthcoming). Die Beziehung zwischen Welt und Sprache. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:49-66.
    Theories of understanding and of language use cannot be detached from theories of truth and reference as many have recently attempted to say. Wittgenstein's early picture theory and his theory of reference {Bedeutung) is part and parcel of his view on understanding meaningful sentences {Sätze), and the use of expressions. His later theory of meaning as use of expressions is inseparable from his view on what kind of objects these expressions refer to. As logical analysis is a quest for definiteness (...)
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  13. John McDowell (forthcoming). One Strand in the Private Language Argument. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:285-303.
    In reflecting about experience, philosophers are prone to fall into a dualism of conceptual scheme and pre-conceptual given, according to which the most basic judgments of experience are grounded in non-conceptual impingements on subjects of experience. This idea is dubiously coherent: relations of grounding or justification should hold between conceptually structured items. This thought has been widely applied to 'outer' experience; at least some of the Private Language Argument can be read as applying it to 'inner' experience. In this light, (...)
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  14. Brian McGuinness (forthcoming). Wittgenstein's Pre-Tractatus Manuscripts. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:35-47.
    There has recently come to light a list of manuscripts and typescripts with instructions for their disposal, which suggests a number of hypotheses concerning the composition of Wittgenstein's only printed work, the Tractatus. In this article an attempt is made at identifying these documents with the help of biographical facts of the period 1914-1918. As a result it becomes highly improbable that many of the notebooks from which the Tractatus was composed have been lost. Rather it is suggested that the (...)
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  15. J. C. Nyíri (forthcoming). Wittgenstein and the Problem of Machine Consciousness. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:375-394.
    For any given society, its particular technology of communication has far-reaching consequences, not merely as regards social organization, but on the epistemic level as well. Plato's name-theory of meaning represents the transition from the age of primary orality to that of literacy; Wittgenstein's use-theory of meaning stands for the transition from the age of literacy to that of a second orality (audiovisual communication, electronic information processing). On the basis of a use-theory of meaning the problem of machine consciousness, to which (...)
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  16. David Pears (forthcoming). Rule-Following in Philosophical Investigations. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:249-261.
    The negative part of Wittgenstein's treatment of rule-following in the Philosophical Investigations is a critique of Platonic theories of meaning. The main argument, summarized in §§ 201-202 is a reductio: if Platonism were true, the difference between obeying and disobeying a linguistic rule would vanish. For Platonism requires the rule-follower to have in his mind something which will completely determine in advance all the correct applications of a descriptive word, but this is a requirement that could not be conceivably satisfied. (...)
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  17. Colin Radford (forthcoming). Wittgenstein on Ethics. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:85-114.
    According to Wittgenstein's mature philosophy, no 'language game' or 'form of life' is inherently philosophically problematic. However real, practical moral problems undermine the objectivity of morality, which as moral beings we cannot abandon. This problem is both philosophical and 'real'. Morality therefore undermines the later Wittgenstein's whole account of philosophy, i.e. its nature, how such problems are resolved, and its relation with the rest of our lives. Perhaps that is why he virtually never mentions Ethics in his writings after 1932-3.
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  18. Joachim Schulte (forthcoming). Stilfragen. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:143-156.
    Anhand eines Vergleichs mit den Stilbegriffen Spenglers und Goethes lassen sich in Wittgensteins Schriften wenigstens drei Bedeutungen des Wortes "Stil" auseinanderhalten: (1) Stil im Sinne einer individuellen, persönlichen Eigenart; (2) Stil im Sinnes des Geistes einer Kultur oder Epoche; (3) Stil im Sinne einer zeit- oder kulturtypischen Ausdrucksform, die zwar prägend, aber nicht zwingend verbindlich ist. Eine Erörterung des Stils in den Bedeutungen (2) und (3) zeigt, inwieweit dieser Begriff bei Wittgenstein "relativistisch" — d.h. kultur- und epochengebunden — aufgefaßt wird.
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  19. Hans Sluga (forthcoming). Thinking as Writing. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:115-141.
    Following a suggestion made by Wittgenstein writing is treated as a manifestation of and model for thinking. An analysis of Wittgenstein's own writing as well as that of Plato, Kant, and Nietzsche reveals it as work carried out in multiple episodes of addition, deletion, and (re-)organization. Reflective writing of this kind is, in fact, a process of equilibration between local and global ideas which in philosophical work typically generates problems of coherence and closure. Non-reflective, immediate writing is not primary in (...)
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  20. Antonia Soulez (forthcoming). Wittgenstein and Phenomenology Or. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:157-183.
    There is a Wittgensteinian use of "phenomenology" which is the grammar of the apriori possibility of facts, in contradistinction to an hermeneutical conception of language in the spirit of German phenomenology. Not only does Wittgenstein refer, as early as 1929, to such a "language" as opposed to a Husserlian "doctrine" of intuiting the phenomenal apriori, but he keeps using the term in a positive manner which does not allow us to declare that from the Tractatus to the early thirties Wittgenstein (...)
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  21. E. K. Specht, N. Erichsen & K. Schüttauf (forthcoming). Die Empfindungen des Anderen. Ein Disput zwischen Cartesianer und Wittgensteinianer. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:305-334.
    Cartesianer und Wittgensteinianer diskutieren über die logischen Grundlagen der Empfindungssprache. Mit einem Gedankenexperiment suggeriert der Cartesianer die Notwendigkeit, "private Objekte" anzunehmen. Der Wittgensteinianer deckt die "grammatische Täuschung" auf, der der Cartesianer dabei unterliegt. Nun sucht dieser, seinen Ansatz zu retten, indem er die Empfindungen des anderen als "theoretische Entitäten" (etwa im Rahmen der Himphysiologie) konstruiert: Neucartesianismus. Bestimmte empirische Befunde könnten ihn dabei aber in das Dilemma bringen, entweder seine Theorie oder seine "natürliche Einstellung" zum anderen Menschen aufzugeben. Allerdings bleibt auch (...)
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  22. Eddy Zemach (forthcoming). Wittgenstein on Meaning. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:415-435.
    Wittgenstein is usually taken to have held that the use of a term is not mentally constrained. That is utterly wrong. A use of language unconstrained by meaning is attributed by him to "meaning-blind" or "aspect-blind" creatures, not to us. We observe meaning when an aspect dawns on us; meaning is the impression {Eindruck) of a term as fitting something; hence, unhke pain, it cannot stand alone. That is a mentalistic theory of meaning: use is determined by images {Vorstellungen) that (...)
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  23. H. R. (forthcoming). Vorwort. Grazer Philosophische Studien 33:1-4.
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  24. Ruth Barcan Marcus (forthcoming). Possibiha and Possible Worlds. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:107-133.
    Four questions are raised about the semantics of Quantified Modal Logic (QML). Does QML admit possible objects, i.e. possibilia? Is it plausible to admit them? Can sense be made of such objects? Is QML committed to the existence of possibilia?The conclusions are that QML, generalized as in Kripke, would seem to accommodate possibilia, but they are rejected on philosophical and semantical grounds. Things must be encounterable, directly nameable and a part of the actual order before they may plausibly enter into (...)
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  25. Johannes Brandl (forthcoming). Gegenstandslose Gedanken. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:501-531.
    Thoughts may have a subject — they may concern a certain topic —without having an object in the sense of being directed upon a referent. It is argued that, once this distinction is acknowledged, a third position between Meinong and Russell can be established. There will then be objectless thoughts which need not be false in view of the non-existence of their purported referents. But there will also be object-dependent thoughts which have their referents necessarily. Neither logically proper names nor (...)
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  26. Hector-Neri Castañeda (forthcoming). Objects, Existence, and Reference A Prolegomenon to Guise Theory. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:3-59.
    This is an investigation into the fundamental connections between the referential use of language and our rich human experience. All types of experience — perceptual, practical, scientific, literary, esthetic, ludic, ... — are tightly unified into one total experience by the structure of reference to real or possible items. Singular reference is essential for locating ourselves in our own corner of the world. General reference, by means of quantifiers, is our main tool in ascertaining the accessible patterns of the world. (...)
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  27. Herbert Hochberg (forthcoming). Existence, Non-Existence, and Predication. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:235-267.
    Two connected themes have been at the core of the old perplexity regarding thinking and speaking about non-existent objects. One involves a question of reference. Can we refer to non-existent objects without, thereby, recognizing, in some sense, non-existent entities as objects of reference? The other involves a question about existence. Is existence a property representable by a predicate in a logically adequate symbohsm? It is argued (1) that existence is not to be construed as an attribute represented by a predicate, (...)
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  28. William J. Rapaport (forthcoming). Non-Existent Objects and Epistemological Ontology. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:61-95.
    This essay examines the role of non-existent objects in "epistemological ontology" — the study of the entities that make thinking possible. An earlier revision of Meinong's Theory of Objects is reviewed, Meinong's notions of Quasisein and Außersein are discussed, and a theory of Meinongian objects as "combinatorially possible" entities is presented.
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  29. Gary Rosenkrantz (forthcoming). On Objects Totally Out Of This World. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:197-208.
    The view that a possible world is an existing abstract object implies that all nonexistent possible individuals have a principle of individuation in terms of existing objects, properties, and relations. However, some individuals of this kind are totally out of this world both in the subjective sense that nobody in this world can pick them out, and in the ontological sense that they would neither be created by assembling or arranging existing bits of matter nor otherwise be generated by existing (...)
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  30. Ernest Sosa (forthcoming). Imagery and Imagination. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:485-499.
    1. Sensa and propositional experience. 2. An option between propositions and properties (as objects or contents of sensory experience). 3. The property option and adverbialism. 4. Sensa as images, images as intentionalia. 5. Do we refer directly to sensa? 6. Focusing and the supervenience of images and our reference to them: a question raised. 7. Internal and external properties of images and characters. Strict vistas introduced. 8. A correction on strict vistas. 9. Focusing and experience: the question answered. 10. Conclusion.
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  31. Richard Sylvan (forthcoming). Toward an Improved Cosmo-Logical Synthesis. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:135-179.
    The proposed synthesis is set within general object-theory. The underlying idea of the synthesis is that the alternative worlds semantics — arrived at in pursuit of a universal semantics (a general semantics for all languages, including relevant ones) and, connectedly, as part of a comprehensive object-theory — be applied also in fundamental physics, most importantly to the matter of the origin, history, and physical features of the cosmos, but as well, again connectedly, elsewhere, in particular in the interpretation of quantum (...)
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  32. Gerald Vision (forthcoming). Reference and the Ghost of Parmenides. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:297-326.
    Parmenides didn't mention reference as such, but if he had he would have undoubtedly agreed with the philosophers who nowadays hold what is called "the axiom of existence": that one can only refer to what exists. The sources of possible support for this view are examined and rejected. Primary support for the axiom is given by two sorts of argument; one concerning quantification, the other summarizing a standard Parmenidean puzzle. Weaknesses in both are exposed. Finally, the relations between the axiom (...)
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  33. C. J. F. Williams (forthcoming). Kant and Aristotle on the Existence of Space. Grazer Philosophische Studien 25:559-572.
    Kant asserts that we cannot represent to ourselves the non-existence of space. In his discussion of the Ontological Argument he maintains that there is nothing whose non-existence is inconceivable. He thus seems to contradict himself. If the non-existence of space is unthinkable, so is the non-existence of a part of space — a place. Indicating a particular place, we might say "There are no objects there", but it would be nonsense to say "There doesn't exist". We can say, as Aristotle (...)
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  34. Aldo Gargani (forthcoming). Schlick and Wittgenstein. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:347-363.
    Schlick and Wittgenstein througli their criticism of the theory of synthetic a priori judgments assume language as a system of internal relations regulating the use of language in order to get an univocal description of states of affairs. This conception, in connection with Wittgenstein's doctrine of intentional acts, is at the basis of Schlick's intervention in the debate on protocol sentences through his notion of Konstatiemng or Beobachtungssatz. Therefore, the doctrine of internal relations, the notion of meaning as use and (...)
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  35. Wilhelm Lütterfelds (forthcoming). Schlicks Theorie der Erkenntnis Wittgenund Wittegensteins Kritik. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:399-406.
    Schlicks These, alles Erkennen sei ein Wiedererkennen, indem ein Gemeinsames von Anschauung und erinnerter begrifflicher Repräsentation durch Vergleich ermittelt und bezeichnet werde, kritisiert Wittgenstein mit folgenden Argumenten: (1) Nicht nur findet in der gewöhnlichen Umgebung ein solches Vergleichen nicht statt; es führt auch nicht zur vollständigen, sondern höchstens zur partiellen Identität; es wird aber dasselbe wiedererkannt. (2) Die Operation des Vergleichens verfügt bloß über ein innersubjektives Korrektheitskriterium, dessen Anwendung selber nur zirkulär zu rechtfertigen ist. (3) Anschauliche Tatsachenerkenntnis kann durch Vergleich (...)
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  36. Joachim Schulte (forthcoming). Bedeutung und Verifikation. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:241-253.
    Das (wie die erhaltenen historischen Belege zeigen) zuerst von Wittgenstein vorgeschlagene Verifikationsprinzip fungiert als Sinnkriterium wie auch als Kriterium der Sinribestimmung. Durch Waismanns Vermittlung wird es in der letzteren Funktion zur ausschließlichen Grundlage von Schlicks Semantik, die jedoch einerseits an ungenügenden Unterscheidungen zwischen Wahrheitsbedingungen, Verifikationsbedmgungen und Verifikationsmethode krankt, andererseits durch eme zu optimistische, die intersubjektive Kontrollierbarkeit entbehrende Sprachauffassung an Überzeugungskraft verliert. Wittgenstems späteres hochkomplexes Bedeutungskonzept, das durch Einbeziehung von Kontext und Äußerungssituation das Verifikationsprinzip zu emem unter mehrerenbedeutungsrelevanten Momenten sprachlicher Äußerungen (...)
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  37. Friedrich Wallner (forthcoming). Wittgenstein und Neurath. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:419-423.
    An der Gegenüberstellung zu Neurath werden die Gesichtspunkte, welche Wittgensteins Phüosophie - insbesondere seinen Traktat - vom Konzept des Wiener Kreises unterscheiden, dargestellt. Außerdem wird gezeigt, wie sich Ideen des Wiener Kreises aus der Transformation von Traktatgedanken entwickelten. So ergeben sich z.B. strukturelle Entsprechungen zwischen dem Programm einer Einzelwissenschaft und Wittgensteins Einsichten in die Unhintergehbarkeit der Sprache. Dabei werden nicht nur Mißverständnisse Neuraths, was den Traktat betrifft, aufgezeigt, sondern auch auf Inkonsequenzen von Neuraths Ansatz hingewiesen. Im Horizont eines linguistischen Monismus (...)
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  38. Keith Lehrer (forthcoming). Schlick and Neurath. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:49-61.
    Schlick and Neurath shared a common assumption, what I call the verification theory of truth, as well as the verification of meaning. It is the claim that the truth of a sentence is the method of it's verification. For Neurath, the method of scientific verification must be interpersonal, and, therefore, private experience is precluded. This leads hmi to the doctrme that there is no truth beyond intersubjective agreement. Schlick, on the contrary, regarded it as obvious that certain sentences, even if (...)
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  39. Brian McGuinness (forthcoming). Wittgenstein on Probability. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:159-174.
    Wittgenstein was not only an inspirational figure for Schlick but also contributed to scientific philosophy as Neurath demanded. His verificationism is one instance of this, but it is also shown in his treatment of probability (where his ideas were developed further by Waismann). Wittgenstein revived Bolzano's logical interpretation of probability, anticipating Carnap and many moderns. He construed laws of nature as hypotheses that we had to assume. It is the general form of these hypotheses (what he later called a worldview) (...)
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  40. Herman Tennessen (forthcoming). Qualms About Otto Neurath's Cabby Language. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:385-398.
    Otto Neurath's everyday "cabby"-language would only have preserved its appearance of a conceptual (etc.) system-neutrality to the extent at which it were to retain its semantic amorphousness as well as its user's shallow pragmatic mtentions. This (pseudo) neutrality would be irretrievably lost the moment the constituent parts of the everyday "cabby"-language were to be precised to a degree which transcended all conceivable pragmatic mtentions reasonably attributable to a cabman or to any other everyday speaker-. Dilemma: Either we settle for a (...)
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  41. Jules Vuillemin (forthcoming). Physicalism and Relativity. Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:313-326.
    Carnap opposes physicalist language to phenomenal language. His elementary physicalist sentences convey descriptions which physicists still regard as phenomenal and subjective. A second order physicalism (principle of special relatively) is required in order to express physical laws. Carnap makes the phenomenal language a proper part of the physicalist language. This relation is compared to the relation that general relativity establishes between geometry and physiscs.
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  42. Myles Brand (forthcoming). A Particularist Theory of Events. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:187-202.
    Events are unstructured particulars and their identity conditions are to be stated in terms of necessary spatiotemporal coincidence. In contrast, Davidson says that events are unstructured particulars, with their identity conditions to be given in terms of sameness of causes and effects; and Kim says that events are structured particulars, with their identity conditions to be given in terms of sameness of their constituents. The consequences of my view are then traced for mental events.
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  43. Michael Dummett (forthcoming). Ought Research to Be Unrestricted? Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:281-298.
    Freedom of scientific enquiry must be distinguished from freedom to communicate scientific results. The former demands freedom for scientists to communicate among one another, without which progress is hampered, but not, in itself, freedom to communicate conclusions to the public. The latter freedom may be taken as resting on a general principle of free speech, or, more specifically, on the right of all members of society to knowledge gained by that society, especially by means of public expenditure: it is not (...)
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  44. Gerald Dworkin (forthcoming). The Concept of Autonomy. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:203-213.
    In both theoretical and applied contexts the concept of autonomy has assumed increasing importance in recent normative philosophical discussion. Given various problems to be clarified or resolved the author characterizes the concept by first setting out conditions of adequacy. The author then links the notion of autonomy to the identification and critical reflection of an agent upon his first-order motivations. It is only when a person identifies with the influences that motivate him, assimilates them to himself, that he is autonomous. (...)
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  45. Lorenz Krüger (forthcoming). Unity of Science and Cultural Pluralism. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:167-185.
    Modem science and technology tend to create one global civilization. To what extent and how can cultural pluralism be preserved under these conditions? Neither inherent limitations of natural science and technology nor alternative lines of developing them offer a promising road for pluralism. But it is to be expected that the unifying trend will not carry over into the realm of the human and social sciences; these are rather to be construed as "locally dispersed", i.e. uncapable of being developed into (...)
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  46. Karel Lambert (forthcoming). On "The Limits of Rationality". Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:103-104.
    This note is a comment on Suppes's essay on the limits of rationality. The substantial point is that if a theory of rationality is conceived as a structure plus scope, then, contra Suppes, intuitive judgement is part of the theory of rationality because it is part of the scope of that theory. The point is supported by analogy with a learning theory. Finally, intuitive judgement and informal knowledge is suggested to be evidence of the irreducible vagueness of theory as opposed (...)
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  47. Mihailo Marković (forthcoming). Rationality of Methodological Rules. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:3-11.
    There are two different senses of rationality of methodological rules: one is instrumental rationality, another is rationality of goals. In the first sense methodological rules are mere means of an apparently neutral true description of a given reality. Such a description, no matter how adequate, involves hidden value-assumptions and may be used for irrational purposes. A different notion of ends-means rationality characterizes methodological rules of critical science which analyses limitations of the given reality from an explicitly stated value-standpoint. The ultimate (...)
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  48. William H. Newton-Smith (forthcoming). On the Rational Explanation of the Scientific Chance. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:47-77.
    On a rational model of science (cf. Lakatos or Laudan), to decide on the appropriate type of explanation of a given scientific change requires a normative assessment made by reference to the model. Showing that a transition fits the model, displays it to be rational and thereby explains it. On the strong programme in the sociology of scientific knowledge (cf. Bloor and Barnes), normative assessment is irrelevant to explanation. All changes require the same type of explanation (the symmetry thesis); namely, (...)
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  49. Harald Ofstad (forthcoming). How Can We - Irrational Persons Operating in Irrational Societies - Decide Rationality? Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:227-249.
    Utilitarian deliberation has a number of weak or open points where the agent's judgements tend to be influenced by psychological and sociological factors, e.g., by his prejudices, anxieties, insecurities or group-identifications. The most vulnerable points are: the formulation of the problem, the selection of alternatives, the calculation of consequences, the weighing of evidence, the selection of ultimate values and the comparison of different values towards each other.— The utilitarian vocabulary provides the chooser with misleading expressions such as "The action A1 (...)
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  50. Ivan Supek (forthcoming). Foundation of Justice. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:251-266.
    From its start philosophy sought principles or values by which any action could be considered good or evil. The situation in a civil court is much simpler. The judge has before him an already worked-out criminal code, and since an evil action has already been settled, it is easy to determine the appropriate punishment. But we are here not interested in the punishment nor can we assume in advance the existence of some sort of book of laws. We are rather (...)
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  51. Patrick Suppes (forthcoming). The Limits of Rationality. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:85-101.
    This lecture is cpncerned with the expected-utility or Bayesian model of rationality, with particular attention both to the strengths and limitations of the model. The alternative market and legal models of rationality are examined and rejected as less satisfactory than the expected-utility model. The role of intuitive judgement in the context of actual decision making is stressed. The fundamental place of intuitive judgement in science, especially in the performance of experiments and the analysis and presentation of results is analyzed. Errors (...)
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  52. Franz von Kutschera (forthcoming). Criteria for Justice. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:267-280.
    Two criteria, one for distributive and one for commutative justice are formulated, the latter applying to cases of free cooperation. Both criteria follow Aristotle's idea of proportional equality which in the first case is equality in the fulfillment of legitimate claims, in the second case equality of the gains derived from cooperation. The theory of social welfare functions is employed in the definition of the two criteria, but such functions are applied only to morally or legally justified interests. A theory (...)
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  53. Paul Weingartner (forthcoming). A System of Rational Belief, Knowledge and Assumption. Grazer Philosophische Studien 12:143-165.
    The first part of the papaer contains desiderata for a realistic epistemic system as opposed to idealistic ones. One of the main characteristics of idealistic epistemic systems is their deductive infallibility or deductive omniscience. The system presented avoids deductive infallibility though having a strong concept of knowledge. The second part contains the theorems of the system. The system is detailed in so far as it distinguishes between two concepts of belief and one of assumption and interrelates them to the concept (...)
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  54. Jaegwon Kim (forthcoming). States of Affairs, Events, and Propositions. Grazer Philosophische Studien 7:147-162.
    States of affairs constitute a basic ontological category in Chisholm's metaphysical system, and yield events and propositions as subclasses. Qua events, they enter into causal relations, and qua propositions, they are objects of our intentional attitudes. This paper expounds and critically examines Chisholm's conception of a state of affairs and his constructions of events and propositions. Various difficulties with some of Chisholm's definitions and procedures are pointed out and discussed. The last section contains a set of suggested modifications to the (...)
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  55. John L. Pollock (forthcoming). Chisholm on States of Affairs. Grazer Philosophische Studien 7:163-175.
    Chisholm's ontological objective is the reductionist one of translating statements which appear to be about propositions and generic events into statements about states of affairs, denying the existence of concrete events altogether. The paper questions this program by criticising the notion of concretization on which Chisholm heavily relies. It is argued that there are no convincing arguments in favor of eliminative reductionism. Translability of statements about one kind of entity into statements about another kind of entity has nothing to do (...)
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  56. Bruce Aune (forthcoming). Chisholm on Empirical Knowledge. Grazer Philosophische Studien 7:233-252.
    Chisholm holds that each person's empirical knowledge is a structure resting on a foundation of self-presenting propositions. He also holds that a person's knowledge of the past and the external world cannot be inferred from his self-presenting propositions by the rules of deduction and induction; special rules of evidence are needed. I argue that Chisholm has not made a compelling case for either view and that there is good reason to doubt that either view is correct.
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  57. Dieter Henrich (forthcoming). Zwei Theorien zur Verteidigung von Selbstbewußtsein. Grazer Philosophische Studien 7:77-99.
    Chisholm's two theories of self-consciousness (before and after 1976) are interpreted and evaluated as well motivated, powerful and instructive attempts to avoid circularities while preserving the phenomenon. They are criticised because of correlative shortcomings: The essentialistic theory allows only the formulation and the ascription of self-consciousness in the first person perspective; the second (epistemic) theory is restricted to the ascription of self-consciousness to others. The first theory suffers furthermore from a hidden circularity whereas the second needs an extension that leads (...)
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  58. Nicholas Wolterstorff (forthcoming). Can Ontology Do Without Events? Grazer Philosophische Studien 7:177-201.
    In his book Persons and Objects, Professor Chisholm undertakes to show the satisfactoriness of an ontology which does not admit the existence of concrete events, such as sneezings, runnings, etc. He attempts to show that if we allow the existence of states of affairs, these being everlastingly existing entities, we need not acknowledge the existence of those perishing entities which are concrete events. I n this paper I discuss the tenability of this contention, considering especially whether the reductions that Chisholm (...)
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  59. Klaus Puhl & Sonja Rinofner-Kreidl (forthcoming). Is Every Mentalism a Kind of Psychologism? Michael Dummett's Critique of Edmund Husserl and Gareth Evans. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
  60. S. Rinofner-Kreidl (forthcoming). Christian Bermes: Philosophie der Bedeutung. Bedeutung als Bestimmung und Bestimmbarkeit. Eine Studie zu Frege, Husserl. Cassirer und Haenigswald. Wuerzburg: Koenigshausen & Neumann, 1997, 240 S. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  61. Paula Sweeney (forthcoming). Contextualism and the Principle of Tolerance. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
    When we bring together certain plausible and compatible principles guiding the use of vague predicates the inclination to accept that vague predicates are tolerant is significantly weakened. As the principle of tolerance is a troublesome, paradox inducing principle, a theory giving a satisfactory account of the nature of vague predicates and accounting for the appeal of the sorites paradox, without recourse to the principle of tolerance is a worthy addition to the vagueness debate. The theory offered, Contextual Intolerance, draws considerably (...)
     
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  62. G. E. M. Anscombe (forthcoming). Chisholm on Action. Grazer Philosophische Studien:205-213.
    I discuss the treatment by Chisholm of the problem posed by the fact that one can produce some neuro-physiological changes by moving a limb, namely the ones which cause the motions. I concentrate largely on the treatment Chisholm gave to this question before Person and Object, and I compare it with von Wright's discussion of it, I conclude that there are correct elements about both but that both are unsatisfactory, Chisholm's because it entails that we must know something which we (...)
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  63. Ga Antonelli (forthcoming). Ronald E. Giere and Alan W. Richardson (Eds.): Origins of Logical Empiricism, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. XVI, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis and London 1996, Vii-392 Pp. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  64. R. Behrens (forthcoming). Richard Shusterman: Vor der Interpretation. Sprache und Erfahrung in Hermeneutik, Dekonstruktion und Pragmatismus. Aus dem Amerikanischen von Barbara Reiter. Wien: Passagen Verlag 1996. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  65. J. Berg (forthcoming). Bolzano, the Prescient Encyclopedist: In His Wissenschaftslehre Bernard Bolzano Tried to Lay Down a Logically Satisfactory Foundation of Mathematics and Theory of Probability. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  66. Armin Berger (forthcoming). Geert KEIL: Handeln und Verursachen. Frankfurt/M.: Klostermann 2000. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  67. G. Bruntrup (forthcoming). Achim STEPHAN: Emergenz. Von der Unvorhersagbarkeit zur Selbstorganisation. Dresden: Dresden University Press 1999. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  68. E. Dolling (forthcoming). , Wahrheit suchen und Wahrheit bekennen". Alexius Meinong: Skizze seines Lebens, Amsterdam/Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1999, S. VIII, 266 (= Studien zur osterreichischen Philosophie, Bd. 28).(Venanzio RASPA). [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  69. D. Foellesdal (forthcoming). Bolzano's Legacy Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) Was an Original and Independent Thinker, Who Left a Lasting Legacy in Several Areas of Philosophy. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  70. D. Follesdal (forthcoming). Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000): Ein nachruf. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  71. C. U. Gieske (forthcoming). Bolzano's Notion of Testifying: The Notion of Testifying (or Testimony) is the Central Notion of Bolzano's Theory of Communication. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  72. H. -J. Glock (forthcoming). Anthony Kenny: Frege. London: Penguin, 1995. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  73. Dirk Greimann (forthcoming). " No Entity Without Identity": A Reductionist Dogma? Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  74. R. Haller (forthcoming). Edmund Husserl: Briefwechsel. In Verbindung mit Elisabeth Schuhmann herausgegeben von Karl Schuhmann. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer 1994. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  75. U. Heuer (forthcoming). Grunde und Motive. Paderborn: Mentis, 2001 (Ralf STOECKER). Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  76. A. Kemmerling (forthcoming). Frege ueber den Sinn des Wortes" Ich" Frege hat an seiner metaphysischen und semantischen Lehre der fruehen 90er Jahre Veraenderungen vorgenommen, um Besonderheiten des Sinns von" ich" Rechnung zu tragen. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  77. Wolfgang Kunne (forthcoming). Some Varieties of Thinking: Reflections on Meinong and Fodor. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
    The first half of the paper reflects on a couple of folk-psychological notions. "Belief" and "judgment" are selected for special attention. They cover two varieties of thinking, a mental state and a mental act. Both lay claim to truth and thereby stand in marked contrast to their nowadays sadly neglected noncommittal counterparts. Meinong, of course, did not neglect them and his notions of "Annehmen" (merely entertaining a thought)" and "Denken" (entertaining a thought)" play a decisive role in the paper. --The (...)
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  78. U. Leopold-Wildburger (forthcoming). Induction as a Connection Between Philosophy, Psychology and Economics. A Plea for Experimental Research. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  79. Han Linhe (forthcoming). Philosophy as Experience, as Elucidation and as Profession. An Attempt to Reconstruct Early Wittgenstein's Philosophy. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  80. M. P. Lynch (forthcoming). Richard SCHANTZ (Ed.), What is Truth?(Current Issues in Theoretical Philosophy 1). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter 2002. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  81. U. Meixner (forthcoming). Thomas BUCHHEIM/Corneille Henri KNEEPKENS/Kuno LORENZ (Hg.), Potentialitat und Possibilitat. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstadt: Frommann-Holzboog 2001. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  82. Daniel Milne (forthcoming). Everett's Dilemma: How Fictional Realists Can Cope With Ontic Vagueness. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  83. E. Morscher (forthcoming). Lou GOBLE (Ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Philosophical Logic, Blackwell: Malden, Mass., Und Oxford 2001; Dale JACQUETTE (Ed.), Philosophy of Logic. An Anthology. Blackwell: Malden, Mass., Und Oxford 2002. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  84. R. Murawski (forthcoming). Michael D. Resnik (Ed.): Mathematical Objects and Mathematical Knowledge. Aldershot/Broockfield, USA/Singapore/Sydney: Dartmouth 1995. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  85. O. Neumaier (forthcoming). Satz und Sachverhalt. Sankt Augustin: Akademia Verlag, 2001 (John BACON). Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  86. K. Neumer (forthcoming). , Die gemeinsame menschliche Handlungsweise". Das Verstehen des anderen in Wittgensteins Spatphilosophie. Grazer Philosophische Studien:331-364.
    Auf die Frage "Wie kann man ein anderes Weltbild, eine andere Kultur verstehen?" lassen sich in Wittgensteins Spätwerk zwei Tendenzen entdecken: Dem wechselseitigen Unverständnis stellt er die „gemeinsame menschliche Handlungsweise und die „Naturgeschichte des Menschen“ gegenüber. Die Bedeutung dieser beiden Begriffe ist umstritten und weist auf ein konzeptionelles Problem in Wittgensteins Argumentation hin. Anhand der Diskussion prominenter Interptetationen von Baker, Hacker, Haller, Savigny u.a. der einschlägigen Stelle § 206 in den Philosophischen Untersuchungen wird herausgearbeitet, daß Wittgenstein nur die unscharfen Grenzen (...)
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  87. K. Neumer (forthcoming). Christian STETTER, Schrift und Sprache. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp 1997. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  88. Katalin Neumer (forthcoming). How To Do Things With Letters? Sprechen Und Schreiben in Wittgensteins Philosophie. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  89. John Passmore (forthcoming). Editing Russell's Papers: A Fragment of Institutional History. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  90. A. Piecha (forthcoming). Die Begrundbarkeit asthetischer Werturteile. Paderborn: Mentis, 2002 (Maria E. REICHER). Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  91. M. Quante (forthcoming). Ralf STOECKER: Der Hirntod. Ein medizinethisches Problem und seine moralphilosophische Transformation. Freiburg/Munchen: Verlag Karl Alber 1999. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  92. M. Reicher (forthcoming). Daniel v. WACHTER: Dinge und Eigenschaften. Versuch zur Ontologie. Dettelbach: Roll 2000. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  93. M. E. Reicher (forthcoming). Amie L. THOMASSON, Fiction and Metaphysics. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  94. M. E. Reicher (forthcoming). Dale Jacquette: Meinongian Logic. The Semantics of Existence and Nonexistence. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1996, 297 Pp. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  95. S. Rinofner-Kreidl (forthcoming). Elisabeth Baumgartner, Wilhelm Baumgartner Et Al.(Hrsg.): Handbook Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. Dettelbach: Josef H. Roell, 1996, 392 Pp. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  96. Sonja Rinofner-Kreidl (forthcoming). Konventionalismus oder Dezernismus? Das Begrundungsproblem in Hugo Dinglers Wissenschaftslehre. Grazer Philosophische Studien:467-532.
    Ist die Verbindung von Konventionalismus und Letztbegründung in sich widersprüchhch? Diese Frage ist zu entscheiden, indem Dinglers Sonderstellung in der Konventionalismus-Debatte auf der Grundlage einer Analyse des Begriffsapparates und des Begründungsanspruches seiner Fundamentalwissenschaft aufgeklärt wird. Von zentraler Bedeutung ist hiebei der Exhaustionismus, mit dem Dingler das Schlüsselproblem seiner Wissenschaftslehre - das Verhältnis von Theorie und Empirie - löst und zu einer differenzierten Bestimmung der Theorieabhängigkeit der Erfahrung gelangt. Das Gesamtbild von Dinglers Denken ist von der Einsicht in die Unmöglichkeit einer (...)
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  97. E. Rogler & G. Preyer (forthcoming). Materialismus, anomaler Monismus und mentale Kausalitat. Frankfurt: Humanities Online, 2001 (Sven WALTER). Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  98. P. Rusnock (forthcoming). Bolzano and the Traditions of Analysis Russell, in His History of Western Philosophy, Wrote That Modern Analytical Philosophy Had its Origins in the Construction of Modem Functional Analysis by Weierstrass and Others. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  99. W. Sauer (forthcoming). Erneuerung der Philosophia Perennis: Uber die ersten vier Habilitationsthesen Brentanos. Grazer Philosophische Studien:119-149.
    Die ersten vier von Brentanos 25 Habilitationsthesen fordern eine Erneuerung der Philosophie - worauf diese Forderung jedoch abzielt, ist nicht so klar. Vielfach wird behauptet, daß dieses Ziel eng verwandt mit der Konzeption einer wissenschaftlichen Philosophie im Sinne Russells und des Logischen Empirismus sei. Diese insbesondere auch von Rudolf Haller vertretene Auffassung setzt aber voraus, daß der katholisch-klerikale Kontext, in den der junge Priester Brentano eingebunden war, nur die unwesentliche Hülle eines eigentlichen Kernes bildet. Dagegen wird gezeigt, daß dieser Kontext (...)
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  100. R. Schumacher (forthcoming). Peter KUGLER, Die Philosophie der primaren und sekundaren Qualitaten, Paderborn: mentis-Verlag, 2002. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  101. M. Siebel (forthcoming). William P. ALSTON: Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press 2000. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  102. M. Siebel (forthcoming). Variation, Derivability and Necessity: In Bolzano's View, a Proposition is Necessarily True Iff It is Derivable From True Propositions That Include No Intuition (Anschauung). Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  103. Matti Sintonen (forthcoming). Knowing and Making: Kantian Themes in Hintikka's Philosophy. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  104. D. Von Der Pfordten (forthcoming). Logik und das Recht auf Leben in der Medizin. Besprechungsaufsatz zu: H. Ganthaler, Das Recht auf Leben in der Medizin. Eine moralphilosophische Untersuchung. Hansel-Hohenhausen, Egelsbach ua 2001. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  105. J. Wolenski (forthcoming). Edmund HUSSERL, Logik Vorlesung 1896 und Logik Vorlesung 1902/03 (Husserliana: Edmund Husserl Materialienbande, Band 1 und Band 2). Hrsg. von Elisabeth SCHUHMANN. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  106. C. Wright (forthcoming). Why Frege Did Not Deserve His Granum Salis. A Note on the Paradox of" The Concept House" and the Ascription of Bedeutungen to Predicates. Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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  107. La Zaibert (forthcoming). John Searle: The Construction of Social Reality. New York: Free Press, 1995, Xiii+ 241 Pp. [REVIEW] Grazer Philosophische Studien.
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