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  1. D. Barnard-Wills & D. Ashenden (2010). Public Sector Engagement with Online Identity Management. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):657-674.
    The individual management of online identity, as part of a wider politics of personal information, privacy, and dataveillance, is an area where public policy is developing and where the public sector attempts to intervene. This paper attempts to understand the strategies and methods through which the UK government and public sector is engaging in online identity management. The analysis is framed by the analytics of government (Dean 2010) and governmentality (Miller and Rose 2008). This approach draws attention to the wide (...)
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  2. Lothar Fritsch, Kristin Skeide Fuglerud & Ivar Solheim (2010). Towards Inclusive Identity Management. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):515-538.
    The article argues for a shift of perspective in identity management (IDM) research and development. Accessibility and usability issues affect identity management to such an extent that they demand a reframing and reformulation of basic designs and requirements of modern identity management systems. The rationale for the traditional design of identity management systems and mechanisms has been security concerns as defined in the field of security engineering. By default the highest security level has been recommended and implemented, often without taking (...)
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  3. Colin Gavaghan (2010). A Whole New... You? 'Personal Identity', Emerging Technologies and the Law. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):423-434.
    In this article, I argue that lawmakers must abandon their previous reluctance to engage with questions of personal identity (PI). While frequently seen as an esoteric subject, of limited interest outside of academic philosophy departments, I attempt to show that, in fact, assumptions about PI—and its durability in the face of certain psychological or genetic changes—underpin many current legal rules. This is most perhaps obviously exemplified with regard to reproductive technologies. Yet the Parfitian challenge to identify a victim of ‘bad’ (...)
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  4. Hidehito Gomi (2010). A Persistent Data Tracking Mechanism for User-Centric Identity Governance. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):639-656.
    Identity governance is an emerging concept for fine-grained conditional disclosure of identity information and enforcement of corresponding data handling policies. Although numerous technologies underlying identity management have been developed, people still have difficulty obtaining a clear picture of how their identity information is maintained, used, and propagated. An identity management framework is described for tracking the history of how a person’s identity information is handled after it is transferred across domains of control and for enforcing meta-policies related to managing identity (...)
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  5. Seda Gürses (2010). PETs and Their Users: A Critical Review of the Potentials and Limitations of the Privacy as Confidentiality Paradigm. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):539-563.
    “Privacy as confidentiality” has been the dominant paradigm in computer science privacy research. Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs) that guarantee confidentiality of personal data or anonymous communication have resulted from such research. The objective of this paper is to show that such PETs are indispensable but are short of being the privacy solutions they sometimes claim to be given current day circumstances. Using perspectives from surveillance studies we will argue that the computer scientists’ conception of privacy through data or communication confidentiality (...)
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  6. Adam Henschke (2010). Did You Just Say What I Think You Said? Talking About Genes, Identity and Information. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):435-456.
    Genetic information is becoming increasingly used in modern life, extending beyond medicine to familial history, forensics and more. Following this expansion of use, the effect of genetic information on people’s identity and ultimately people’s quality of life is being explored in a host of different disciplines. While a multidisciplinary approach is commendable and necessary, there is the potential for the multidisciplinarity to produce conceptual misconnection. That is, while experts in one field may understand their use of a term like ‘gene’, (...)
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  7. Ann Light (2010). The Panopticon Reaches Within: How Digital Technology Turns Us Inside Out. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):583-598.
    The convergence of biomedical and information technology holds the potential to alter the discourses of identity, or as is argued here, to turn us inside out. The advent of digital networks makes it possible to ‘see inside’ people in ways not anticipated and thus create new performance arenas for the expression of identity. Drawing on the ideas of Butler and Foucault and theories of performativity, this paper examines a new context for human-computer interaction and articulates potentially disturbing issues with monitoring (...)
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  8. Sheelagh McGuinness, Bert-Jaap Koops & Eva Asscher (2010). Editorial: Genetics, Information and Identity. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):415-421.
    IntroductionIDIS is a multidisciplinary journal with a focus on identity in the information society. The information society is usually associated with information and communication technologies, such as computers, mobile phones and the Internet, and with information in the form of computer- or human-readable data. In this special issue on genetics, information and identity, however, we focus on a different type of information, namely genetic information. The DNA of the human genome is often called a ‘blueprint’ of human life, containing information (...)
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  9. Jason Pridmore (2010). Reflexive Marketing: The Cultural Circuit of Loyalty Programs. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):565-581.
    The amount of personal data now collected through contemporary marketing practices is indicative of the shifting landscape of contemporary capitalism. Loyalty programs can be seen as one exemplar of this, using the ‘add-ons’ of ‘points’ and ‘miles’ to entice consumers into divulging a range of personal information. These consumers are subject to surveillance practices that have digitally identified them as significant in the eyes of a corporation, yet they are also part of a feedback loop subject to ongoing analysis. This (...)
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  10. Charles D. Raab (2010). K. Rannenberg, D. Royer and André Deuker (Eds.), The Future of Identity in the Information Society: Challenges and Opportunities. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):599-604.
    The number of large research projects in the fields of identity, privacy and related topics has burgeoned in recent years. This is a development of great importance to academic scholarship but also to a wider range of audiences and ‘users’, including policy-makers and regulators, the information and communication technology industries, and the general public. New issues have been spotlighted as we move into what some call ‘surveillance societies’, along with a clearer sense of the problems created, and the advantages afforded, (...)
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  11. Adrian Rahaman & Martina Angela Sasse (2010). A Framework for the Lived Experience of Identity. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):605-638.
    This paper presents a framework for the design of human-centric identity management systems. Whilst many identity systems over the past few years have been labelled as human-centred, we argue that the term has been appropriated by technologists to claim moral superiority of their products, and by system owners who confuse administrative convenience with benefits for users. The framework for human-centred identity presented here identifies a set of design properties that can impact the lived experience of the individuals whose identity is (...)
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  12. Ernesto Schwartz-Marín & Irma Silva-Zolezzi (2010). “The Map of the Mexican's Genome”: Overlapping National Identity, and Population Genomics. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):489-514.
    This paper explores the intersections between national identity and the production of medical/population genomics in Mexico. The ongoing efforts to construct a Haplotype Map of Mexican genetic diversity offers a unique opportunity to illustrate and analyze the exchange between the historic-political narratives of nationalism, and the material culture of genomic science. Haplotypes are central actants in the search for medically significant SNP’s (single nucleotide polymorphisms), as well as powerful entities involved in the delimitation of ancestry, temporality and variability (www.hapmap.org). By (...)
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  13. Ruth Hannah Wilkinson (2010). Genetic Information: Important but Not “Exceptional”. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):457-472.
    Much legislation dealing with the uses of genetic information could be criticised for exceptionalising genetic information over other types of information personal to the individual. This paper contends that genetic exceptionalism clouds the issues, and precludes any real debate about the appropriate uses of genetic information. An alternative to “genetically exceptionalist” legislation is to “legislate for fairness”. This paper explores the “legislating for fairness” approach, and concludes that it demonstrates a fundamental misunderstanding of both how legislation is drafted, and how (...)
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  14. Ann Cavoukian (2010). Privacy by Design: The Definitive Workshop. A Foreword by Ann Cavoukian, Ph.D. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):247-251.
    In November, 2009, a prominent group of privacy professionals, business leaders, information technology specialists, and academics gathered in Madrid to discuss how the next set of threats to privacy could best be addressed.The event, Privacy by Design: The Definitive Workshop, was co-hosted by my office and that of the Israeli Law, Information and Technology Authority. It marked the latest step in a journey that I began in the 1990’s, when I first focused on enlisting the support of technologies that could (...)
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  15. Ann Cavoukian, Angus Fisher, Scott Killen & David Hoffman (2010). Remote Home Health Care Technologies: How to Ensure Privacy? Build It In: Privacy by Design. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):363-378.
    Current advances in connectivity, sensor technology, computing power and the development of complex algorithms for processing health-related data are paving the way for the delivery of innovative long-term health care services in the future. Such technological developments will, in particular, assist the elderly and infirm to live independently, at home, for much longer periods. The home is, in fact, becoming a locus for health care innovation that may in the future compete with the hospital. However, along with these advances come (...)
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  16. Ann Cavoukian, Jules Polonetsky & Christopher Wolf (2010). SmartPrivacy for the Smart Grid: Embedding Privacy Into the Design of Electricity Conservation. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):275-294.
    The 2003 blackout in the northern and eastern U.S. and Canada which caused a $6 billion loss in economic revenue is one of many indicators that the current electrical grid is outdated. Not only must the grid become more reliable, it must also become more efficient, reduce its impact on the environment, incorporate alternative energy sources, allow for more consumer choices, and ensure cyber security. In effect, it must become smart. Significant investments in the billions of dollars are being made (...)
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  17. Ann Cavoukian, Scott Taylor & Martin E. Abrams (2010). Privacy by Design: Essential for Organizational Accountability and Strong Business Practices. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):405-413.
    An accountability-based privacy governance model is one where organizations are charged with societal objectives, such as using personal information in a manner that maintains individual autonomy and which protects individuals from social, financial and physical harms, while leaving the actual mechanisms for achieving those objectives to the organization. This paper discusses the essential elements of accountability identified by the Galway Accountability Project, with scholarship from the Centre for Information Policy Leadership at Hunton & Williams LLP. Conceptual Privacy by Design principles (...)
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  18. Julie David & Marilyn Prosch (2010). Extending the Value Chain to Incorporate Privacy by Design Principles. Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):295-318.
    Morgan et al. (2009) examine the notion of corporate citizenship and suggest that for it to be effective companies need to minimize harm and maximize benefits through its activities and, in so doing, take account of and be responsive to a full range of stakeholders. Specifically, they call for a next generation approach to corporate citizenship that embeds structures, systems, processes and policies into and across the company’s value chain. We take this notion of corporate citizenship and apply it to (...)
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  19. Alexander Dix (2010). Built-in Privacy—No Panacea, but a Necessary Condition for Effective Privacy Protection. Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):257-265.
    Built-in privacy has for too long been neglected by regulators. They have concentrated on reacting to violations of rules. Even imposing severe fines will however not address the basic issue that preventative privacy protection is much more meaningful. The paper discusses this in the context of the International Working Group on Data Protection in Telecommunications (“Berlin Group”) which has published numerous recommendations on privacy-compliant design of technical innovations. Social network services, road pricing schemes, and the distribution of digital media content (...)
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  20. Peter Hustinx (2010). Privacy by Design: Delivering the Promises. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):253-255.
    An introductory message from Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor, delivered at Privacy by Design: The Definitive Workshop. This presentation looks back at the origins of Privacy by Design, notably the publication of the first report on “Privacy Enhancing Technologies” by a joint team of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada and the Dutch Data Protection Authority in 1995. It looks ahead and adresses the question of how the promises of these concepts could be delivered in practice.
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  21. Dawn Jutla (2010). Layering Privacy on Operating Systems, Social Networks, and Other Platforms by Design. Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):319-341.
    Pervasive, easy-to-use privacy services are keys to enabling users to maintain control of their private data in the online environment. This paper proposes (1) an online privacy lifecycle from the user perspective that drives and categorizes the development of these services, (2) a layered platform design solution for online privacy, (3) the evolution of the PeCAN (Personal Context Agent Networking) architecture to a platform for pervasively providing multiple contexts for user privacy preferences and online informational privacy services, and (4) use (...)
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  22. Terry McQuay & Ann Cavoukian (2010). A Pragmatic Approach to Privacy Risk Optimization: Privacy by Design for Business Practices. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):379-396.
    This paper introduces Nymity’s Privacy Risk Optimization Process (PROP), a process that enables the implementation of privacy into operational policies and procedures, which embodies in Privacy by Design for business practices. The PROP is based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) concept that risk can be positive and negative; and further defines Risk Optimization as a process whereby organizations strive to maximize positive risks and mitigate negative ones. The PROP uses these concepts to implement privacy into operational policies and (...)
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  23. Peter Schaar (2010). Privacy by Design. Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):267-274.
    In view of rapid and dramatic technological change, it is important to take the special requirements of privacy protection into account early on, because new technological systems often contain hidden dangers which are very difficult to overcome after the basic design has been worked out. So it makes all the more sense to identify and examine possible data protection problems when designing new technology and to incorporate privacy protection into the overall design, instead of having to come up with laborious (...)
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  24. George Tomko, Donald Borrett, Hon Kwan & Greg Steffan (2010). SmartData: Make the Data “Think” for Itself. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):343-362.
    SmartData is a research program to develop web-based intelligent agents that will perform two tasks: securely store an individual’s personal and/or proprietary data, and protect the privacy and security of the data by only disclosing it in accordance with instructions authorized by the data subject. The vision consists of a web-based SmartData agent that would serve as an individual’s proxy in cyberspace to protect their personal or proprietary data. The SmartData agent (which ‘houses’ the data and its permitted uses) would (...)
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  25. Dirk van Rooy & Jacques Bus (2010). Trust and Privacy in the Future Internet—a Research Perspective. Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):397-404.
    With the proliferation of networked electronic communication came daunting capabilities to collect, process, combine and store data, resulting in hitherto unseen transformational pressure on the concepts of trust, security and privacy as we know them. The Future Internet will bring about a world where real life will integrate physical and digital life. Technology development for data linking and mining, together with unseen data collection, will lead to unwarranted access to personal data, and hence, privacy intrusion. Trust and identity lie at (...)
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  26. Georg Aichholzer & Stefan Strauß (2010). The Austrian Case: Multi-Card Concept and the Relationship Between Citizen ID and Social Security Cards. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):65-85.
    National electronic identity (e-ID) card schemes and electronic identity management systems (e-IDMS) in Europe are characterised by considerable diversity. This contribution analyses the creation of a national e-IDMS in Austria with the aim of improving our understanding of the reasons behind the genesis of particular designs of national e-IDMS. It seeks to explain how the system’s specific design evolved and which factors shaped its appearance. Being part of a comparative four country study, a common theoretical framework is employed to allow (...)
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  27. Åke Grönlund (2010). Electronic Identity Management in Sweden: Governance of a Market Approach. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):195-211.
    This paper reviews the history and current status of electronic identities (eID) and eID management in Sweden, including an outlook for the future. The paper is based on official policy documents, technical documentation, presentations by key experts, and comments from government agencies and independent experts. The future perspective is based on the October 2009 public investigation (SOU 2009:86) by the E-delegation. It is concluded that the E-delegation proposal, while still pending political decision, is a major step forward in terms of (...)
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  28. Alexander Heichlinger & Patricia Gallego (2010). A New E-ID Card and Online Authentication in Spain. Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):43-64.
    This paper describes the introduction of a new electronic identity card including an electronic identity (EID) for local physical and online authentication in 2006. The most significant difference to any European country is the decentralized issuing at 256 police stations employing an automatic printing machine. This is the most visible element in a high degree continuation, as the previous paper based ID cards were also personalized and issued at the police stations. Similarly the attributes defining the identity and the legal (...)
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  29. Jens Hoff & Frederik Hoff (2010). The Danish eID Case: Twenty Years of Delay. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):155-174.
    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of e-readiness compared to other nations. Laying out the technological, organizational and legal dimensions of eID in Denmark, and comparing these with a number of other European countries made it possible to explain this paradox. Thus, the three (...)
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  30. Herbert Kubicek (2010). Introduction: Conceptual Framework and Research Design for a Comparative Analysis of National eID Management Systems in Selected European Countries. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):5-26.
    This paper introduces the objectives and basic approach of a collaborative comparative research project on the introduction of national electronic Identity Management Systems (eIDMS) in Member States of the European Union. Altogether eight country case studies have been produced in two waves by researchers in the respective countries, which will be presented in the following articles in this special issue. The studies adopt a common conceptual framework and use the same terminology, which will be presented in this introduction, just as (...)
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  31. Herbert Kubicek & Torsten Noack (2010). Different Countries-Different Paths Extended Comparison of the Introduction of eIDs in Eight European Countries. Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):235-245.
    A first comparison of the innovation processes of introducing electronic identities on a national level in Austria, Belgium, Germany and Spain, based on extensive expert interviews with key actors, has been amended by four more country reports from Denmark, Finland, Estonia and Sweden in order to check the validity of generalisations derived from the first four cases. The extended comparison with the four additional countries increases the variance between the eID systems in Europe by showing differing technical and organisational features, (...)
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  32. Herbert Kubicek & Torsten Noack (2010). The Path Dependency of National Electronic Identities. Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):111-153.
    This paper compares the four national electronic Identity Management Systems (eIDMS), which have been described in the previous chapters. The section Similarities and differences between four national eIDMS will highlight the differences between these systems conceived as socio-technical systems with regard to the eID itself, the eID cards as tokens, the authentication processes as well as the procedures for distribution and personalisation, the support provided for installing the technology and any provider-related regulation. The section A three-fold path dependency , according (...)
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  33. Ilse Mariën & Leo Audenhove (2010). The Belgian E-ID and its Complex Path to Implementation and Innovational Change. Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):27-41.
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  34. Ilse Mariën & Leo van Audenhove (2010). The Belgian E-ID and its Complex Path to Implementation and Innovational Change. Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):27-41.
    This article provides a critical view on the development and deployment phase of the e-ID in Belgium since 1999. It is based on extensive desk research and fifteen in depth-interviews with experts and stakeholders from government, administration, academia and industry who have been key in the development of the e-ID. The article identifies different elements that influenced, both in a positive and negative way, the societal, technical and political aspects of the Belgian e-ID. It shows that no severe problems occurred (...)
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  35. Tarvi Martens (2010). Electronic Identity Management in Estonia Between Market and State Governance. Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):213-233.
    The present paper summarizes the development of the national electronic Identity Management System (eIDMS) in Estonia according to a conceptual framework developed in an European comparative research project outlined in the first chapter of this special issue. Its main function is to amend the picture of the European eIDMS landscape by presenting a case with high involvement of the private sector and thereby checking the generalizations from the comparisons of Austria, Belgium, Germany and Spain, presented by Kubicek and Noack in (...)
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  36. Torsten Noack & Herbert Kubicek (2010). The Introduction of Online Authentication as Part of the New Electronic National Identity Card in Germany. Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):87-110.
    This chapter provides an analysis of the long process of introducing an electronic identity for online authentication in Germany. This process is described as a multi-facet innovation, involving actors from different policy fields shifting over time. The eID process started in the late ‘90s in the context of eGovernment and eCommerce with the legislation on e-signatures, which were supposed to allow for online authentication of citizens. When after 5 years it was recognized that this was not the case, a new (...)
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  37. Teemu Rissanen (2010). Electronic Identity in Finland: ID Cards Vs. Bank IDs. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):175-194.
    This chapter describes the introduction and diffusion of the Finnish Electronic Identity Card (FINEID card). FINEID establishes an electronic identity (eID), based on the civil registry and placed on an identity chip card issued by Finnish government to Finnish citizens and permanent residents from age 18 and older. It is a non-mandatory electronic identity card introduced in 1999 in order to replace the older citizen ID card. It serves as a travel document and is intended to facilitate access to eGovernment (...)
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  38. Btihaj Ajana (2010). Reinventing data protection?: Serge Gutwirth et al., Springer 2009 (). Identity in the Information Society 2 (3):355-358.
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  39. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger (2010). Edgar A. Whitley & Ian Hosein: Global Challenges for Identity Policies: Palgrave Macmillan 2009. 380 Pp (). [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 2 (3):359-361.
     
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