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Forthcoming articles
  1. Julia R. Badger & Laura R. Shapiro (forthcoming). Category Structure Affects the Developmental Trajectory of Children's Inductive Inferences for Both Natural Kinds and Artefacts. Thinking and Reasoning:1-24.
    Inductive reasoning is fundamental to human cognition, yet it remains unclear how we develop this ability and what might influence our inductive choices. We created novel categories in which crucial factors such as domain and category structure were manipulated orthogonally. We trained 403 4?9-year-old children to categorise well-matched natural kind and artefact stimuli with either featural or relational category structure, followed by induction tasks. This wide age range allowed for the first full exploration of the developmental trajectory of inductive reasoning (...)
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  2. Jean-François Bonnefon, Ethan Dahl & Thomas M. Holtgraves (forthcoming). Some but Not All Dispreferred Turn Markers Help to Interpret Scalar Terms in Polite Contexts. Thinking and Reasoning:1-21.
    In polite contexts, people find it difficult to perceive whether they can derive scalar inferences from what others say (e.g., does ?some people hated your idea? mean that not everyone hated it?). Because this uncertainty can lead to costly misunderstandings, it is important to identify the cues people can rely on to solve their interpretative problem. In this article, we consider two such cues: Making a long Pause before the statement, and prefacing the statement with Well. Data from eight experiments (...)
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  3. Monica Bucciarelli & Margherita Daniele (forthcoming). Reasoning in Moral Conflicts. Thinking and Reasoning:1-30.
    Following the assumptions of the mental model theory and its account of moral judgements, we argue for a main role of reasoning in moral judgements, especially in dealing with moral conflicts. In four experiments, we invited adult participants to evaluate scenarios describing moral or immoral actions. Our results confirm the predictions deriving from our assumptions: Given a moral or immoral scenario, the manipulation of the propositions which refer to norms and values results in a scenario eliciting a moral conflict (Experiment (...)
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  4. Bruce D. Burns (forthcoming). Probabilistic Reasoning in the Two-Envelope Problem. Thinking and Reasoning:1-22.
    In the two-envelope problem, a reasoner is offered two envelopes, one containing exactly twice the money in the other. After observing the amount in one envelope, it can be traded for the unseen contents of the other. It appears that it should not matter whether the envelope is traded, but recent mathematical analyses have shown that gains could be made if trading was a probabilistic function of amount observed. As a problem with a purely probabilistic solution, it provides a potentially (...)
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  5. Caren A. Frosch, Suzanne M. Egan & Emily N. Hancock (forthcoming). The Effect of Controllability and Causality on Counterfactual Thinking. Thinking and Reasoning:1-24.
    Previous research on counterfactual thoughts about prevention suggests that people tend to focus on enabling rather than causing events and controllable rather than uncontrollable events. Two experiments explore whether counterfactual thinking about enablers is distinct from counterfactual thinking about controllable events. We presented participants with scenarios in which a cause and an enabler contributed to a negative outcome. We systematically manipulated the controllability of the cause and the enabler and asked participants to generate counterfactuals. The results indicate that when only (...)
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  6. Amelia Gangemi, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde & Francesco Mancini (forthcoming). Feelings of Error in Reasoning—in Search of a Phenomenon. Thinking and Reasoning:1-14.
    Recent research shows that in reasoning tasks, subjects usually produce an initial intuitive answer, accompanied by a metacognitive experience, which has been called feeling of rightness. This paper is aimed at exploring the complimentary experience of feeling of error (FOE), that is, the spontaneous, subtle sensation of cognitive uneasiness arising from conflict detection during thinking. We investigate FOE in two studies with the ?bat-and-ball? (B&B) reasoning task, in its standard and isomorphic control versions. Study 1 is a generation study, in (...)
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  7. Katherine A. Livins & Leonidas A. A. Doumas (forthcoming). Recognising Relations: What Can Be Learned From Considering Complexity. Thinking and Reasoning:1-14.
    Analogy is an important cognitive process that has been researched extensively. Functional accounts of it typically involve at least four stages of processing (access, mapping, transfer, and evaluation); however, these accounts take the way in which the base analogue is understood, along with its relational structure, for granted. The goal of this paper is to open up a discussion about how this process (which we will call ?relational recognition?) may occur. To this end, this paper describes two experiments that vary (...)
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  8. Hugo Mercier, Emmanuel Trouche, Hiroshi Yama, Christophe Heintz & Vittorio Girotto (forthcoming). Experts and Laymen Grossly Underestimate the Benefits of Argumentation for Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning:1-15.
    Many fields of study have shown that group discussion generally improves reasoning performance for a wide range of tasks. This article shows that most of the population, including specialists, does not expect group discussion to be as beneficial as it is. Six studies asked participants to solve a standard reasoning problem?the Wason selection task?and to estimate the performance of individuals working alone and in groups. We tested samples of U.S., Indian, and Japanese participants, European managers, and psychologists of reasoning. Every (...)
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  9. Tim Rakow, Valerie Thompson, Linden Ball & Henry Markovits (forthcoming). Rationale and Guidelines for Empirical Adversarial Collaboration: A Thinking & Reasoning Initiative. Thinking and Reasoning:1-9.
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  10. Christopher J. R. Roney & Natalie Sansone (forthcoming). Explaining the Gambler's Fallacy: Testing a Gestalt Explanation Versus the “Law of Small Numbers”. Thinking and Reasoning:1-13.
    The present study tests a gestalt (closure) explanation for the gambler's fallacy which posits that runs in random events will be expected to reverse only when the run is open or ongoing. This is contrasted with the law of small numbers explanation suggesting that people expect random outcomes to balance out generally. Sixty-one university students placed hypothetical guesses and bets on a series of coin tosses. Either heads or tails were dominant (8 versus 4). In a closed run condition the (...)
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  11. Lore Saenen, Wim Van Dooren & Patrick Onghena (forthcoming). A Randomised Monty Hall Experiment: The Positive Effect of Conditional Frequency Feedback. Thinking and Reasoning:1-17.
    The Monty Hall dilemma (MHD) is a notorious probability problem with a counterintuitive solution. There is a strong tendency to stay with the initial choice, despite the fact that switching doubles the probability of winning. The current randomised experiment investigates whether feedback in a series of trials improves behavioural performance on the MHD and increases the level of understanding of the problem. Feedback was either conditional or non-conditional, and was given either in frequency format or in percentage format. Results show (...)
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  12. J. F. Bonnefon & D. J. Hilton (forthcoming). The Suppression of Modus Ponens as a Case of Pragmatic Preconditional Reasoning. Accepted Subject to Revision. Thinking and Reasoning.
     
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  13. M. Eliades, W. Mansell, A. Stewart & I. Blanchette (forthcoming). Modulation of Reasoning by Emotion: Findings From the Belief-Bias Paradigm. Thinking and Reasoning.
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  14. Keith J. Holyoak & Patricia W. Cheng (forthcoming). Contextual Factors in Deontic Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning.
     
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  15. Keith J. Holyoak & Patricia W. Cheng (forthcoming). The Taming of Content: Some Thoughts About Domains and Modules. Thinking and Reasoning.
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