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The writing describes a new sort of individual, “a delude”. People like Hitler would well fit the description. He was mentally healthy, however overwhelmed by grossly deluded opinions.

Here is the description from the text: 

"Even when a person is born possessing a healthy mental state, the familial and environmental assault during childhood with deluded opinions and behavior can be the basis for an individual to develop into a delude, an individual in a deluded mental state. In this writing, the label fool, or imbecile, is sometimes interchangeable with the underlying primary conditions of the delude. A fool is predisposed to accept deluded opinions as true; however, he or she can have an overall good awareness of social norms and laws that he or she learned to comply with. A fool is not, because of his mental condition alone, a villain. In contrast, the delude typically develops overwhelming extreme views. These views can be held as more important than any social or legal consideration ... (read more)

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I'm putting together a list of worthwhile discussions of the question 'What is philosophy?' What should be on it? In particular I'm interested in the question of what sort of subject matter various parts of the field have in common, if any.
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How did philosophy help science throughout the history of science (especially modern science)? As far as I know many assumptions of the modern scientists are actually theories once developed by great philosophers.Can anybody specify some of those assumptions?
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Since 1976, a growing body of work has argued that we urgently need to bring about a revolution in academic inquiry so that the basic aim becomes wisdom and not just knowledge - wisdom being the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others, wisdom thus including knowledge, understanding and technological know-how, but much else besides.  What we have at present, academic inquiry devoted, in the first instance, to the pursuit of knowledge is, it is argued, profoundly and damagingly irrational.  The generation of our current global problems, and our current incapacity to tackle them intelligently, effectively and humanely, is in part due to the long-standing structural irrationality of our institutions of learning.

The revolution we require would change every branch and aspect of academic inquiry. A basic intellectual task of academic inquiry would be to articulate our problems of living (personal, social and global) and propose and critically assess possible so ... (read more)
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Are any of you interested in an "open source" philosophical project something rather like the <Bourbaki Group>, but initially limited to describing and mapping important philosophical problems and their inter-relations? As a first approximation, the guidelines might be as follows.

1.) Initially, at least, "philosophy" would include whatever serious thinkers who call themselves "philosophers" have said or implied it is. (Obviously, this would be an incoherent mix, including views that reject the possibly of philosophy. )

2.) Similarly, anything (including differences about what philosophy is and whether it is possible) would count as a philosophical "problem" if any such persons thinks (has thought) it is. Of course, something would still count as a important "problem" even if it is thought by some to have been solved or not to be a legitimate problem at all.

3.) The project would be descriptive and analytic, not evaluative or historical.

4.) The idea of would be:(a) to collect a (presumab ... (read more)
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In this paper I described three fundamentally different kinds of classes; but the idea of ‘natural kinds’ never crossed my mind.  (That shows how long ago it was.)
I guess I now should say something like, “The extension of a ‘natural kind’ K is governed by the (usually hidden) features that are responsible for such and such observable distinguishing features in these (pointing) paradigmatic Ks.”

That would give us an important, and interesting fourth kind of class. Right?


The lead article in the issue of IJDE containing this essay is the official Vatican translation of the now famous Regensburg University address by Pope Benedict XVI. Although there are conflicts between the two articles, neither author had previously seen the other's work. 

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