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Academic Skeptics

Edited by Diego E. Machuca (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas)
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Summary Academic skepticism was one of the two major ancient skeptical traditions. The skeptical Academic movement arose out of both the epistemological debate between Academics and Stoics and the return to Socrates’ dialectical style of philosophizing. The skeptical phase of the Academy ranges from Arcesilaus (316/5–241/0 BC), through Carneades (214–129/8 BC) and his student Clitomachus (187–10 BC), to Philo of Larissa (159/8–84/3 BC), to name only the most important figures.
Key works Hankinson 1995 and Thorsrud 2009 offer detailed presentations of the skeptical phase of the Academy.
Introductions Machuca 2011
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  1. Francesca Alesse (2007). Academici E Platonici. Il Dibattito Antico Sullo Scetticismo di Platone, by Mauro Bonazzi. Ancient Philosophy 27 (2):425-429.
  2. Keimpe Algra (ed.) (2005). The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    A full account of the philosophy of the Greek and Roman worlds from the last days of Aristotle (c. 320 BC) until 100 BC. Hellenistic philosophy, for long relatively neglected and unappreciated, has over the last decade been the object of a considerable amount of scholarly attention. Now available in paperback, this volume is the first general reference work to pull the subject together and present an overview. The time has come for a general reference work which pulls the subject (...)
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  3. Keimpe Algra, Myles Burnyeat, Miriam Griffin, Gisela Striker, Jaap Mansfeld, Brad Inwood & Jonathan Barnes (eds.) (1997). Assent and Argument: Studies in Cicero's Academic Books . Proceedings of the 7th Symposium Hellenisticum. [REVIEW] Brill.
    These ten essays on Cicero's Academic Books deal with various aspects of Academic scepticism, ancient epistemology, and the history of the Academy. The tradition from Socrates through to Galen is covered, with special emphasis on Carneades, Antiochus and, of course, Cicero himself.
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  4. D. J. Allan (1951). Philosophical Surveys I: A Survey of Work Dealing with Greek Philosophy From Thales to the Age of Cicero, 1945-1949, Part II. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 1 (2):165-170.
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  5. D. J. Allan (1950). Philosophical Surveys, I: A Survey of Work Dealing with Greek Philosophy From Thales to the Age of Cicero, 1945-49. Philosophical Quarterly 1 (1):61-72.
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  6. James Allen, Antiochus of Ascalon. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  7. James Allen, Carneades. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  8. James Allen (1998). Études Sur les Philosophies Hellénistiques. Review of Metaphysics 52 (1):132-134.
  9. James Allen (1994). Academic Probabilism and Stoic Epistemology. Classical Quarterly 44 (01):85-.
    Developments in the Academy from the time of Arcesilaus to that of Carneades and his successors tend to be classified under two heads: scepticism and probabilism. Carneades was principally responsible for the Academy's view of the latter subject, and our sources credit him with an elaborate discussion of it. The evidence furnished by those sources is, however, frequently confusing and sometimes self-contradictory. My aim in this paper is to extract a coherent account of Carneades' theory of probability from the testimony (...)
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  10. J. Annas (1996). R.J. Hankinson: The Sceptics, (The Arguments of the Philosophers). London, New York: Routledge, 1995. The Classical Review 46 (1):75-76.
  11. Julia Annas (1996). The Sceptics. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 46 (1):75-76.
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  12. Julia Annas (1988). The Heirs of Socrates. [REVIEW] Phronesis 33 (1):100-112.
  13. Julia Annas & Jacques Brunschwig (1990). Platon le sceptique. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 95 (2):267 - 291.
    The article discusses the sceptical New Academy's interpretation of Plato as a sceptic. The first part discusses Arcesilaus' reintroduction of Socratic method, and the reading of the Socratic dialogues and the Theaetetus implied by this. The second part discusses arguments probably used by the later, more moderate Academy for a reading of Plato's more dogmatic dialogues in a way consistent with scepticism.
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  14. E. Vernon Arnold (1914). Stoics and Sceptics Stoics and Sceptics: Four Lectures Delivered in Oxford During Hilary Term, 1913, for the Common University Fund. By Edwyn Bevan, Sometime Scholar of the New College, Oxford. . Pp. 152. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913. 4s. 6d. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 28 (02):62-63.
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  15. Jonathan Barnes (2001). Against the Sceptics A. Haltenhoff: Kritik der akademischen Skepsis. Ein Kommentar zu Cicero , Lucullus 1–62 . (Studien zur klassischen Philologie 113.) Pp. 226. Berlin, etc.: Peter Lang, 1998. Paper, DM 29. ISBN: 3-631-33440-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 51 (01):46-.
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  16. Jonathan Barnes (1998). Hellenistic Philosophy. The Classical Review 48 (2):355-356.
  17. Jonathan Barnes (1993). A Big, Big D? Theodor Ebert: Dialektiker und frühe Stoiker bei Sextus Empiricus: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung der Aussagenlogik. (Hypomnemata, 95.) Pp. 347. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1991. DM 85. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 43 (02):304-306.
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  18. Jonathan Barnes (1991). Leo Groarke: Greek Scepticism: Anti-Realist Trends in Ancient Thought. (McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Ideas.) Pp. Xv + 176. Montreal & Kingston, London and Buffalo: McGill–Queen's University Press, 1990. £33.20. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 41 (02):500-501.
  19. Jonathan Barnes (1989). Antiochus of Ascalon. In Miriam T. Griffin & Jonathan Barnes (eds.), Philosophia Togata: Essays on Philosophy and Roman Society. Oxford University Press
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  20. Jonathan Barnes (1986). The Fourth Academy Harold Tarrant: Scepticism or Platonism? The Philosophy of the Fourth Academy. (Cambridge Classical Studies.) Pp. Ix+182. Cambridge University Press, 1985. £19.50. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 36 (01):75-77.
  21. Jonathan Barnes & France) Hellenistic Philosophy and Science Paris (1982). Science and Speculation Studies in Hellenistic Theory and Practice /Edited by Jonathan Barnes ... [Et Al.]. --. --. Cambridge University Press Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme,1982.
  22. Sylvia Berryman (1999). Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics. Philosophical Review 108 (3):447-449.
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  23. Sylvia Berryman (1998). Euclid and the Sceptic: A Paper on Vision, Doubt, Geometry, Light and Drunkenness. Phronesis 43 (2):176-196.
    Philosophy in the period immediately after Aristotle is sometimes thought to be marked by the decline of natural philosophy and philosophical disinterest in contemporary achievements in the sciences. But in one area at least, the early third century B.C.E. was a time of productive interaction between such disparate fields as epistemology, physics and geometry. Debates between the sceptics and the dogmatic philosophical schools focus on epistemological problems about the possibility of self-evident appearances, but there is evidence from Euclid's day of (...)
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  24. Richard Bett (2010). Scepticism and Ethics. In Richard Arnot Home Bett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Cambridge University Press 181.
  25. Richard Bett (1995). Passions and Perceptions: Studies in Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind. [REVIEW] Ancient Philosophy 15 (1):283-286.
  26. Richard Bett (1994). Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind. Ancient Philosophy 14 (1):192-200.
  27. Richard Bett (1993). Greek Scepticism. Ancient Philosophy 13 (1):243-252.
  28. Richard Bett (1990). Carneades' Distinction Between Assent and Approval. The Monist 73 (1):3-20.
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  29. E. R. Bevan (1931). The Greek Sceptics. By Mary Mills Patrick, Ph.D., LL.D., Litt.D. Pp. Xxi + 339. New York: Columbia University Press, 1929. Cloth, $4.50, or 22s. 6d. (London: Milford). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 45 (01):45-46.
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  30. C. Brittain (2012). Antiochus' Epistemology. In D. N. Sedley (ed.), The Philosophy of Antiochus. Cambridge University Press 104--30.
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  31. Charles Brittain, Philo of Larissa. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  32. Charles Brittain, Arcesilaus. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  33. Charles Brittain (2001). Philo of Larissa: The Last of the Academic Sceptics. OUP Oxford.
    This is the first book-length study of Philo , the principal philosophical teacher of Cicero. Charles Brittain reconstructs the Platonic Academy's gradual rejection of scepticism under Philo's leadership, which prepared the way for the revival of Platonism in the first century AD. The Appendix contains a full collection of the testimonia and 'fragments' of Philo.
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  34. Charles Brittain & John Palmer (2001). The New Academy's Appeals to the Presocratics. Phronesis 46 (1):38 - 72.
    Members of the New Academy presented their sceptical position as the culmination of a progressive development in the history of philosophy, which began when certain Presocratics started to reflect on the epistemic status of their theoretical claims concerning the natures of things. The Academics' dogmatic opponents accused them of misrepresenting the early philosophers in an illegitimate attempt to claim respectable precedents for their dangerous position. The ensuing debate over the extent to which some form of scepticism might properly be attributed (...)
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  35. Jacques Brunschwig & Martha Craven Nussbaum (eds.) (1993). Passions & Perceptions: Studies in Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind: Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium Hellenisticum. Cambridge University Press.
    The philosophers of the Hellenistic schools in ancient Greece and Rome (Epicureans, Stoics, Sceptics, Academics, Cyrenaics) made important contributions to the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of psychology. This volume, which contains the proceedings of the Fifth Symposium Hellenisticum, describes and analyses their contributions on issues such as: the nature of perception, imagination and belief; the nature of the passions and their role in action; the relationship between mind and body; freedom and determinism; the role of pleasure as a (...)
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  36. Michael J. Buckley (1970). Philosophic Method in Cicero. Journal of the History of Philosophy 8 (2):143-154.
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  37. Myles Burnyeat & Michael Frede (1997). The Original Sceptics: A Controversy. Hackett.
  38. John Bussanich (1995). Papers in Hellenistic Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 49 (2):405-406.
  39. Lewis Campbell (1888). Les Sceptiques Grees Les Sceptiques Grees, Beochaed Par Victor. Paris, F. Alcan. 1887. 8 Frs. The Classical Review 2 (04):111-113.
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  40. Luca Castagnoli (2006). (M.) Bonazzi Academici e Platonici. II dibattito antico sullo scetticismo di Platone. (II Filarete: Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di lettere e filosofia dell'Università degli Studi di Milano 213). Milan: LED, 2003. Pp. 284. €24.50. 8879162195. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 126:214-215.
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  41. Cicero, Academica.
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  42. Cicero (1997). The Nature of the Gods. Clarendon Press.
    Cicero's philosophical works are now exciting renewed interest and more generous appreciation, in part because he provides vital evidence of the views of the (largely lost) Greek philosophers of the Hellenistic age, and partly because of the light he casts on the intellectual life of first-century Rome. Hellenistic philosophy has in recent years atrracted growing interest from academic philosophers in Europe and North America. The Nature of the Gods is a document of central significance in this area, for it presents (...)
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  43. Albert C. Clark (1926). Cicero, de Finibus. Books I. And II. By J. S. Reid, Litt.D. Cambridge, 1925. The Classical Review 40 (04):130-132.
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  44. M. L. Clarke (1960). Cicero's De Natura Deorum. The Classical Review 10 (02):130-.
  45. M. L. Clarke (1960). Cicero's De Natura Deorum Arthur Stanley Pease: M. Tulli Ciceronis De Natura Deorum Libri Secundus Et Tertius. Pp. 720. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (London, Oxford University Press), 1958. Cloth, 140s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 10 (02):130-131.
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  46. M. L. Clarke (1957). Cicero's De Natura Deorum Arthur Stanley Pease: M. Tulli Ciceronis De Natura Deorum Liber Primus. Pp. Viii + 537. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (London: Oxford University Press), 1955. Cloth, 120s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 7 (3-4):220-223.
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  47. John M. Cooper (2006). Arcesilaus: Socratic and Sceptic. In Lindsay Judson & V. Karasmanēs (eds.), Remembering Socrates: Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press
  48. J. I. Daniel (1999). Hellenistic Philosophy R. W. Sharples: Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics: An Introduction to Hellenistic Philosophy . Pp. Xiv + 154. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. Cased, £30 (Paper, £10.99). ISBN: 0-415-11034-3 (0-415-11035-1 Pbk). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 49 (01):127-.
  49. Joseph G. DeFilippo (2000). Cicero Vs. Cotta in De Natura Deorum. Ancient Philosophy 20 (1):169-187.
  50. John Dillon (1981). Antiochus and the Late Academy John Glucker: Antiochus and the Late Academy. (Hypomnemata, 56.) Pp. 510. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1978. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 31 (01):60-62.
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