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  1. Jay Allman (2001). Metaphor and Davidson's Theory of Interpretation. Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (1):1-22.
  2. Alessandro Bertinetto (2006). Arte como desrealización. Daimon 39:175-185.
    The paper recognizes the failure of contemporary non-aesthetic theories of art and aims at recovering the phenomenological notion of derealization – which re-emerges in A. Dantoʼs idea of the ʻbracketting effectʼ of art –, in order to explain art and art-experience. The main point is that art makes us free from the ʻreal worldʼ through an act of derealization that leads to the establishment of possible or fictional worlds different from the one we live in. Artworks are primarly imaginary, unreal (...)
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  3. H. G. Callaway (1986). Beardsley on Metaphor. Restant 14, Text, Literature and Aesthetics 14:73-88.
    Monroe C. Beardsley has made seminal contributions to the on-going discussions of metaphor, contributions of continuing relevance and influence. His "Verbal Opposition Theory," like Max Black's "Interaction Theory," is a classic document of the contemporary semantic approach to metaphor, and has placed special emphasis upon the recognition of metaphor --the problem of the metaphorical warrant--which has lead to a deeper understanding of the complexities of this problem.
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  4. Kim Chong Chong (2006). Zhuangzi and the Nature of Metaphor. Philosophy East and West 56 (3):370-391.
    : While it is well known that Zhuangzi uses metaphor extensively, there is much less appreciation of the role that it plays in his thought—a topic that is investigated in this essay. At the same time, this investigation is closely concerned with questions about the nature of metaphor. Comparisons are made between a central metaphorical structure in the Zhuangzi on the one hand and contemporary views of the nature of metaphor by Donald Davidson and by Lakoff and Johnson on the (...)
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  5. Sacha Loeve (2011). Sensible Atoms: A Techno-Aesthetic Approach to Representation. [REVIEW] Nanoethics 5 (2):203-222.
    This essay argues that nano-images would be best understood with an aesthetical approach rather than with an epistemological critique. For this aim, I propose a ‘techno-aesthetical’ approach: an enquiry into the way instruments and machines transform the logic of the sensible itself and not just the way by which it represents something else. Unlike critical epistemology, which remains self-evidently grounded on a representationalist philosophy, the approach developed here presents the advantage of providing a clear-cut distinction between image-as-representation and other modes (...)
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  6. John Michael McGuire (2003). Davidson on Metaphorical Meaning: A Reply to Stainton. Dialogue 42 (02):355-.
    That the central thesis of Donald Davidson’s classic article on metaphor “What Metaphor Means” (WMM) is ambiguous between a weak and a strong interpretation is the primary claim that I sought to establish in my article “Sentence Meaning, Speaker Meaning, and Davidson’s Denial of Metaphorical Meaning.” In addition to this, I argued that the weak claim is trivially true and the strong claim is obviously false. Therefore, I concluded that when the central thesis of WMM is disambiguated, it is insignificant. (...)
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  7. Anna Mudde (2011). I Do, I Undo, I Redo: The Textual Genesis of Modernist Selves in Hopkins, Yeats, Conrad, Forster, Joyce, and Woolf, by Finn Fordham. [REVIEW] Symposium 15 (2):234-236.
  8. Dennis Potter (2006). Diagrammatic Representation in Geometry. Dialectica 60 (4):369–382.
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  9. Lynne Tirrell (1991). Seeing Metaphor as Seeing-As: Davidson's Positive View of Metaphor. Philosophical Investigations 14 (2):143-154.
    Davidson suggests that metaphor is a pragmatic (not a semantic) phenomenon; it prompts its audience to see one thing as another. Davidson rightly attacks speaker-intentionalism as the source of metaphorical meaning, but settles for an account that depends on audience intentions. A better approach would undermine intentionalism per se, replacing it with a social practice analysis based on patterns of extending the metaphor. This paper shows why Davidson’s perceptual model fails to stave off semantic analysis, and argues that the professed (...)
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  10. Kenneth R. Westphal (1997). ‘Hegel, Formalism, and Robert Turner’s Ceramic Art’. Jahrbuch für Hegelforschung 3:259–283.
    Hegel’s aesthetic ideal is the perfect integration of form and content within a work of art. This ideal is incompatible with the predominant 20th-century principle of formalist criticism, that form is the sole important factor in a work of art. Although the formalist dichotomy between form and content has been criticized on philosophical grounds, that does not suffice to justify Hegel’s ideal. Justifying Hegel’s ideal requires detailed art criticism that shows how form and content are, and why they should be, (...)
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Aesthetic Symbol Systems
  1. Guy Bennett-Hunter (2010). Christmas Mythologies: Sacred and Secular. In Scott C. Lowe (ed.), Christmas: Philosophy For Everyone. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  2. Ben Blumson (2011). Depictive Structure? Philosophical Papers 40 (1):1-25.
    This paper argues against definitions of depiction in terms of the syntactic and semantic properties of symbol systems. In particular, it is argued that John Kulvicki's definition of depictive symbol systems in terms of relative repleteness, semantic richness, syntactic sensitivity and transparency is susceptible to similar counterexamples as Nelson Goodman's in terms of syntactic density, semantic density and relative repleteness. The general moral drawn is that defining depiction requires attention not merely to descriptive questions about syntax and semantics, but also (...)
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  3. Ben Blumson (2008). Depiction and Convention. Dialectica 62 (3):335-348.
    By defining both depictive and linguistic representation as kinds of symbol system, Nelson Goodman attempts to undermine the platitude that, whereas linguistic representation is mediated by convention, depiction is mediated by resemblance. I argue that Goodman is right to draw a strong analogy between the two kinds of representation, but wrong to draw the counterintuitive conclusion that depiction is not mediated by resemblance.
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  4. Jochen Briesen (2014). Pictorial Art and Epistemic Aims. In Harald Klinke (ed.), Art Theory as Visual Epistemology. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 11-28.
    The question whether art is of any epistemic value is an old question in the philosophy of art. Whereas many contemporary artists, art-critics, and art-historians answer this question affirmatively, many contemporary philosophers remain skeptical. If art is of epistemic significance, they maintain, then it has to contribute to our quest of achieving our most basic epistemic aim, namely knowledge.Unfortunately, recent and widely accepted analyses of knowledge make it very hard to see how art might significantly contribute to the quest of (...)
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  5. Andrew Chignell (2007). Kant on the Normativity of Taste: The Role of Aesthetic Ideas. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (3):415 – 433.
    For Kant, the form of a subject's experience of an object provides the normative basis for an aesthetic judgement about it. In other words, if the subject's experience of an object has certain structural properties, then Kant thinks she can legitimately judge that the object is beautiful - and that it is beautiful for everyone. My goal in this paper is to provide a new account of how this 'subjective universalism' is supposed to work. In doing so, I appeal to (...)
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  6. Andrew Chignell (2006). Beauty as a Symbol of Natural Systematicity. British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (4):406-415.
    I examine Kant's claim that a relation of symbolization links judgments of beauty and judgments of ‘systematicity’ in nature (that is, judgments concerning the ordering of natural forms under hierarchies of laws). My aim is to show that the symbolic relation between the two is, for Kant, much closer than many commentators think: it is not only the form but also the objects of some of our judgments of taste that symbolize the systematicity of nature. -/- .
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  7. Rory J. Conces (2011). Using Public Evocative Objects to Support a Multiethnic Democractic Society in Kosovo (II) Fields of Existence Vs. Fields of Battle. Bosnia Daily:9-10.
  8. Rory J. Conces (2011). Using Public Evocative Objects to Support a Multiethnic Democratic Society in Kosovo (I) Friendly and Enemy Images. Bosnia Daily.
  9. Nelson Goodman (1968). Languages of Art. Bobbs-Merrill.
    . . . Unlike Dewey, he has provided detailed incisive argumentation, and has shown just where the dogmas and dualisms break down." -- Richard Rorty, The Yale Review.
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  10. John V. Kulvicki (2006). On Images: Their Structure and Content. Clarendon.
    What makes pictures different from all of the other ways we have of representing things? Why do pictures seem so immediate? What makes a picture realistic or not? Against prevailing wisdom, Kulvicki claims that what makes pictures special is not how we perceive them, but how they relate to one another. This not only provides some new answers to old questions, but it shows that there are many more kinds of pictures out there than many have thought.
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  11. Oliver Robert Scholz (2000). A Solid Sense of Syntax. Erkenntnis 52 (2):199-212.
    Every materially adequate explication of the concepts ``picture''and ``the pictorial'' has to appeal to syntactical properties.From the available definitions, a conception of syntax is extractedthat is applicable to symbol systems of any sort. Against thisbackground, it is shown that a non-semantical characterization ofthe pictorial is mandatory. Finally, specific syntactical featuresare explicated that recommend themselves as necessary conditions forthe application of the concept of a picture.
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  12. Inga Vermeulen, Georg Brun & Christoph Baumberger (2009). Five Ways of (Not) Defining Exempliflcation. In G. Ernst, J. Steinbrenner & O. Scholz (eds.), From Logic to Art: Themes From Nelson Goodman. Ontos. 7--219.
    The notion of exemplification is essential for Goodman’s theory of symbols. But Goodman’s account of exemplification has been criticized as unclear and inadequate. He points out two conditions for an object x exemplifying a label y: (C1) y denotes x and (C2) x refers to y. While (C1) is uncontroversial, (C2) raises the question of how “refers to” should be interpreted. This problem is intertwined with three further questions that consequently should be discussed together with it. Are the two necessary (...)
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  13. Kendall L. Walton (1971). Languages of Art: An Emendation. Philosophical Studies 22 (5-6):82 - 85.
    In nelson goodman's "languages of art" a symbol system must be 'finitely differentiated', both syntactically and semantically, to count as a 'notation'. goodman's formulations of these differentiation requirements are seriously defective. it is shown that most of the examples of systems which he claims fail these requirements, do not fail them as they are stated. reformulations of the two requirements are offered, which accord with the examples and seem otherwise acceptable.
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Intention and Interpretation
  1. M. Cristina Amoretti & Nicla Vassallo (eds.) (2008). Knowledge, Language, and Interpretation: On the Philosophy of Donald Davidson. Ontos Verlag.
    Thanks to their heterogeneity, the nine essays in this volume offer a clear testimony of Donald Davidson's authority, and they undoubtedly show how much his work - even if it has raised many doubts and criticisms - has been, and still is, highly influential and significant in contemporary analytical philosophy for a wide range of subjects. Moreover, the various articles not only critically and carefully analyse Davidson's theses and arguments (in particular those concerning language and knowledge), but they also illustrate (...)
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  2. Ben Blumson, 'Metaphorically'.
    Not every metaphor can be literally paraphrased by a corresponding simile – the metaphorical meaning of ‘Juliet is the sun’, for example, is not the literal meaning of ‘Juliet is like the sun’. But every metaphor can be literally paraphrased, since if ‘metaphorically’ is prefixed to a metaphor, the result says literally what the metaphor says figuratively – the metaphorical meaning of ‘Juliet is the sun’, for example, is the literal meaning of ‘metaphorically, Juliet is the sun’.
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  3. Laurie Calhoun (1994). The Intentional Fallacy. Philosophy and Literature 18 (2):337-338.
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  4. Noël Carroll (1997). The Intentional Fallacy: Defending Myself. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 55 (3):305-309.
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  5. Johan de Smedt & Helen de Cruz (2011). A Cognitive Approach to the Earliest Art. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 69 (4):379-389.
    This paper takes a cognitive perspective to assess the significance of some Late Palaeolithic artefacts (sculptures and engraved objects) for philosophicalconcepts of art. We examine cognitive capacities that are necessary to produceand recognize objects that are denoted as art. These include the ability toattribute and infer design (design stance), the ability to distinguish between themateriality of an object and its meaning (symbol-mindedness), and an aesthetic sensitivity to some perceptual stimuli. We investigate to what extent thesecognitive processes played a role in (...)
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  6. George Dickie & W. Kent Wilson (1995). The Intentional Fallacy: Defending Beardsley. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 53 (3):233-250.
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  7. Carol Donnell-Kotrozo (1980). The Intentional Fallacy: An Applied Reappraisal. British Journal of Aesthetics 20 (4):356-365.
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  8. James Downey (2007). A Fallacy in the Intentional Fallacy. Philosophy and Literature 31 (1):149-152.
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  9. John Gibson (2010). Interpretation, Sincerity and "Theory&Quot;. Contemporary Aesthetics 8.
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  10. A. Huddleston (2012). The Conversation Argument for Actual Intentionalism. British Journal of Aesthetics 52 (3):241-256.
    Proponents of actual intentionalism hold that an author’s actual intentions should constrain the proper interpretation of his or her works. If, for example, we have good reason to think Proust intends his character Marcel to set out to write a different novel from In Search of Lost Time itself, then that is how we should interpret the text. After decades of being denigrated as the ‘intentional fallacy’, actual intentionalism has enjoyed a renaissance in philosophical aesthetics in recent years, thanks in (...)
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  11. Berel Lang (1974). The Intentional Fallacy Revisited. British Journal of Aesthetics 14 (4):306-314.
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  12. Lawrence Lengbeyer (2005). Humor, Context, and Divided Cognition. Social Theory and Practice 31 (3):309-36.
    Those who suggest that only a sexist (or racist, or anti-semite) can experience amusement at a sexist (or racist, or anti-semitic) joke have failed to grasp two underappreciated features of the psychology of humor: (1) that amusement is sensitive to what is conveyed to the audience by the contexts within which a joke is taken to be situated, and hence to pragmatic, and not merely semantic, factors; and (2) that, given the non-integrated nature of the ordinary human cognitive system, the (...)
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  13. Paisley Livingston (2005). Art and Intention: A Philosophical Study. Oxford University Press.
    In Art and intention Paisley Livingston develops a broad and balanced perspective on perennial disputes between intentionalists and anti-intentionalists in philosophical aesthetics and critical theory. He surveys and assesses a wide range of rival assumptions about the nature of intentions and the status of intentionalist psychology. With detailed reference to examples from diverse media, art forms, and traditions, he demonstrates that insights into the multiple functions of intentions have important implications for our understanding of artistic creation and authorship, the ontology (...)
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  14. Christian Lotz (2012). Distant Presence. Representation, Painting and Photography in Gerhard Richter’s Reader. Painting and Photography in Gerhard Richter’s Reader,” Symposium. Canadian Journal for Continental Philosophy 16 (1):87-111.
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  15. Colin Lyas (1983). Anything Goes: The Intentional Fallacy Revisited. British Journal of Aesthetics 23 (4):291-305.
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  16. Hans Maes (2010). Intention, Interpretation and Contemporary Visual Art. British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (2):121-138.
    The role of the artist's intention in the interpretation of art has been the topic of a lively and ongoing discussion in analytic aesthetics. First, I sketch the current state of this debate, focusing especially on two competing views: actual and hypothetical intentionalism. Secondly, I discuss the search for a suitable test case, that is, a work of art that is interpreted differently by actual and hypothetical intentionalists, with only one of these interpretations being plausible. Many examples from many different (...)
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  17. Patrick Maynard (2012). What's So Funny? Comic Content in Depiction. In Cook Meskin (ed.), The Art of Comics: A Philosophical Approach. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This paper addresses standard questions regarding comics and the arts (comics and fine arts, image and word combinations), then poses and addresses the neglected, but deeper and wider--thus philosophical--question, of how depictions, not just words, can have mental contents at all, including light, funny, scathing, comic ones.
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  18. John Michael McGuire (1999). Pictorial Metaphors: A Reply to Sedivy. Metaphor and Symbol 14 (4):293-302.
    This article is concerned with the question of whether, and to what extent, the concept of metaphor properly applies to pictures (e.g., paintings or photographs). The question is approached dialectically through an examination of the views of Sonia Sedivy, who advances the following 4 claims: (a) that pictures possess propositional content, (b) that there are metaphoric pictures, (c) that metaphoric pictures do not possess metaphoric content, and (d) that there can be no theory of pictorial metaphor. Although the first of (...)
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  19. A. C. Ribeiro (2007). Review: Art and Intention: A Philosophical Study. [REVIEW] Mind 116 (462):453-459.
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  20. Emilio Roma Iii (1966). The Scope of The Intentional Fallacy. The Monist 50 (2):250-266.
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  21. Stephen Snyder (2010). Arthur Danto’s Andy Warhol: The Embodiment of Theory in Art and the Pragmatic Turn. Leitmotiv:135-151.
    Arthur Danto’s recent book, Andy Warhol, leads the reader through the story of the iconic American’s artistic life highlighted by a philosophical commentary, a commentary that merges Danto’s aesthetic theory with the artist himself. Inspired by Warhol’s Brillo Box installation, art that in Danto’s eyes was indiscernible from the everyday boxes it represented, Danto developed a theory that is able to differentiate art from non-art by employing the body of conceptual art theory manifest in what he termed the ‘artworld’. The (...)
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Aesthetic Representation and Meaning, Misc
  1. Brian P. Copenhaver & Rebecca Copenhaver (2008). How Croce Became a Philosopher. History of Philosophy Quarterly 25 (1):75 - 94.
  2. John Dilworth (2005). Resemblance, Restriction, and Content-Bearing Features. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (1):67–70.
    In "A Restriction for Pictures and Some Consequences for a Theory of Depiction", Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 61, 4 (2003): 381-394, Michael Newall defended a resemblance view of depiction. He concentrated on pictures X involving a perpendicular view of the physical surface of another picture Y, and argued that the actual restrictions on what picture X can depict of Y's physical surface are best explained by a strict resemblance or similarity view. But I show that there are many (...)
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  3. John Dilworth (2003). Medium, Subject Matter and Representation. Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):45-62.
    I argue that the physical marks on a canvas resulting from an artist's intentional, stylistic and expressive acts cannot themselves be the artist's expression, but instead they serve to signify or indicate those acts. Thus there is a kind of indicative content associated with a picture that is distinct from its subject matter (or 'representational content'). I also argue that this kind of indicative content is closely associated with the specific artistic medium chosen by the artist as her expressive medium, (...)
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  4. Chrysoula Gitsoulis, Wittgenstein and Surrealism. Essays in Philosophy.
    There are two aspects to Wittgenstein’s method of deconstructing pseudo-philosophical problems that need to be distinguished: (1) describing actual linguistic practice, and (2) constructing hypothetical ‘language-games’. Both methods were, for Wittgenstein, indispensable means of clarifying the ‘grammar’ of expressions of our language -- i.e., the appropriate contexts for using those expressions – and thereby dissolving pseudo-philosophical problems. Though (2) is often conflated with (1), it is important to recognize that it differs from it in important respects. (1) can be seen (...)
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  5. Eran Guter (2010). Ornamentality in the New Media. In Anat Biletzki (ed.), Hues of Philosophy: Essays in Memory of Ruth Manor. College Publications.
    Ornamentality is pervasive in the new media and it is related to their essential characteristics: dispersal, hypertextuality, interactivity, digitality and virtuality. I utilize Kendall Walton's theory of ornamentality in order to construe a puzzle pertaining to the new media. the ornamental erosion of information. I argue that insofar as we use the new media as conduits of real life, the excessive density of ornamental devices which is prevalent in certain new media environments, forces us to conduct our inquiries under conditions (...)
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  6. James R. Hamilton (1995). Handke's Kaspar, Wittgenstein's Tractatus, and the Successful Representation of Alienation. Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism 9 (2):3-26.
    An investigation of Handke's play by means of an analysis of the elements of the Tractatus, known to have influenced Handke at the time he wrote Kaspar. This approach yields a much more plausible account of Handke's representation of his central character's alienation than are available from now-standard semiotic and post-structuralist analyses.
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