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  1. Anita L. Allen (2011). Was I Entitled or Should I Apologize? Affirmative Action Going Forward. Journal of Ethics 15 (3):253-263.
    As a U.S. civil rights policy, affirmative action commonly denotes race-conscious and result-oriented efforts by private and public officials to correct the unequal distribution of economic opportunity and education attributed to slavery, segregation, poverty and racism. Opponents argue that affirmative action (1) violates ideals of color-blind public policies, offending moral principles of fairness and constitutional principles of equality and due process; (2) has proven to be socially and politically divisive; (3) has not made things better; (4) mainly benefits middle-class, wealthy (...)
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  2. Andrew Altman (2001). Policy, Principle, and Incrementalism: Dworkin's Jurisprudence of Race. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 5 (3):241-262.
    For several decades, Ronald Dworkinhas been one of the most prominent voicesdefending the legality and justifiability ofrace-conscious programs aimed at undoing thecontinuing effects of prejudice. Writingwithin the framework of a liberal legalphilosophy, he has formulated powerfularguments against the view that color-blindpolicies are the only defensible ones. Nonetheless, I argue that a more completeliberal defense of race-conscious policieswould need to develop and modify Dworkin''s lineof argument. Such a defense would go beyondhis policy-based arguments and incorporatearguments of principle. Race-conscious policiesdo not only (...)
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  3. Richard F. America (1986). Affirmative Action and Redistributive Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 5 (1):73 - 77.
    Management faces complex race related issues in which groups arguing entitlement appear to claim benefits historically enjoyed by others. Thus many affirmative action issues provoke animosity because they are framed as zero sum problems. To some extent they are zero sum. Therefore, rationales for corporate policy must address that forthrightly. Up to now the corporate justification has been weak. The article describes a social debt owed interracially resulting from the accumulation of current class benefits from past discrimination, and asserts that (...)
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  4. Elizabeth Anderson, The Divided Society and the Democratic Idea by Glenn C. Loury University Lecture Boston University October 7, 1996.
    If truth is not unproblematic, then neither is it inaccessible. And, telling the truth is decidedly a political act. "From the viewpoint of politics, truth has a despotic character," declared Hannah Arendt, in her essay, "Truth and Politics." "Unwelcome opinion can be argued with, rejected, or compromised upon," she goes on, "but unwelcome facts possess an infuriating stubbornness that nothing can move except plain lies." Moreover, at this late date in the twentieth century, we know that social justice is impossible (...)
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  5. Kwame Anthony Appiah (2011). “Group Rights” and Racial Affirmative Action. Journal of Ethics 15 (3):265-280.
    This article argues against the view that affirmative action is wrong because it involves assigning group rights. First, affirmative action does not have to proceed by assigning rights at all. Second, there are, in fact, legitimate “group rights” both legal and moral; there are collective rights—which are exercised by groups—and membership rights—which are rights people have in virtue of group membership. Third, there are continuing harms that people suffer as blacks and claims to remediation for these harms can fairly treat (...)
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  6. N. Scott Arnold (1998). Affirmative Action and the Demands of Justice. Social Philosophy and Policy 15 (02):133-.
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  7. Stephen W. Ball (2005). Carl Cohen and James P. Sterba, Affirmative Action and Racial Preference: A Debate:Affirmative Action and Racial Preference: A Debate. Ethics 116 (1):226-228.
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  8. William Banner (1979). Reverse Discrimination: Misconception and Confusion. Journal of Social Philosophy 10 (1):15-18.
  9. T. L. Beauchamp (2006). Review: Affirmative Action and Racial Preference: A Debate. [REVIEW] Mind 115 (459):747-750.
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  10. Tom L. Beauchamp (1998). In Defense of Affirmative Action. Journal of Ethics 2 (2):143-158.
    Affirmative action refers to positive steps taken to hire persons from groups previously and presently discriminated against. Considerable evidence indicates that this discrimination is intractable and cannot be eliminated by the enforcement of laws. Numerical goals and quotas are justified if and only if they are necessary to overcome the discriminatory effects that could not otherwise be eliminated with reasonable efficiency. Many past as well as present policies are justified in this way.
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  11. Sandra L. Bem, Two Studies Are Reported Which Indicate That Both Sex-Biased Wording in Job Advertisements and the Placement of Help-Wanted Ads in Sex-Segregated Newspaper.
    Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act forbids discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin — and sex. Although the sex provision was treated as a joke at the time (and was originally introduced by a Southern Congressman in an attempt to defeat the bill), the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC) — charged with enforcing the Act — discovered in its first year of operation that 40% or more of the complaints warranting investigation charged (...)
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  12. J. H. Bogart (1992). Book Review:Affirmative Action and Justice: A Philosophical and Constitutional Inquiry. Michel Rosenfeld. [REVIEW] Ethics 102 (4):867-.
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  13. David Boonin (2011). Should Race Matter?: Unusual Answers to the Usual Questions. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Thinking in black and white; 2. Repairing the slave reparations debate; 3. Advancing the slave reparations debate; 4. One cheer for affirmative action; 5. Two cheers for affirmative action; 6. Why I used to hate hate speech restrictions; 7. Why I still hate hate speech restrictions; 8. How to stop worrying and learn to love hate crime laws; 9. How to keep on loving hate crime laws; 10. Is racial profiling irrational?; 11. Is racial profiling (...)
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  14. Bernard Boxill (2010). Discrimination, Affirmative Action, and Diversity in Business. In George G. Brenkert & Tom L. Beauchamp (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  15. Bernard R. Boxill (1995). Book Review:Affirmative Action and the University: A Philosophical Inquiry. Steven M. Cahn. [REVIEW] Ethics 105 (3):672-.
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  16. Michael Boylan (2002). Affirmative Action: Strategies for the Future. Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (1):117–130.
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  17. Prue Burns & Jan Schapper (2008). The Ethical Case for Affirmative Action. Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):369 - 379.
    Affirmative action has been a particularly contentious policy issue that has polarised contributions to the debate. Over recent times in most western countries, support for affirmative action has, however, been largely snuffed out or beaten into retreat and replaced by the concept of ‹diversity management’. Thus, any contemporary study that examines the development of affirmative action would suggest that its opponents have won the battle. Nonetheless, this article argues that because the battle has been won on dubious ethical grounds it (...)
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  18. Steven M. Cahn (2009). Concepts of Affirmative Action. In , Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.
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  19. Nicholas Capaldi (1988). Affirmative Action. In Tibor R. Machan (ed.), Commerce and Morality. Rowman & Littlefield.
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  20. George Carwe (2000). Affirmative Action in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Social Philosophy Today 16:77-94.
    In order to dismantle the racial and social hierarchy that is the legacy of apartheid, South Africa has followed the lead of Western liberal democracies andappropriated the discourse of affirmative action. This paper argues that current affirmative action policy fails in significant ways because it paradoxically ignores the concrete social and historical conditions of race and racism in South Africa and simply aims to normalize competition among abstract individuals by using a principle of racial neutrality The author argues that social (...)
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  21. Paula Chegwidden & Wendy R. Katz (1983). American and Canadian Perspectives on Affirmative Action: A Response to the Fraser Institute. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 2 (3):191 - 202.
    The publication of the Fraser Institute's Discrimination, Affirmative Action, and Equal Opportunity offers an occasion to review some of the practical and philosophical issues raised by affirmative action policy. Canadian affirmative action programs derive from the American context, which is here reviewed, but do not have the legal recourse available in the American system. Perhaps as a consequence, most Canadian programs have been carried out by governments acting in their role as employers. The Canadian Union of Public Employees has been (...)
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  22. William Cooney (1989). Affirmative Action and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (2):201-204.
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  23. J. Angelo Corlett (1993). Racism and Affirmative Action. Journal of Social Philosophy 24 (1):163-175.
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  24. Stephen M. Crow & Dinah Payne (1992). Affirmative Action for a Face Only a Mother Could Love? Journal of Business Ethics 11 (11):869 - 875.
    Physical attractiveness is highly valued in our society and impacts a variety of decisions made by organizations. Generally speaking, research findings suggest that the more attractive the person, the greater the likelihood of favorable employment-related decisions. It follows then, that those considered physically unattractive will suffer adversely in some employment-related decisional contexts — decisions that may prevent them from achieving the good life. Until recently, discrimination against unattractive people has been considered nothing more than a moral or ethical issue. However, (...)
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  25. Kenneth DeVille & Loretta M. Kopelman (2003). Diversity, Trust, and Patient Care: Affirmative Action in Medical Education 25 Years After Bakke. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (4):489 – 516.
    The U.S. Supreme Court's seminal 1978 Bakke decision, now 25 years old, has an ambiguous and endangered legacy. Justice Lewis Powell's opinion provided a justification that allowed leaders in medical education to pursue some affirmative action policies while at the same time undermining many other potential defenses. Powell asserted that medical schools might have a "compelling interest" in the creation of a diverse student body. But Powell's compromise jeopardized affirmative action since it blocked many justifications for responding to increases (...)
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  26. Daniel Dombrowski (2002). Moral Individualism and Affirmative Action. Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 10 (1):39-60.
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  27. Steven N. Durlauf (2008). Affirmative Action, Meritocracy, and Efficiency. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (2):131-158.
    This article provides a framework for comparing meritocratic and affirmative action admissions policies. The context of the analysis is admissions to public universities; admission rules are evaluated as part of the public investment problem faced by a state government. Meritocratic and affirmative admissions policies are compared in terms of their effects on the level and distribution of human capital. I argue that (a) meritocratic admissions are not necessarily efficient and (b) affirmative action policies may be efficiency enhancing relative to meritocratic (...)
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  28. Parker English (1992). Affirmative Action and Philosophy Instruction. Teaching Philosophy 15 (4):311-327.
  29. Ovadia Ezra (2007). Equality of Opportunity and Affirmative Action. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 14 (1):22-37.
    This paper deals with the policy of affirmative action as an additional means for achieving equality of opportunity in society. It assumes that in modem society-at least in principle-the superior positions are distributed according to merit, and on the basis of fair competition. I argue that formal equality of opportunity injects apparently neutral requirements, such as experience, into the selection procedure for top positions, that, in fact, act particularly against women, since they allow the past employment situation to affect the (...)
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  30. Farrell & James P. Sterba (2008). Does Feminism Discriminate Against Men?: A Debate. OUP USA.
    Does feminism give a much-needed voice to women in a patriarchal world? Or is the world not really patriarchal? Has feminism begun to level the playing field in a world in which women are more often paid less at work and abused at home? Or are women paid equally for the same work and not abused more at home? Does feminism support equality in education and in the military, or does it discriminate against men by ignoring such issues as male-only (...)
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  31. Walter Feinberg (1999). Justice and Affirmative Action: A Response to Howe. Studies in Philosophy and Education 18 (4):277-285.
  32. J. Franke, Does Affirmative Action Reduce Effort Incentives? A Contest Game Analysis.
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  33. Robert Fullinwider, Affirmative Action. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  34. Todd Michael Furman (1998). A Dialogue Concerning Claim Jumping and Compensatory Justice or Introducing Affirmative Action By Stealth. Teaching Philosophy 21 (2):131-151.
  35. Paul J. Gibbs (1998). Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Unfair Preference? Teaching Philosophy 21 (1):84-87.
  36. Paul J. Gibbs (1996). Talking About Affirmative Action. Teaching Philosophy 19 (3):285-287.
  37. Edwin L. Goff (1976). Affirmative Action, John Rawls, and a Partial Compliance Theory of Justice. Philosophy and Social Criticism 4 (1):43-59.
  38. Alan H. Goldman (1978). Correspondence. Philosophy and Public Affairs 7 (4):391-393.
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  39. Alan H. Goldman (1976). Affirmative Action. Philosophy and Public Affairs 5 (2):178-195.
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  40. Leo Groarke (1996). What's in a Number? Consequentialism and Employment Equity in Hall, Hurka, Sumner and Baker Et Al. Dialogue 35 (02):359-.
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  41. Leo Groarke (1990). Affirmative Action as a Form of Restitution. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (3):207 - 213.
    Though the common sense defense of affirmative action (or employment equity) appeals to principles of restitution, philosophers have tried to defend it in other ways. In contrast, I defend it by appealing to the notion of restitution, arguing (1) that alternative attempts to justify affirmative action fail; and (2) that ordinary affirmative action programs need to be supplemented and amended in keeping with the principles this suggests.
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  42. Mane Hajdin (2002). Affirmative Action, Old and New. Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (1):83–96.
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  43. Luke C. Harris (2003). Contesting the Ambivalence and Hostility to Affirmative Action Within the Black Community. In Tommy Lee Lott & John P. Pittman (eds.), A Companion to African-American Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
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  44. Madeline E. Heilman (1997). Sex Discrimination and the Affirmative Action Remedy: The Role of Sex Stereotypes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (9):877-889.
    This paper explores the psychological phenomena of sex stereotypes and their consequences for the occurrence of sex discrimination in work settings. Differential conceptions of the attributes of women and men are shown to extend to women and men managers, and the lack of fit model is used to explain how stereotypes about women can detrimentally affect their career progress. Commonly-occurring organizational conditions which facilitate the use of stereotypes in personnel decision making are identified and, lastly, data are provided demonstrating the (...)
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  45. Thomas E. Hill (1991). The Message of Affirmative Action. Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (02):108-.
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  46. K. E. Himma (2001). Discrimination and Disidentification: The Fair-Start Defense of Affirmative Action. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 30 (3):277 - 289.
    The Fair-Start Defense justifies affirmative action preferences as a response to harms caused by race- and sex-based discrimination. Rather than base a justification for preferences on the traditional appeal to self-esteem, I argue they are justified in virtue of the effects institutional discrimination has on the goals and aspirations of its victims. In particular, I argue that institutional discrimination puts women and blacks at an unfair competitive disadvantage by causing academic disidentification. Affirmative action is justified as a means of negating (...)
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  47. Kenneth Einar Himma (2002). Desert, Entitlement, and Affirmative Action. Social Theory and Practice 28 (1):157-166.
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  48. Alison M. Jaggar (1997). Gender, Race, and Difference: Individual Consideration Versus Group-Based Affirmative Action in Admission to Higher Education. Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (S1):21-51.
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  49. David Kyle Johnson (2008). Attacking with the North : Affirmative Action and The Office (US). In Jeremy Wisnewski (ed.), The Office and Philosophy: Scenes From the Unexamined Life. Blackwell Pub..
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  50. Jeff Jordan (1990). The Doctrine of Double Effect and Affirmative Action. Journal of Applied Philosophy 7 (2):213-216.
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