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  1. Donald C. Ainslie (2002). Bioethics and the Problem of Pluralism. Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (2):1-28.
    The state that we inhabit plays a significant role in shaping our lives. For not only do its institutions constrain the kinds of lives we can lead, but it also claims the right to punish us if our choices take us beyond what it deems to be appropriate limits. Political philosophers have traditionally tried to justify the state's power by appealing to their preferred theories of justice, as articulated in complex and wide-ranging moral theories—utilitarianism, Kantianism, and the like. One of (...)
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  2. Barry Allen (2003). Knowledge and Civilization. Westview Press.
    Knowledge and Civilization advances detailed criticism of philosophy's usual approach to knowledge and describes a redirection, away from textbook problems of epistemology, toward an ecological philosophy of technology and civilization. Rejecting theories that confine knowledge to language or discourse, Allen situates knowledge in the greater field of artifacts, technical performance, and human evolution. His wide ranging considerations draw on ideas from evolutionary biology, archaeology, anthropology, and the history of cities, art, and technology.
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  3. J. Almog (2005). 'What Am I?' Descartes and the Mind-Body Problem - Reply. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (3):717-734.
    In his Meditations, René Descartes asks, "what am I?" His initial answer is "a man." But he soon discards it: "But what is a man? Shall I say 'a rational animal'? No: for then I should inquire what an animal is, what rationality is, and in this way one question would lead down the slope to harder ones." Instead of understanding what a man is, Descartes shifts to two new questions: "What is Mind?" and "What is Body?" These questions develop (...)
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  4. David M. Armstrong (1981). What is Consciousness? In John Heil (ed.), The Nature of Mind. Cornell University Press
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  5. David M. Armstrong (1979). Three Types of Consciousness. In Brain and Mind. (Ciba Foundation Symposium 69) 235.
  6. Murat Aydede & Guven Guzeldere (2001). Consciousness, Conceivability Arguments, and Perspectivalism: The Dialectics of the Debate. Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal 34 (1-2):99-122.
  7. Alexander Bain (1894). Definition and Problems of Consciousness. Mind 3 (11):348-361.
  8. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino & Clevis Headley (eds.) (2007). Shifting the Geography of Reason: Gender, Science and Religion. Cambridge Scholars Press.
  9. Hiranmoy Banerjee (2003). Introspectible Consciousness: What Philosophers Can Do About It. In Perspectives on Consciousness. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal
  10. S. S. Barlingay (1976). Awareness. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 4 (October):83-96.
  11. Gerald W. Barnes (2002). Conceivability, Explanation, and Defeat. Philosophical Studies 108 (3):327-338.
    Hill and Levine offer alternative explanations of these conceivabilities, concluding that these conceivabilities are thereby defeated as evidence. However, this strategy fails because their explanations generalize to all conceivability judgments concerning phenomenal states. Consequently, one could defend absolutely any theory of phenomenal states against conceivability arguments in just this way. This result conflicts with too many of our common sense beliefs about the evidential value of conceivability with respect to phenomenal states. The general moral is that the application of such (...)
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  12. George Bealer (1994). The Rejection of the Identity Thesis. In The Mind-Body Problem: A Guide to the Current Debate. Cambridge: Blackwell
    In this paper, the arguments against the mind-body identity thesis from the author’s [1994] paper, “Mental Properties,” are presented but in significantly more detail. It is shown that, because of scientific essentialism, two currently popular arguments against the identity thesis -- the multiple-realizability argument and the Nagel-Jackson knowledge argument -- are unsatisfactory as they stand and that their problems are incurable. It is then shown that a refutation of the identity thesis in its full generality can be achieved by weaving (...)
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  13. George Bealer (1987). The Philosophical Limits of Scientific Essentialism. Philosophical Perspectives 1:289-365.
    Scientific essentialism is the view that some necessities can be known only with the aid of empirical science. The thesis of the paper is that scientific essentialism does not extend to the central questions of philosophy and that these questions can be answered a priori. The argument is that the evidence required for the defense of scientific essentialism is reliable only if the intuitions required by philosophy to answer its central questions is also reliable. Included is an outline of a (...)
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  14. Rodrigo Becerra (2004). Homonymous Mistakes with Ontological Aspirations: The Persisting Problem with the Word 'Consciousness'. Sorites 15 (December):11-23.
    In order to understand consciousness one would benefit from developing a more eclectic intellectual style. Consciousness is, as proposed by almost everyone except the stubborn reductionists, a truly mysterious concept. Its study and dissection merits a multidisciplinary approach. Waving this multidisciplinary flag has positively enlarged the discussion and neurologists, psychiatrists, mathematicians, and so on, have moved to the philosophy of mind arena, first with caution and now with a more powerful voice. Identifying what we mean by consciousness is a first (...)
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  15. Lewis White Beck (1940). The Psychophysical as a Pseudo-Problem. Journal of Philosophy 37 (October):561-71.
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  16. Peter Bieri (1995). Why is Consciousness Puzzling? In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Conscious Experience. Ferdinand Schoningh 45--60.
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  17. Kirsten Birkett (2006). Conscious Objections: God and the Consciousness Debates. Zygon 41 (2):249-266.
  18. John I. Biro (1993). Consciousness and Objectivity. In Martin Davies & Glyn W. Humphreys (eds.), Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays. Blackwell
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  19. Susan J. Blackmore (2003). What is It Like to Be...? In Consciousness: An Introduction. Oxford University Press
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  20. David Brax (2003). The Nature of Explanation in a Theory of Consciousness. Lund University Cognitive Studies 106.
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  21. Bruce B. Janz (2011). Philosophy in an African Place. Lexington Books.
    Philosophy in an African Place shifts the central question of African philosophy from "Is there an African philosophy?" to "What is it to do philosophy in this place?" This book both opens up new questions within the field and also establishes "philosophy-in-place", a mode of philosophy which begins from the places in which concepts have currency and shows how a truly creative philosophy can emerge from focusing on questioning, listening, and attention to difference.
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  22. Chike Jeffers (ed.) (2014). Listening to Ourselves: A Multilingual Anthology of African Philosophy. State University of New York Press.
    _Contemporary African philosophy in indigenous African languages and English translation._.
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  23. Mehmet Karabela (2011). Introduction to Africana Philosophy, Lewis Gordon, Cambridge University Press, 2008. [REVIEW] Canadian Journal of African Studies 45 (3):605-608.
  24. Lee M. Brown (ed.) (2004). African Philosophy. Oxford University Press Usa.
    In the last two decades the idea of African Philosophy has undergone significant change and scrutiny. Some critics have maintained that the idea of a system of philosophical thought tied to African traditions is incoherent. In African Philosophy Lee Brown has collected new essays by top scholars in the field that in various ways respond to these criticisms and defend the notion of African Philosophy. The essays address both epistemological and metaphysical issues that are specific to the traditional conceptual languages (...)
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  25. Lucius Outlaw (1997). Africana Philosophy. Journal of Ethics 1 (3):265-290.
    Africana Philosophy is a gathering notion used to cover collectively particular articulations, and traditions of particular articulations, of persons African and African-descended that are to be regarded as instances of philosophizing. (The notion is meant to cover, as well, the philosophizing efforts of persons not African or African-descended, efforts that are, nonetheless, contributions to the philosophizing endeavors that constitute Africana philosophy.) A central concern of the essay is the question whether there are characteristics of the philosophizing practices of persons identified (...)
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  26. Tsenay Serequeberhan (2013). The Hermeneutics of African Philosophy: Horizon and Discourse. Routledge.
    Hermeneutics is a crucial but neglected perspective in African philosophy. Here, Tsenay Serequeberhan engages post-colonial African literature and the ideas of the African liberation struggle with critically-used insights from the European philosophical tradition. Continuing the work of Theophilus Okere and Okonda Okolo, this book attempts to overcome the debate between ethnophilosophy and professional philosophy, demonstrating that the promise of African philosophy lies with the critical development of the African hermeneutical perspective.
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  27. Yusef Waghid (2013). African Philosophy of Education Reconsidered: On Being Human. Routledge.
    Much of the literature on the African philosophy of education juxtaposes two philosophical strands as mutually exclusive entities; traditional ethnophilosophy on the one hand, and ‘scientific’ African philosophy on the other. While traditional ethnophilosophy is associated with the cultural artefacts, narratives, folklore and music of Africa’s people, ‘scientific’ African philosophy is primarily concerned with the explanations, interpretations and justifications of African thought and practice along the lines of critical and transformative reasoning. These two alternative strands of African philosophy invariably impact (...)
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  28. Kwasi Wiredu (ed.) (2008). A Companion to African Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This volume of newly commissioned essays provides comprehensive coverage of African philosophy, ranging across disciplines and throughout the ages. _ Offers a distinctive historical treatment of African philosophy. Covers all the main branches of philosophy as addressed in the African tradition. Includes accounts of pre-colonial African philosophy and contemporary political thought. _.
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  29. Kwasi Wiredu (ed.) (2008). A Companion to African Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This volume of newly commissioned essays provides comprehensive coverage of African philosophy, ranging across disciplines and throughout the ages. _ Offers a distinctive historical treatment of African philosophy. Covers all the main branches of philosophy as addressed in the African tradition. Includes accounts of pre-colonial African philosophy and contemporary political thought. _.
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