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  1. Yuichiro Amekawa (2009). Reflections on the Growing Influence of Good Agricultural Practices in the Global South. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (6):531-557.
    EurepGAP is a pioneering field level food safety protocol called ‘good agricultural practices’ currently exercising influence over the global food quality assurance system. Developed by a consortium of major European retailers, this private standard enforces codes of conduct that address issues of health and safety for producers and consumers, as well as working conditions and environmental management on the farmland. Despite various merits and benefits that the standard is premised to offer, the institutional design gives a financial edge to powerful (...)
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  2. Stefan B. Andrade & Inger Anneberg (2014). Farmers Under Pressure. Analysis of the Social Conditions of Cases of Animal Neglect. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (1):103-126.
    In this paper we analyse how risk factors in highly industrialised agriculture are connected to animal neglect. With Danish agriculture as a case study, we use two types of data. First, we use register data from Statistics Denmark to map how risk factors such as farmers’ financial and social troubles are connected to convictions of neglect. Second, we analyse narratives where interviewed farmers, involved in cases of neglect, describe how they themselves experienced the incidents. We find that while livestock farmers (...)
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  3. Jonny Anomaly (2009). Harm to Others: The Social Cost of Antibiotics in Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (5):423-435.
    See "What's Wrong with Factory Farming?" (2015) for an updated treatment of these issues.
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  4. Hayo Apotheker (2000). Is Agriculture in Need of Ethics? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (1):9-16.
    The minister of Agriculture, Nature Management andFisheries of the Netherlands reflects on the question``Is agriculture in need of ethics?'' Changingnorms and values in society, the influence of newtechnologies (such as biotechnology) and theinternational trade liberalisation (WTO) providearguments for a positive answer on this question.
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  5. Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah (2014). MR. International Journal Of Humanities and Social Studies 2 (6):276-280-2014.
  6. Michael C. Appleby (2005). Sustainable Agriculture is Humane, Humane Agriculture is Sustainable. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (3):293-303.
    Procedures that increase the sustainability of agriculture often result in animals being treated more humanely:both livestock in animal and mixed farming and wildlife in arable farming. Equally, procedures ensuring humane treatment of farm animals often increase sustainability, for example in disease control and manure management. This overlap between sustainability and humaneness is not coincidental. Both approaches can be said to be animal centered, to be based on the fact that animal production is primarily a biological process. Proponents of both will (...)
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  7. Michael C. Appleby, Neil Cutler, John Gazzard, Peter Goddard, John A. Milne, Colin Morgan & Andrew Redfern (2003). What Price Cheap Food? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (4):395-408.
    This paper is the report of a meetingthat gathered many of the UK's most senioranimal scientists with representatives of thefarming industry, consumer groups, animalwelfare groups, and environmentalists. Therewas strong consensus that the current economicstructure of agriculture cannot adequatelyaddress major issues of concern to society:farm incomes, food security and safety, theneeds of developing countries, animal welfare,and the environment. This economic structure isbased primarily on competition betweenproducers and between retailers, driving foodprices down, combined with externalization ofmany costs. These issues must be addressed (...)
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  8. Ton Baars (2011). Experiential Science; Towards an Integration of Implicit and Reflected Practitioner-Expert Knowledge in the Scientific Development of Organic Farming. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (6):601-628.
    For further development of organic agriculture, it will become increasingly essential to integrate experienced innovative practitioners in research projects. The characteristics of this process of co-learning have been transformed into a research approach, theoretically conceptualized as “experiential science” (Baars 2007 , Baars and Baars 2007 ). The approach integrates social sciences, natural sciences, and human sciences. It is derived from action research and belongs to the wider field of transdiscliplinary research. In a dialogue-based culture of equality and mutual exchange the (...)
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  9. Babette Babich (2011). On Mitchell and on Glazebrook on Βίος. In Pol Vandevelde (ed.), Supplement to the 2011 Proceedings of the Heidegger Circle.
    Commentary on Andrew Mitchell and Patricia Glazebrook on plants and agriculture in the context of Heidegger's own reflections on botany and technology in which I discuss, bees, cell phone radiation, the relatively complex but fairly obvious sociological dynamics of science and powerful commercial interests (capital), and mantid copulation.
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  10. Kathleen Baker (2000). Ecological Possibilities and Political Constraints : Adjustments of Farming to Protracted Drought by Women and Men in the Western Division of the Gambia. In Philip Anthony Stott & Sian Sullivan (eds.), Political Ecology: Science, Myth and Power. Oxford University Press 157--178.
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  11. Bruno Corrêa Barbosa, Karine Munck Vieira & Fabio Prezoto (2015). Agressive Interactions in Stingless bees: Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier) Invading Nest of Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier). Entomobrasilis 8 (2):152-154.
    This record describes the occurrence of conflicts between stingless bees of an active colony of Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier) and individuals of Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier), and discusses possible hypotheses that motivated the attack. Behaviors were observed in an active colony of S. bipunctata. The active nest guards detained individuals of M. quadrifasciata who invaded the colony. The chances of misidentification of the colony entrance and error in the species possible aggregation were discarded, however, the hypothesis of the real invasion recorded in (...)
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  12. Kristina Blennow & Erik Persson (2013). Societal Impacts of Storm Damage. In Barry Gardiner, Andreas Schuck, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Christophe Orazio, Kristina Blennow & Bruce Nicoll (eds.), Living with Storm Damage to Forests. European Forest Institute 70-78.
    Wind damage to forests can be divided into (1) the direct damage done to the forest and(2) indirect effects. Indirect effects may be of different kinds and may affect the environ- ment as well as society. For example, falling trees can lead to power and telecommunica- tion failures or blocking of roads. The salvage harvest of fallen trees is another example and one that involves extremely dangerous work. In this overview we provide examples of different entities, services, and activities that (...)
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  13. Kristina Blennow, Johannes Persson, Annika Wallin, Niklas Vareman & Erik Persson (2014). Understanding Risk in Forest Ecosystem Services: Implications for Effective Risk Management, Communication and Planning. Forestry 87:219-228.
    Uncertainty, insufficient information or information of poor quality, limited cognitive capacity and time, along with value conflicts and ethical considerations, are all aspects thatmake risk managementand riskcommunication difficult. This paper provides a review of different risk concepts and describes how these influence risk management, communication and planning in relation to forest ecosystem services. Based on the review and results of empirical studies, we suggest that personal assessment of risk is decisive in the management of forest ecosystem services. The results are (...)
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  14. Jeffrey Burkhardt (1988). Crisis, Argument, and Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 1 (2):123-138.
    Scholarly critics such as Wendell Berry, as well as the popular media, frequently refer to problems associated with agriculture as the agricultural crisis or the farm crisis. Despite the identification of a problem or problems as symptomatic of this crisis, scant attention is paid to why the situation is a social crisis as opposed to a problem, tragedy, trend, or simple change in the structure of agriculture. This paper analyzes the use of social crisis as applied to the state of (...)
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  15. Daniel J. Hicks (2015). Epistemological Depth in a GM Crops Controversy. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 50:1-12.
    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to “the evidence” are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents (...)
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  16. Monstrorum Historia (1998). Academy of Agriculture (France) 242 Academy of Music Meeting 405–407, 409 Ackley, HA 36 Adler, David 234–235 Adler, Saul 233. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 30:463-475.
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  17. Catherine Kendig (2014). Hybridity in Agriculture. In Paul B. Thompson & David M. Kaplan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. Springer
    In a very general sense, hybrid can be understood to be any organism that is the product of two (or more) organisms where each parent belongs to a different kind. For example; the offspring from two or more parent organisms, each belonging to a separate species (or genera), is called a “hybrid”. “Hybridity” refers to the phenomenal character of being a hybrid. And “hybridization ” refers to both natural and artificial processes of generating hybrids. These processes include mechanisms of selective (...)
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  18. Michiel Korthals & Cristian Timmermann (2012). Reflections on the International Networking Conference “Ethical and Social Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights – Agrifood and Health” Brussels, September 2011. Synesis 3 (1):G66-73.
    Public goods, as well as commercial commodities, are affected by exclusive arrangements secured by intellectual property (IP) rights. These rights serve as an incentive to invest human and material capital in research and development. Particularly in the life sciences, IP rights regulate objects such as food and medicines that are key to securing human rights, especially the right to adequate food and the right to health. Consequently, IP serves private (economic) and public interests. Part of this charge claims that the (...)
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  19. Tatiane Tagliatti Maciel, Bruno Corrêa Barbosa & Fábio Prezoto (2015). Frugivorous Moths Captured by Attractive Traps in Urban Fragment. Entomobrasilis 8 (2):91-95.
    Generally, frugivorous lepidopteran, have great ecological importance and are often used as bioindicator in environmental assessment studies. However, the proposed methodologies for capturing moths require great effort on the field for installation and monitoring of traps, in addition to their high cost. Thereat attractive baits have been evaluated to assist the work of detection and monitoring of moths. The aim of this study was, therefore, to record the diversity of the Noctuidae family captured by traps with food attractions evaluate the (...)
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  20. Zachary Piso, Ian Werkheiser, Samantha Noll & Christina Leshko (2016). Sustainability of What? Recognizing the Diverse Values That Sustainable Agriculture Works to Sustain. Environmental Values 25 (2):195-214.
    The contours of sustainable systems are defined according to communities’ goals and values. As researchers shift from sustainability-in-the-abstract to sustainability-as-a-concrete-research-challenge, democratic deliberation is essential for ensuring that communities determine what systems ought to be sustained. Discourse analysis of dialogue with Michigan direct marketing farmers suggests eight sustainability values – economic efficiency, community connectedness, stewardship, justice, ecologism, self-reliance, preservationism and health – which informed the practices of these farmers. Whereas common heuristics of sustainability suggest values can be pursued (...)
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  21. Carolyn Raffensperger, Mora Campbell & Paul B. Thompson (1998). Considering The Spirit of the Soil by Paul B. Thompson. Agriculture and Human Values 15 (2):161-176.
  22. Hannes Rusch & Eckart Voland (forthcoming). Human Agricultural Economy is, and Likely Always Was, Largely Based on Kinship. Why? Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
    Commentary on J. Gowdy & L. Krall "The economic origins of ultrasociality": We question the sequence of evolutionary transitions leading to ultrasociality in humans proposed by Gowdy & Krall. Evidence indicates that families are, and likely always have been, the primary productive units in human agricultural economies, suggesting that genetic relatedness is key to understanding when the suppression of individual autonomy to the benefit of subsistence groups, i.e. extended families, evolved.
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  23. Paul B. Thompson (2012). The Agricultural Ethics of Biofuels: Climate Ethics and Mitigation Arguments. Poiesis and Praxis 8 (4):169-189.
    An environmental, climate mitigation rationale for research and development on liquid transportation fuels derived from plants emerged among many scientists and engineers during the last decade. However, between 2006 and 2010, this climate ethic for pursuing biofuel became politically entangled and conceptually confused with rationales for encouraging greater use of plant-based ethanol that were both unconnected to climate ethics and potentially in conflict with the value-commitments providing a mitigation-oriented reason to promote and develop new and expanded sources of biofuel. I (...)
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  24. Paul B. Thompson (1998). Agricultural Ethics: Research, Teaching, and Public Policy. Iowa State University Press.
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  25. Paul B. Thompson (1992). The Ethics of Aid and Trade: U.S. Food Policy, Foreign Competition, and the Social Contract. Cambridge University Press.
    The traditional military-territorial model of the nation state defines international duties in terms of protecting citizens' property from foreign threats. In this 1992 book about the principles of the US agricultural policy and foreign aid, Professor Thompson replaces this model with the notion of the trading state that sees its role in terms of the establishment of international institutions that stabilize and facilitate cultural and intellectual, as well as commercial, exchanges between nations. The argument focuses on protectionist challenges to foreign (...)
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  26. Paul B. Thompson & Thomas C. Hilde (eds.) (2000). The Agrarian Roots of Pragmatism / Edited by Paul B. Thompson and Thomas C. Hilde. Vanderbilt University Press.
    The essays in this volume critically analyze and revitalize agrarian philosophy by tracing its evolution in the classical American philosophy of key figures such as Franklin, Jefferson, Emerson, Thoreau, Dewey, and Royce.
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  27. Paul B. Thompson, Maya Joseph & Marion Nestle (2009). The Ethics of Food. Lahey Clinic Medical Ethics Journal 16 (2):6-8.
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  28. Cristian Timmermann (2015). Pesticides and the Patent Bargain. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (1):1-19.
    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be able to make free use of the publicly available knowledge described in the patent document, which is deemed useful. Resistance to pesticides destroys however the usefulness of information listed in patent documents over time. The invention, here pesticides, (...)
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  29. Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix (2015). Agroecology as a Vehicle for Contributive Justice. Agriculture and Human Values 32 (3):523-538.
    Agroecology has been criticized for being more labor-intensive than other more industrialized forms of agriculture. We challenge the assertion that labor input in agriculture has to be generally minimized and argue that besides quantity of work one should also consider the quality of work involved in farming. Early assessments on work quality condemned the deskilling of the rural workforce, whereas later criticisms have concentrated around issues related to fair trade and food sovereignty. We bring into the discussion the concept of (...)
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  30. Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix, Adapting Food Production to Climate Change: An Inclusive Approach. Climate Change and Human Rights: The 2015 Paris Conference and the Task of Protecting People on a Warming Planet.
    On why agricultural innovation from the Global South can and should be used to adapt food production to climate change. Discussed on hand of three cases studies.
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  31. Cristian Timmermann & Zoë Robaey (2016). Agrobiodiversity Under Different Property Regimes. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):285-303.
    Having an adequate and extensively recognized resource governance system is essential for the conservation and sustainable use of crop genetic resources in a highly populated planet. Despite the widely accepted importance of agrobiodiversity for future plant breeding and thus food security, there is still pervasive disagreement at the individual level on who should own genetic resources. The aim of the article is to provide conceptual clarification on the following concepts and their relation to agrobiodiversity stewardship: open access, commons, private property, (...)
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