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  1. George Allan (1997). Ferré, Frederick. Being and Value: Toward a Constructive Postmodern Metaphysics. Review of Metaphysics 50 (3):656-658.
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  2. David M. Armstrong (1988). Discussion: Reply to Van Fraassen. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66:224-229.
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  3. Art as Representation (1993). Bas C. Van Fraassen and Jill Sigman. In George Levine (ed.), Realism and Representation. University of Wisconsin Press.
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  4. A. Bain (1889). The Empiricist Position. Mind 14 (55):369-392.
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  5. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay, Mark Greenwood, Gordon Brittan Jr & Ken A. Aho (forthcoming). Empiricism and/or Instrumentalism? Erkenntnis:1-23.
    Elliott Sober is both an empiricist and an instrumentalist. His empiricism rests on a principle called actualism, whereas his instrumentalism violates this. This violation generates a tension in his work. We argue that Sober is committed to a conflicting methodological imperative because of this tension. Our argument illuminates the contemporary debate between realism and empiricism which is increasingly focused on the application of scientific inference to testing scientific theories. Sober’s position illustrates how the principle of actualism drives a wedge between (...)
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  6. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2009). Review of Bas C. Van Fraassen: Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 106 (11).
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  7. Steven Bland (2011). The Constitutive and the Conventional in Poincaré's Conventionalism. Philosophia Scientiae 15:47-66.
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  8. Sandy C. Boucher (2014). What is a Philosophical Stance? Paradigms, Policies and Perspectives. Synthese 191 (10):2315-2332.
    Since van Fraassen first put forward the suggestive idea that many philosophical positions should be construed as ‘stances’ rather than factual beliefs, there have been various attempts to spell out precisely what a philosophical stance might be, and on what basis one should be adopted. In this paper I defend a particular account of stances, the view that they are pragmatically justified perspectives or ways of seeing the world, and compare it to some other accounts that have been offered. In (...)
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  9. Douglas Bridges (1998). Constructive Truth in Practice. In H. G. Dales & Gianluigi Oliveri (eds.), Truth in Mathematics. Oxford University Press, Usa. 53--69.
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  10. Otávio Bueno (1999). What is Structural Empiricism? Scientific Change in an Empiricist Setting. Erkenntnis 50 (1):55-81.
    In this paper a constructive empiricist account of scientific change is put forward. Based on da Costa's and French's partial structures approach, two notions of empirical adequacy are initially advanced (with particular emphasis on the introduction of degrees of empirical adequacy). Using these notions, it is shown how both the informativeness and the empirical adequacy requirements of an empiricist theory of scientific change can then be met. Finally, some philosophical consequences with regard to the role of structures in this context (...)
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  11. Rudolf Carnap (1938). Empiricism and the Language of Science. Synthese 3 (12):33 - 35.
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  12. Philip Catton (2004). Constructive Criticism. In Philip Catton & Graham Macdonald (eds.), Karl Popper: Critical Appraisals. Routledge.
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  13. Silvio Seno Chibeni (2010). Realismo científico empirista. Principia 1 (2):255-270.
    In his influential criticism of scientific realism, Bas van Fraassen assumes that this doctrine is incompatible with empiricism, according to which the sole ultimate basis of knowledge is experience. This claim has been generally accepted in the contemporary literature in philosophy of science. Thus, the very distinction between scientific realism and empiricism is often forgotten, the term 'empiricism' being now widely used to designate a range of anti-realist positions, such as van Fraassen's "constructive empiricism". In this paper it is argued, (...)
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  14. Richard Creath (1988). The Pragmatics of Observation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:149 - 153.
    To assess van Fraassen's anti-realism, I examine observation and its relation to judging. I argue that the boundary of observability is determined pragmatically, because observing depends on the context of inquiry and because the 'able' in 'observable' implicitly involves human interests and concerns. Thus, observability is like van Fraassen's notions of simplicity and explanation. While a non-pragmatic notion of observability can be devised, then virtually any event is potentially observable. Consequently, van Fraassen's attempt to divide empirical adequacy from the pragmatic (...)
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  15. Richard Creath (1985). Taking Theories Seriously. Synthese 62 (3):317 - 345.
    This paper defends scientific realism, the doctrine that we should interpret theories as being just as ontologically committing as beliefs at the observational level. I examine the character of observation to show that the difference in interpretation suggested by anti-realists is unwarranted. Second, I discuss Wilfrid Sellars'' approach to the issue. Finally, I provide a detailed study of recent work by Bas van Fraassen. While van Fraassen''s work is the focus of the paper, the conclusions are far broader: That a (...)
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  16. Herman C. D. G. De Regt (2006). To Believe in Belief. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 37 (1):21-39.
    Take the following version of scientific realism: we have good reason to believe that (some of the) current scientific theories tell us something specific about the underlying, i.e. unobservable, structures of the world, for instance that there are electrons with a certain electric charge, or that there are viruses that cause certain diseases. Popper, the rationalist, would not have adhered to the proposed formulation of scientific realism in terms of the rationality of existential beliefs concerning unobservables. Popper did not believe (...)
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  17. C. F. Delaney (1978). Basic Propositions, Empiricism and Science. In Joseph Pitt (ed.), The Philosophy of Wilfrid Sellars: Queries and Extensions. D. Reidel. 41--55.
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  18. William Demopoulos (2007). Review of Yemima Ben-Menahem, Conventionalism: From Poincaré to Quine. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (6).
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  19. Daniel Dennett (2009). 19.1 The Three Stances. In Ansgar Beckermann & Brian P. McLaughlin (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mind. Oxford University Press. 339.
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  20. Michael Detlefsen (1998). Constructive Existence Claims. In Matthias Schirn (ed.), The Philosophy of Mathematics Today. Clarendon Press. 1998--307.
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  21. John M. Dukich (2013). Two Types of Empirical Adequacy: A Partial Structures Approach. Synthese 190 (14):2801-2820.
    The notion of empirical adequacy has received recent philosophical attention, especially within the framework of the semantic approach. Empirical adequacy, as explicated in the semantic approach, concerns the relationship between empirical substructures and some phenomena. The aim here is to differentiate this notion of empirical adequacy from one concerning the relationship between data and phenomena. Distinguishing each notion of empirical adequacy emphasizes different aspects of scientific practice—one concerning theory-development from the basis of an established theory, the other concerning theory-development from (...)
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  22. The Editors (1995). Vivien Burr, An Introduction to Social Constructionism. Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 7 (3):267-267.
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  23. McMullin Ernan (2000). Van Fraassen's Unappreciated Realism. Philosophy of Science 70.
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  24. Herbert Feigl (1958). Critique of Intuition According to Scientific Empiricism. Philosophy East and West 8 (1/2):1-16.
  25. Oliver Feltham (2010). Materialism Versus Empiricism: The Concrete as Dysfunction and Truth. Filozofski Vestnik 31 (3):91 - +.
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  26. Massimo Ferrari (2012). The Origins of Logical Empiricism. The Young Moritz Schlick and the Conventionalism of Henri Poincare. Giornale Critico Della Filosofia Italiana 8 (2):475-491.
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  27. Curtis Forbes (2009). REVIEW: Bas van Fraassen, Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective. [REVIEW] Spontaneous Generations: A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science 3 (1):236-238.
  28. Jeff Foss (1991). On Saving the Phenomena and the Mice: A Reply to Bourgeois Concerning Van Fraassen's Image of Science. Philosophy of Science 58 (2):278-287.
    In the fusillade he lets fly against Foss (1984), Bourgeois (1987) sometimes hits a live target. I admit that I went beyond the letter of van Fraassen's The Scientific Image (1980), making inferences and drawing conclusions which are often absurd. I maintain, however, that the absurdities must be charged to van Fraassen's account. While I cannot redress every errant shot of Bourgeois, his essay reveals the need for further discussion of the concepts of the phenomena and the observables as used (...)
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  29. Michael Friedman (1982). The Scientific Image by Bas C. Van Fraassen. Journal of Philosophy 79 (5):274-283.
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  30. Carlo Gabbani & Marc Lange (2010). On Bas van Fraassen's Scientific Representation. Iris 2 (3):245-256.
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  31. Carlo Gabbani & Marc Lange (2009). Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective di Bas van Fraassen. Iride 22 (3):707-720.
  32. Michel Ghins (forthcoming). Representing and Measuring: Discussing van Fraassen’s Views. Metascience:1-5.
    Representation and models have been the focus of considerable interest in philosophy of science for several decades. But the publication in 2008 of Bas van Fraassen’s important book Scientific representation: Paradoxes of perspective gave a novel and strong impetus to the study of their role in the dynamic of scientific knowledge, as attested by the growing quantity of papers and conferences related to representation. In science, knowing necessarily involves representing—phenomena at least and perhaps more for the scientific realist—by means of (...)
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  33. Michel Ghins (2012). Scientific Representation and Realism. Principia 15 (3):461-474.
    After a brief presentation of what I take to be the representational démarche in science, I stress the fundamental role of true judgements in model construction. The success and correctness of a representation rests on the truth of judgements which attribute properties to real targeted entities, called “ontic judgements”. I then present what van Fraassen calls “the Loss of Reality objection”. After criticizing his dissolution of the objection, I offer an alternative way of answering the Loss of Reality objection by (...)
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  34. Michel Ghins (2011). Models, Truth and Realism: Assessingbas van Fraassen's Views Onscientific Representation. Manuscrito 34 (1):207-232.
    This paper is devoted to an analysis of some aspects of Bas van Fraassen’s views on representation. While I agree with most of his claims, I disagree on the following three issues. Firstly, I contend that some isomorphism between the representor and what is represented is a universal necessary condition for the success of any representation, even in the case of misrepresentation. Secondly, I argue that the so-called “semantic” or “model-theoretic” construal of theories does not give proper due to the (...)
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  35. Michel Ghins (2000). La Fin de L'Empirisme?(Trad. De Bas van Fraassen, The Demise of Empiricism?). Revue Philosophique De Louvain 98 (3):449-479.
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  36. Michel Ghins (1997). Bas van Fraassen. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 95 (4):737-754.
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  37. David Gooding (1989). How to Be a Good Empiricist. British Journal for the History of Science 22 (4):419-427.
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  38. J. A. Gould (1961). The Origin of Poincaré's Conventionalism. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 15 (55):115-118.
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  39. Galina Granek (2001). Poincaré's Ether: C. Conventionalism Revisited. Apeiron 8 (2):46.
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  40. Rudolph Haller (1998). Conventionalism and It's Impact on Logical Empiricism. Philosophia Scientiae 3 (2):95-108.
  41. Joseph F. Hanna (1983). Empirical Adequacy. Philosophy of Science 50 (1):1-34.
    In his book, The Scientific Image, Bas van Fraassen argues for an anti-realist view of science according to which the sole epistemological aim of science is to "save the phenomena". As originally conceived, his constructive empiricism is strongly extensional, but in his account of the empirical adequacy of probabilistic theories, van Fraassen reluctantly abandons this extensional position, arguing that modal (intensional) notions are unavoidable in interpreting probability. I argue in this paper that van Fraassen has not presented the strongest possible (...)
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  42. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1994). The Image of Observables. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):585-597.
    This paper challenges a central tenet of constructive empiricism, namely that empirical adequacy has a privileged epistemic status. I argue that perceptions of observables are theory-wrought, and theory-wrought in the same ways as the observation sentences we use to describe those perceptions, van Fraassen can draw no privileged or fundamental distinction between what we observe and interpreting those observations through theory. Since empirical adequacy depends upon accurately describing what we observe, and we have no theory-independent reason to believe that what (...)
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  43. Errol E. Harris (1975). Empiricism in Science and Philosophy. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 9:154-167.
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  44. D. Hausman (1982). Constructive Empiricism Contested. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 63 (1):21-28.
    Constructive empiricism, Bas van fraassen's new variety of anti-Realism, Maintains that science aims at empirically adequate, Rather than true theories and that, In fully accepting a theory, One should believe only that it is empirically adequate. A theory is empirically adequate just in case it has a model in which all observable phenomena may be embedded. I challenge van fraassen's main arguments and argue that the observable/unobservable distinction will not bear the weight that van fraassen places on it.
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  45. M. J. S. Hodge (1993). Empiricism and Darwin's Science. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 26 (1):104-105.
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  46. Leon Horsten (2004). Bas C. Van Fraassen, The Empirical Stance. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18:95-97.
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  47. Leon Horsten (2004). Bespr. Van: The Empirical Stance (Bas C. Van Fraassen). International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (1):95-97.
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  48. Bruce Hunter (2003). Bas Van Fraassen, The Empirical Stance Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 23 (6):419-422.
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  49. I. False Ideals (2002). Bas van Fraassen," The Pragmatics of Explanation'. In Yuri Balashov & Alexander Rosenberg (eds.), Philosophy of Science: Contemporary Readings. Routledge. 56.
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  50. Anja Jauernig (2007). Can a Philosophical Position Consist in a Stance? Or, How to Be an Empiricist and a Philosopher at the Same Time. In Bradley Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oup Oxford.
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