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  1. Andrew Aberdein (2008). Logic for Dogs. In Steven D. Hales (ed.), What Philosophy Can Tell You About Your Dog. Open Court. 167-181.
    Imagine a dog tracing a scent to a crossroads, sniffing all but one of the exits, and then proceeding down the last without further examination. According to Sextus Empiricus, Chrysippus argued that the dog effectively employs disjunctive syllogism, concluding that since the quarry left no trace on the other paths, it must have taken the last. The story has been retold many times, with at least four different morals: (1) dogs use logic, so they are as clever as humans; (2) (...)
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  2. F. Ademollo (2004). Sophroniscus' Son is Approaching: Porphyry, Isagoge 7.20-1. Classical Quarterly 54 (1):322-325.
  3. Jason Aleksander (2004). Modern Paradoxes of Aristotle's Logic. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 9 (1):79-99.
    This paper intends to explain key differences between Aristotle’s understanding of the relationships between nous, epistêmê, and the art of syllogistic reasoning(both analytic and dialectical) and the corresponding modern conceptions of intuition, knowledge, and reason. By uncovering paradoxa that Aristotle’s understanding of syllogistic reasoning presents in relation to modern philosophical conceptions of logic and science, I highlight problems of a shift in modern philosophy—a shift that occurs most dramatically in the seventeenth century—toward a project of construction, a pervasive desire for (...)
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  4. Alexander (2006). On Aristotle's "Prior Analytics 1.23-31". Cornell University Press.
  5. D. J. Allan (1961). Aristotelian Logic Günther Patzig: Die aristotelische Syllogistik. (Abh. d. Akad. d. Wiss. in Göttingen, Phil.-hist. KL, 3. Folge, Nr. 42.) Pp. 207. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1959. Paper, DM. 19.80. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 11 (01):34-36.
  6. D. J. Allan (1936). Aristotle's Logic Paul Gohlke : Die Entstehung der Aristotelischen Logik. Pp.128. Berlin: Junker Und Dünnhaupt, 1936. Paper, RM. 5.50. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 50 (05):177-178.
  7. James V. Allen (2001). Inference From Signs: Ancient Debates About the Nature of Evidence. Oxford University Press.
    Original and penetrating, this book investigates of the notion of inference from signs, which played a central role in ancient philosophical and scientific method. It examines an important chapter in ancient epistemology: the debates about the nature of evidence and of the inferences based on it--or signs and sign-inferences as they were called in antiquity. As the first comprehensive treatment of this topic, it fills an important gap in the histories of science and philosophy.
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  8. William H. F. Altman (2011). A Brief Prehistory of Philosophical Paraconsistency. Principia 14 (1):1-14.
    Celebrando o papel de Newton da Costa na história da paraconsistência, este trabalho examina o uso e abuso da deliberada auto-contradição. Iniciado por Parmênides, desenvolvido por Platão, e continuado por Cícero, uma antiga tradição filosófica usava deliberadamente discursos paraconsistentes para revelar a verdade. Nos tempos modernos, o decisionismo tem usado uma deliberada auto-contradição contra a revelação Judaico-Cristã. DOI:10.5007/1808-1711.2010v14n1p1.
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  9. Edgar Jose Andrade & Edward Samuel Becerra (2008). Establishing Connections Between Aristotle's Natural Deduction and First-Order Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (4):309-325.
    This article studies the mathematical properties of two systems that model Aristotle's original syllogistic and the relationship obtaining between them. These systems are Corcoran's natural deduction syllogistic and ?ukasiewicz's axiomatization of the syllogistic. We show that by translating the former into a first-order theory, which we call T RD, we can establish a precise relationship between the two systems. We prove within the framework of first-order logic a number of logical properties about T RD that bear upon the same properties (...)
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  10. John P. Anton (1977). Some Logical Aspects of the Concept of "Hypostasis" in Plotinus. Review of Metaphysics 31 (2):258 - 271.
  11. Allan Bäck (1982). Syllogisms with Reduplication in Aristotle. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 23 (4):453-458.
  12. Renford Bambrough (1963). The Growth of Logic William and Martha Kneale: The Development of Logic. Pp. Viii + 761. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962. Cloth, 75s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 13 (02):186-188.
  13. John A. Barker & Thomas D. Paxson Jr (1985). Aristotle Vs. Diodorus. Philosophy Research Archives 11:41-76.
    We develop a modified system of standard logic, Augmented Standard Logic (ASL), and we employ ASL in an effort to show that, contrary to prevailing opinion, both Aristotle and Diodorus presented impressive arguments, having valid structures and highly plausible premisses, in their famous fatalism debate. We argue that ASL, which contains standard logic and a full system of modal and temporal logic emanating from a modicum of primitives, should not only enable one to appreciate the sophisticated philosophizing which characterized this (...)
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  14. Jonathan Barnes (2012). Logical Matters. Clarendon Press.
    This volume presents 27 essays on logic in ancient philosophy by Jonathan Barnes, one of the most admired philosophers of his generation.
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  15. Jonathan Barnes (2007/2009). Truth, Etc.: Six Lectures on Ancient Logic. Oxford University Press.
    Truth, etc. is a wide-ranging study of ancient logic based upon the John Locke lectures given by the eminent philosopher Jonathan Barnes in Oxford. The book presupposes no knowledge of logic and no skill in ancient languages: all ancient texts are cited in English translation; and logical symbols and logical jargon are avoided so far as possible. Anyone interested in ancient philosophy, or in logic and its history, will find much to learn and enjoy here.
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  16. Jonathan Barnes (ed.) (2003). Porphyry's Introduction. Clarendon Press.
    The Introduction to philosophy written by Porphyry at the end of the second century AD is the most successful work of its kind ever to have been published. It was translated into most respectable languages, and for a millennium and a half every student of philosophy read it as his first text in the subject. Porphyry's aim was modest: he intended to explain the meaning of five terms, 'genus', 'species', 'difference', 'property', and 'accident' - terms which he took to be (...)
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  17. Jonathan Barnes (ed.) (1994). The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle. Cambridge Univ Pr.
    The most accessible and comprehensive guide to Aristotle currently available.
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  18. Jonathan Barnes (1989). Fds. The Classical Review 39 (02):263-.
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  19. Jonathan Barnes (1988). Mariano Baldassarri: La logica stoica: testimonianze e frammenti – testi originali con introduzione e traduzione commentata. Vol. 5b: Plotino, i Commentatori aristotelici tardi, Boezio. Vol. 7b: Le testimonianze minori del sec. II d. C.: Epitteto, Plutarco, Gellio, Apuleio. Vol. 8: Testimonianze sparse ordinate sistematicamente. Pp. 207, 112, 223. Como: Libreria Noseda, 1987. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 38 (02):426-427.
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  20. Jonathan Barnes (1988). The Logic of the Gods. The Classical Review 38 (01):65-.
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  21. Jonathan Barnes (1987). Mariano Baldassarri: La logica stoica: testimonianze e frammenti – testi originali con introduzione e traduzione commentata. Vols. II, III, IV, VA, VI, VIIA. Pp. 136, 59, 173, 125, 77, 72. Como: Libreria Noseda, 1985/1986. Paper.id.: Apuleio: L'interpretazione – testo latino con introduzione, traduzione e commento. (Quaderni del Liceo Classico Statale 'A. Volta', 5.) Pp. 111. Como: Libreria Noseda, 1986. Paper.id.: Aurelio Agostino: I principii della dialettica – testo latino e traduzione italiana con introduzione e commento. (Quaderni del Liceo Classico Statale 'A. Volta', 3.) Pp. 93. Como: Libreria Noseda, 1985. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 37 (02):311-312.
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  22. Jonathan Barnes (1986). Diodoran Modalities Jules Vuillemin: Nécessité ou contingence. L'aporie de Diodore et les systèmes. Pp. 446. Paris: Les éditions de minuit, 1984. Paper, 140 frs. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 36 (01):77-79.
  23. Jonathan Barnes (1986). Mariano Baldassarri: Introduzione alia logica stoica. (La logica stoica: testimonianze e frammenti – testi originali con introduzione e traduzione commentata.) Pp. 287. Como: Libreria Noseda, 1985 (1984 on cover). Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 36 (01):143-144.
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  24. Jonathan Barnes (1983). Arturo Ramírez Trejo (Tr.) with Introduction by Mario H. Otero: Galeno: Iniciación a la Dialéctica. (Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum Et Romanorum Mexicana.) Pp. Lxxxv + 92. Universidad National Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universidad, 1982. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 33 (02):336-337.
  25. Jonathan Barnes (1977). Paul Egger: Studien zur Grundlegung der Logik und der logischen Interpretationsmittel, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung von Texten griechischer Denker. Pp. vii + 207. Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1973. Paper, DM. 42. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 27 (01):123-124.
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  26. Jonathan Barnes & Susanne Bobzien (1991). Alexander of Aphrodisias' on Aristotle's Prior Analytics 1.1-7. Duckworth.
    ABSTRACT: English translation of the 2nd/3rd century Peripatetic Philosopher's Alexander of Aphrodisias commentary on Aristotle's non-modal syllogistic, i.e. on one of the most influential logical texts of all times. -/- Volume includes introduction on Alexander of Aphrodisias and the early commentators, translation with notes and comments, appendices with a new translation of Aristotle's text, a summary of Aristotle's non-modal syllogistic and textual notes.
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  27. Jonathon Barnes, Malcom Schofield & Richard Sorabji (eds.) (1975). . Gerald Duckworth & Co..
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  28. Ian Bell (1997). Goldin, Owen. Explaining an Eclipse: Aristotle's Posterior Analytics 2.1-10. Review of Metaphysics 50 (4):893-894.
  29. A. E. Benjamin (1987). A Missed Encounter. Grazer Philosophische Studien 29:145-170.
    In this paper I hope to show that Geach misunderstands the nature of Plato's argument in the Euthyphro and more importantly the reasoning behind the dialectical strategy adopted by Socrates. Furthermore I shall argue that Geach's reading of the Euthyphro engenders serious difficulties, that stand in the way of understanding the manner in which Plato construes the problem of determining the nature of, and relationship between universal and particulars, which is of great significance because it is precisely this problem, in (...)
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  30. Paolo C. Biondi (2010). Prior Analytics 1 Striker Gisela (Ed., Trans.) Aristotle. Prior Analytics Book I. Pp. Xx + 268. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2009. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 60 (02):370-372.
  31. Susanne Bobzien (2014). Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotle's Theory of the Stoic Indemonstrables. In M. Lee (ed.), Strategies of Argument: Essays in Ancient Ethics, Epistemology, and Logic. OUP. 199-227.
    ABSTRACT: Alexander of Aphrodisias’ commentaries on Aristotle’s Organon are valuable sources for both Stoic and early Peripatetic logic, and have often been used as such – in particular for early Peripatetic hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic propositional logic. By contrast, this paper explores the role Alexander himself played in the development and transmission of those theories. There are three areas in particular where he seems to have made a difference: First, he drew a connection between certain passages from Aristotle’s Topics and (...)
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  32. Susanne Bobzien (2012). How to Give Someone Horns – Paradoxes of Presupposition in Antiquity. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 15:159-84.
    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses ancient versions of paradoxes today classified as paradoxes of presupposition and how their ancient solutions compare with contemporary ones. Sections 1-4 air ancient evidence for the Fallacy of Complex Question and suggested solutions, introduce the Horn Paradox, consider its authorship and contemporary solutions. Section 5 reconstructs the Stoic solution, suggesting the Stoics produced a Russellian-type solution based on a hidden scope ambiguity of negation. The difference to Russell’s explanation of definite descriptions is that in the Horn (...)
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  33. Susanne Bobzien (2011). The Combinatorics of Stoic Conjunction. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 40 (1):157-188.
    ABSTRACT: The 3rd BCE Stoic logician "Chrysippus says that the number of conjunctions constructible from ten propositions exceeds one million. Hipparchus refuted this, demonstrating that the affirmative encompasses 103,049 conjunctions and the negative 310,952." After laying dormant for over 2000 years, the numbers in this Plutarch passage were recently identified as the 10th (and a derivative of the 11th) Schröder number, and F. Acerbi showed how the 2nd BCE astronomer Hipparchus could have calculated them. What remained unexplained is why Hipparchus’ (...)
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  34. Susanne Bobzien (2006). Ancient Logic. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive introduction to ancient (western) logic from earliest times to the 6th century CE, with an emphasis on topics which may be of interest to contemporary logicians. Content: 1. Pre-Aristotelian Logic 1.1 Syntax and Semantics 1.2 Argument Patterns and Valid Inference 2. Aristotle 2.1 Dialectics 2.2 Sub-sentential Classifications 2.3 Syntax and Semantics of Sentences 2.4 Non-modal Syllogistic 2.5 Modal Logic 3. The early Peripatetics: Theophrastus and Eudemus 3.1 Improvements and Modifications of Aristotle's Logic 3.2 Prosleptic Syllogisms 3.3 Forerunners (...)
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  35. Susanne Bobzien (2006). Logic, History Of: Ancient Logic. In Donald M. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Thomson Gale.
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive introduction to ancient (western) logic from earliest times to the 6th century CE, with a focus on issues that may be of interest to contemporary logicians and covering important topics in Post-Aristotelian logic that are frequently neglected (such as Peripatetic hypothetical syllogistic, the Stoic axiomatic system of propositional logic and various later ancient developments).
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  36. Susanne Bobzien (2006). Ancient Logic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive introduction to ancient (western) logic from earliest times to the 6th century CE, with an emphasis on topics which may be of interest to contemporary logicians.
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  37. Susanne Bobzien (2006). The Stoics on Fallacies of Equivocation. In D. Frede & B. Inwood (eds.), Language and Learning, Proceedings of the 9th Symposium Hellenisticum. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the Stoic treatment of fallacies that are based on lexical ambiguities. It provides a detailed analysis of the relevant passages, lays bare textual and interpretative difficulties, explores what the Stoic view on the matter implies for their theory of language, and compares their view with Aristotle’s. In the paper I aim to show that, for the Stoics, fallacies of ambiguity are complexes of propositions and sentences and thus straddle the realms of meaning (which is the domain (...)
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  38. Susanne Bobzien (2004). Dialectical School. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The ‘Dialectical school’ denotes a group of early Hellenistic philosophers that were loosely connected by philosophizing in the — Socratic — tradition of Eubulides of Megara and by their interest in logical paradoxes, propositional logic and dialectical expertise. . Its two best known members, Diodorus Cronus and Philo the Logician, made groundbreaking contributions to the development of theories of conditionals and modal logic. Philo introduced a version of material implication; Diodorus devised a forerunner of strict implication. Each developed a system (...)
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  39. Susanne Bobzien (2003). Stoic Logic. In Brad Inwood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Stoic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: An introduction to Stoic logic. Stoic logic can in many respects be regarded as a fore-runner of modern propositional logic. I discuss: 1. the Stoic notion of sayables or meanings (lekta); the Stoic assertibles (axiomata) and their similarities and differences to modern propositions; the time-dependency of their truth; 2.-3. assertibles with demonstratives and quantified assertibles and their truth-conditions; truth-functionality of negations and conjunctions; non-truth-functionality of disjunctions and conditionals; language regimentation and ‘bracketing’ devices; Stoic basic principles of propositional logic; 4. (...)
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  40. Susanne Bobzien (2002). A Greek Parallel to Boethius' de Hypotheticis Syllogismis. Mnemosyne 55 (3):285-300.
    In this paper I present the text, a translation, and a commentary of a long anonymous scholium to Aristotle’s Analytics which is a Greek parallel to Boethius’ De Hypotheticis Syllogismis, but has so far not been recognized as such. The scholium discusses hypothetical syllogisms of the types modus ponens and modus tollens and hypothetical syllogisms constructed from three conditionals (‘wholly hypothetical syllogisms’). It is Peripatetic, and not Stoic, in its theoretical approach as well as its terminology. There are several elements (...)
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  41. Susanne Bobzien (2002). Pre-Stoic Hypothetical Syllogistic in Galen. The Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies:57-72.
    ABSTRACT: This paper traces the evidence in Galen's Introduction to Logic (Institutio Logica) for a hypothetical syllogistic which predates Stoic propositional logic. It emerges that Galen is one of our main witnesses for such a theory, whose authors are most likely Theophrastus and Eudemus. A reconstruction of this theory is offered which - among other things - allows to solve some apparent textual difficulties in the Institutio Logica.
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  42. Susanne Bobzien (2002). Propositional Logic in Ammonius. In Helmut Linneweber-Lammerskitten & Georg Mohr (eds.), Interpretation und Argument. Koenigshausen & Neumann.
    ABSTRACT: This paper collects the evidence in Ammonius' surviving works for elements of a propositional logic, coming to the conclusion that Ammonius had a theory of hypothetical syllogisms in the tradition of Aristotle and the Peripatetics, with Platonic elements mixed in, and using some Stoic elements, but not a propositional logic in the narrower sense as we find it in Stoic logic.
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  43. Susanne Bobzien (2002). The Development of Modus Ponens in Antiquity: From Aristotle to the 2nd Century AD. Phronesis 47 (4):359-394.
    ABSTRACT: ‘Aristotelian logic’, as it was taught from late antiquity until the 20th century, commonly included a short presentation of the argument forms modus (ponendo) ponens, modus (tollendo) tollens, modus ponendo tollens, and modus tollendo ponens. In late antiquity, arguments of these forms were generally classified as ‘hypothetical syllogisms’. However, Aristotle did not discuss such arguments, nor did he call any arguments ‘hypothetical syllogisms’. The Stoic indemonstrables resemble the modus ponens/tollens arguments. But the Stoics never called them ‘hypothetical syllogisms’; nor (...)
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  44. Susanne Bobzien (2002). The Development of Modus Ponens in Antiquity: From Aristotle to the 2nd Century AD. Phronesis 47 (4):359 - 394.
    'Aristotelian logic', as it was taught from late antiquity until the 20th century, commonly included a short presentation of the argument forms modus (ponendo) ponens, modus (tollendo) tollens, modus ponendo tollens, and modus tollendo ponens. In late antiquity, arguments of these forms were generally classified as 'hypothetical syllogisms'. However, Aristotle did not discuss such arguments, nor did he call any arguments 'hypothetical syllogisms'. The Stoic indemonstrables resemble the modus ponens/tollens arguments. But the Stoics never called them 'hypothetical syllogisms'; nor did (...)
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  45. Susanne Bobzien (2000). Wholly Hypothetical Syllogisms. Phronesis 45 (2):87-137.
    ABSTRACT: In antiquity we encounter a distinction of two types of hypothetical syllogisms. One type are the ‘mixed hypothetical syllogisms’. The other type is the one to which the present paper is devoted. These arguments went by the name of ‘wholly hypothetical syllogisms’. They were thought to make up a self-contained system of valid arguments. Their paradigm case consists of two conditionals as premisses, and a third as conclusion. Their presentation, either schematically or by example, varies in different authors. For (...)
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  46. Susanne Bobzien (2000). Why the Order of the Figures of the Hypothetical Syllogisms Was Changed. Classical Quarterly 50 (01):247-.
    ABSTRACT: At the turn of the second century AD there existed two different views on the ordering of the figures of the (wholly) hypothetical syllogisms. One goes back to Theophrastus, whereas the other (adopted e.g. by Alexander of Aphrodisias and Alcinous) seems to have been the result of a later change. This reversal of the order of figures has so far not received a satisfactory explanation. In this paper I show how it came about.
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  47. Susanne Bobzien (2000). Wholly Hypothetical Syllogisms. Phronesis 45 (2):87 - 137.
    In antiquity we encounter a distinction of two types of hypothetical syllogisms. One type are the 'mixed hypothetical syllogisms'. The other type is the one to which the present paper is devoted. These arguments went by the name of 'wholly hypothetical syllogisms'. They were thought to make up a self-contained system of valid arguments. Their paradigm case consists of two conditionals as premisses, and a third as conclusion. Their presentation, either schematically or by example, varies in different authors. For instance, (...)
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  48. Susanne Bobzien (1999). Logic: The Megarics. In Keimpe Algra & et al (eds.), The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: Summary presentation of the surviving logic theories of Philo the Dialectician (aka Philo of Megara) and Diodorus Cronus, including some general remarks on propositional logical elements in their logic, a presentation of their theories of the conditional and a presentation of their modal theories, including a brief suggestion for a solution of the Master Argument.
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  49. Susanne Bobzien (1999). Logic: The Stoics (Part One). In Keimpe Algra & et al (eds.), The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: A detailed presentation of Stoic logic, part one, including their theories of propositions (or assertibles, Greek: axiomata), demonstratives, temporal truth, simple propositions, non-simple propositions(conjunction, disjunction, conditional), quantified propositions, logical truths, modal logic, and general theory of arguments (including definition, validity, soundness, classification of invalid arguments).
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  50. Susanne Bobzien (1999). Logic: The Stoics (Part Two). In Keimpe Algra, Jonathan Barnes & et al (eds.), The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. CUP.
    ABSTRACT: A detailed presentation of Stoic theory of arguments, including truth-value changes of arguments, Stoic syllogistic, Stoic indemonstrable arguments, Stoic inference rules (themata), including cut rules and antilogism, argumental deduction, elements of relevance logic in Stoic syllogistic, the question of completeness of Stoic logic, Stoic arguments valid in the specific sense, e.g. "Dio says it is day. But Dio speaks truly. Therefore it is day." A more formal and more detailed account of the Stoic theory of deduction can be found (...)
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