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  1. Scott F. Aikin, Michael Harbour & Robert B. Talisse (2010). Nagel on Public Education and Intelligent Design. Journal of Philosophical Research 35:209-219.
    In a recent article, Thomas Nagel argues against the court’s decision to strike down the Dover school district’s requirement that biology teachers in Dover public schools inform their students about Intelligent Design. Nagel contends that this ruling relies on questionable demarcation between science and nonscience and consequently misapplies the Establishment Clause of the constitution. Instead, he argues in favor of making room for an open discussion of these issues rather than an outright prohibition against Intelligent Design. We contend that Nagel’s (...)
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  2. Denis Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.) (2010). Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. The University of Chicago Press.
    An accessible survey, this collection will enlighten historians of science, their students, practicing scientists, and anyone interested in the relationship ...
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  3. Agnes Robertson Arber (1954/1985). The Mind and the Eye: A Study of the Biologist's Standpoint. Cambridge University Press.
    Agnes Arber's international reputation is due in part to her exceptional ability to interpret the German tradition of scholarship for the English-speaking world. The Mind and the Eye is an erudite book, revealing its author's familiarity with philosophy from Plato and Aristotle through Aquinas to Kant and Hegel; but it is not dull, because the quiet enthusiasm of the author shines through. In this book she turns from the work of a specialist in one science to those wider questions which (...)
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  4. Elena Aronova (2007). Karl Popper and Lamarckism. Biological Theory 2 (1):37-51.
  5. Francisco J. Ayala (2007). The Vatican and Evolution. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (2):225 - 229.
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  6. Francisco J. Ayala (2006). Evolution Vs. Creationism. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (1):71 - 82.
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  7. Francisco J. Ayala (2006). The Blasphemy of Intelligent Design. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (3):409 - 421.
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  8. Francisco J. Ayala (2003). Intelligent Design: The Original Version. Theology and Science 1 (1):9-32.
    William Paley ( Natural Theology , 1802) developed the argument-from-design. The complex structure of the human eye evinces that it was designed by an intelligent Creator. The argument is based on the irreducible complexity ("relation") of multiple interacting parts, all necessary for function. Paley adduces a wealth of biological examples leading to the same conclusion; his knowledge of the biology of his time was profound and extensive. Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species is an extended argument demonstrating that the "design" of (...)
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  9. Francisco J. Ayala (2000). An American Malaise: The Debate Between Darwin and Christian Fundamentalism. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (2):273 - 293.
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  10. Francisco J. Ayala (1988). Darwin and the Bible. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 10 (1):137 - 144.
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  11. Timothy M. Beardsley (2013). Defending the Faith. Bioscience 63 (1):3.
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  12. Jesse M. Bering & Todd K. Shackelford (2004). Supernatural Agents May Have Provided Adaptive Social Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):732-733.
    Atran & Norenzayan's (A&N's) target article effectively combines the insights of evolutionary biology and interdisciplinary cognitive science, neither of which alone yields sufficient explanatory power to help us fully understand the complexities of supernatural belief. Although the authors' ideas echo those of other researchers, they are perhaps the most squarely grounded in neo-Darwinian terms to date. Nevertheless, A&N overlook the possibility that the tendency to infer supernatural agents' communicative intent behind natural events served an ancestrally adaptive function.
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  13. Muriel Blaisdell (1982). Natural Theology and Nature's Disguises. Journal of the History of Biology 15 (2):163 - 189.
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  14. Stefaan Blancke (2010). Creationism in the Netherlands. Zygon 45 (4):791-816.
    Recent events indicate that creationists are becoming increasingly active in the Netherlands. This article offers an overview of these events. First, I discuss the introduction of intelligent-design (ID) creationism into the Dutch public sphere by a renowned physicist, Cees Dekker. Later, Dekker himself shifted toward a more evolution-friendly position, theistic evolution. Second, we see how Dekker was followed in this shift by Andries Knevel, an important figure within the Dutch evangelical broadcasting group, the Evangelische Omroep (EO). His conversion to ID, (...)
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  15. Mark E. Borrello (2004). Mutual Aid and Animal Dispersion: An Historical Analysis of Alternatives to Darwin. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (1):15-31.
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  16. Peter J. Bowler (1977). Darwinism and the Argument From Design: Suggestions for a Reevaluation. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 10 (1):29 - 43.
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  17. John Broadbent (2003). Designing with Evolving Systems. World Futures 59 (8):631 – 637.
    This article suggests that it may be timely to action the relationship between design and evolution. While this view is not particularly new, the form of its expression here may be. It is noted that the exponential (possibly double exponential) rate of technological change, and the merging of the technological evolutionary lineage with those of biology, cognition, and socioculture is causing greatly accelerated evolution in these latter lineages. So rapid are these change processes that the attendant evolutionary time frames are (...)
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  18. John Hedley Brooke (1977). Natural Theology and the Plurality of Worlds: Observations on the Brewster-Whewell Debate. Annals of Science 34 (3):221-286.
    Summary The object of this study is to analyse certain aspects of the debate between David Brewster and William Whewell concerning the probability of extra-terrestrial life, in order to illustrate the nature, constitution and condition of natural theology in the decades immediately preceding the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's Origin of species. The argument is directed against a stylised picture of natural theology which has been drawn from a backward projection of the Darwinian antithesis between natural selection and certain (...)
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  19. John Brookfield (2006). When is “Neutral” Neutral? Review of Robustness and Evolvability in Living Systems. By Andreas Wagner (2005). Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford Hardback. 322 Pp. ISBN: 0‐691‐12240‐7. [REVIEW] Bioessays 28 (9):957-958.
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  20. R. C. Carrier (2004). The Argument From Biogenesis: Probabilities Against a Natural Origin of Life. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (5):739-764.
    No evidence exists that the accidental origin of life is too improbable to have occurred naturally, but there are numerous attempts to argue so. Dizzying statistics are cited to show that a god had to be responsible. This paper identifies the Argument from Biogenesis, then explains why all these arguments so far fail, and what would actually have to be done to make such an argument succeed. Describes seven general types of error, with examples. Includes a table of forty-seven statistics (...)
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  21. Martin Lindsey Christoffersen (2011). Evolução, religião e ambiente (Evolution, religion and environment) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n17p109. Horizonte 8 (17):109-124.
    Neste Ano Internacional da Biodiversidade, reflito sobre as responsabilidades crescentes das entidades religiosas no contexto atual da Crise Ambiental. Faço uma retrospectiva sobre a origem evolutiva das religiões no contexto da evolução cultural do homem. Em seguida, menciono algumas dimensões ecológicas do pensamento religioso, significativas para os problemas ambientais. Paradigmas religiosos se originam de forma semelhante aos das ciências. As doutrinas sociais das igrejas, especialmente a igreja católica, estabelecem compromissos com os excluídos e promovem o desenvolvimento integral da pessoa humana, (...)
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  22. David De Pomerai (1997). God, Dawkins, Holliday, the Universe and Other Matters. Bioessays 19 (10):937-938.
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  23. William Dembski, The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.
    The design inference uncovers intelligent causes by isolating the key trademark of intelligent causes: specified events of small probability. Just about anything that happens is highly improbable, but when a highly improbable event is also specified (i.e., conforms to an independently given pattern) undirected natural causes lose their explanatory power. Design inferences can be found in a range of scientific pursuits from forensic science to research into the origins of life to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
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  24. William Dembski, Who's Got the Magic?
    In criticizing Phillip Johnson's "intelligent design creationism," Robert Pennock raises a particularly worrisome legal consequence of Johnson's view. According to Pennock, Johnson insists "that science admit the reality of supernatural influences in the daily workings of the world." But what if the same reasoning that Johnson is trying to import into science were adopted in Johnson's own area of specialization--the law (Johnson is a law professor at UC Berkeley)? Here's the concern as Pennock lays (...)
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  25. David J. Depew (1997). And Now for a Few Words From the Loyal Opposition . . Biology and Philosophy 12 (3):399-402.
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  26. José Díez & Pablo Lorenzano (2013). Who Got What Wrong? Fodor and Piattelli on Darwin: Guiding Principles and Explanatory Models in Natural Selection. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 78 (5):1143-1175.
    The purpose of this paper is to defend, contra Fodor and Piattelli-Palmarini (F&PP), that the theory of natural selection (NS) is a perfectly bona fide empirical unified explanatory theory. F&PP claim there is nothing non-truistic, counterfactual-supporting, of an “adaptive” character and common to different explanations of trait evolution. In his debate with Fodor, and in other works, Sober defends NS but claims that, compared with classical mechanics (CM) and other standard theories, NS is peculiar in that its explanatory models are (...)
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  27. Theodore M. Drange, Can Creationism Be Scientific? (1998).
    My answer to the title question is a qualified "Yes." A certain rare form of creationism is in principle testable and compatible with natural law, and therefore scientific, however, this is a moot point. I arrive at my conclusions purely through thought experiments. But before getting to that, let us first consider the issues of what creationism is and what it means for a theory to be scientific.
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  28. Jacques Dubochet (2011). Why is It so Difficult to Accept Darwin's Theory of Evolution? Bioessays 33 (4):240-242.
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  29. Joseph E. Earley (1986). Evolution and Creation. Review of Metaphysics 40 (2):389-390.
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  30. Jorge M. Escobar (2012). Autopoiesis and Darwinism. Synthese 185 (1):53-72.
    The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical approach to the theory of autopoiesis in order to see how it challenges mainstream Darwinism. In the first part of the paper, I characterize Darwinism from the concepts of natural selection, heredity, reproduction, and evolution. This characterization is absolutely schematic, and I hope not controversial at all, since my aim is to provide a general background for the discussion of the rest of the paper. The second part presents the main (...)
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  31. Francis Fallon (2011). What Darwin Got Wrong. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 18 (4):598-603.
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  32. Branden Fitelson (1999). How Not to Detect Design. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 66 (3):472 - 488.
    As every philosopher knows, “the design argument” concludes that God exists from premisses that cite the adaptive complexity of organisms or the lawfulness and orderliness of the whole universe. Since 1859, it has formed the intellectual heart of creationist opposition to the Darwinian hypothesis that organisms evolved their adaptive features by the mindless process of natural selection. Although the design argument developed as a defense of theism, the logic of the argument in fact encompasses a larger set of issues. William (...)
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  33. Jerry Fodor (2008). Against Darwinism. Mind and Language 23 (1):1–24.
    Darwinism consists of two parts: a phylogenesis of biological species (ours included) and the claim that the primary mechanism of the evolution of phenotypes is natural selection. I assume that Darwin’s account of phylogeny is essentially correct; attention is directed to the theory of natural selection. I claim that Darwin’s account of evolution by natural selection cannot be sustained. The basic problem is that, according to the consensus view, evolution consists in changes of the distribution of phenotypic traits in populations (...)
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  34. Jerry Fodor (1996). Deconstructing Dennett's Darwin. Mind and Language 11 (3):246-262.
  35. Jerry A. Fodor (2010). What Darwin Got Wrong. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    What kind of theory is the theory of natural selection? -- Internal constraints : what the new biology tells us -- Whole genomes, networks, modules and other complexities -- Many constraints, many environments -- The return of the laws of form -- Many are called but few are chosen : the problem of 'selection-for' -- No exit? : some responses to the problem of 'selection-for' -- Did the dodo lose its ecological niche? : or was it the other way around? (...)
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  36. Jerry Fodor & Julian Baggini (2010). Darwin's Empty Idea. The Philosophers' Magazine 49 (49):23-32.
    “It’s not good enough to say there’s some mechanism such that you start out with amoebas and you end up with us. Everybody agrees with that. The question is in this case in the mechanical details. What you need is an account, as it were step by step, about what the constraints are, what the environmental variables are, and Darwin doesn’t give you that.”.
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  37. Jerry Fodor & Julian Baggini (2010). Darwin's Empty Idea. The Philosophers' Magazine 49 (49):23-32.
    “It’s not good enough to say there’s some mechanism such that you start out with amoebas and you end up with us. Everybody agrees with that. The question is in this case in the mechanical details. What you need is an account, as it were step by step, about what the constraints are, what the environmental variables are, and Darwin doesn’t give you that.”.
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  38. Jerry Fodor & Julian Baggini (2010). Darwin's Empty Idea. The Philosophers' Magazine 49 (49):23-32.
    “It’s not good enough to say there’s some mechanism such that you start out with amoebas and you end up with us. Everybody agrees with that. The question is in this case in the mechanical details. What you need is an account, as it were step by step, about what the constraints are, what the environmental variables are, and Darwin doesn’t give you that.”.
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  39. Langdon Gilkey (1988). Reply From the Author. Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):485-495.
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  40. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Information and the Argument From Design.
    William Dembski holds that "the origin of information is best sought in intelligent causes" ("Intelligent Design as a Theory of Information", 1997). In particular, Dembski argues that Darwinism is not able to explain the existence of biological structures that contain a certain kind of information – "complex specified information" (CSI). To explain these informational features of living systems, we must instead appeal to the choices made by an intelligent designer.
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  41. John Grant (2011). Denying Science: Conspiracy Theories, Media Distortions, and the War Against Reality. Prometheus Books.
    Unless we think, we aren't -- God told me to deny -- "The law is an ass" -- Thoroughly uncomplementary -- Puffing the product -- Paying with their lives -- The Antivaxers -- The AIDS "controversy" -- Selfish help -- Dissent about descent -- We're (badly) designed -- No safe classroom? -- Evilution -- Eugenically speaking -- Social Darwinism -- It's the ecology, stupid -- So, what was the weather like in 2010? -- Global weirding -- Marketing climate denialism -- (...)
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  42. Lilia Gurova, Fodor Vs. Darwin: A Methodological Follow-Up.
    In a series of recent publications Jerry Fodor has attacked what many believe is the core of Darwinian theory of evolution – the theory of natural selection. Not surprisingly, Fodor’s attack has provoked a strong negative reaction. Fodor’s critics have insisted both that his main argument is unsound and that his central claim that the theory of natural selection “can’t explain the distribution of phenotypic traits in biological populations” is untenable. I can generally agree with the first part of the (...)
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  43. Philip Hefner (2012). A Fuller Concept of Evolution—Big Bang to Spirit. Zygon 47 (2):298-307.
    Abstract The concept of evolution challenges us to an ongoing effort to interpret its significance. The challenge has several dimensions: (1) to calm the debate that divides Americans in arguing whether evolution is at odds with biblical traditions; (2) to integrate evolution into one's personal philosophy of life or religious faith; (3) to note the importance of the story form for rendering evolution; and (4) to evaluate evolution as a creation story. Evolution is portrayed as a drama in five acts: (...)
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  44. James R. Hofmann & Bruce H. Weber (2003). The Fact of Evolution: Implications for Science Education. Science and Education 12 (8):729-760.
    Creationists who object to evolution in the science curriculum of public schools often cite Jonathan Well’s book Icons of Evolution in their support (Wells 2000). In the third chapter of his book Wells claims that neither paleontological nor molecular evidence supports the thesis that the history of life is an evolutionary process of descent from preexisting ancestors. We argue that Wells inappropriately relies upon ambiguities inherent in the term ‘Darwinian’ and the phrase ‘Darwin’s theory’. Furthermore, he does not accurately distinguish (...)
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  45. Robin Holliday (2003). Creationism and the Wheel. Bioessays 25 (6):620-621.
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  46. Kenneth W. Kemp (2011). Science, Theology, and Monogenesis. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (2):217-236.
    Francisco Ayala and others have argued that recent genetic evidence shows that the origins of the human race cannot be monogenetic, as the Church hastraditionally taught. This paper replies to that objection, developing a distinction between biological and theological species first proposed by Andrew Alexanderin 1964.
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  47. Philip Kitcher (2007). Living with Darwin: Evolution, Design, and the Future of Faith. OUP USA.
    Recent debates about Intelligent Design have brought into high relief the huge schism between those who believe in Darwin and the power of science to understand the world, and those who look through the prism of religious faith. Why, asks eminent philosopher Philip Kitcher, does this debate continue to rage given that the scientific consensus in favor of Darwin is overwhelming? This accessible and elegant essay attempts to answer this question. Kitcher first presents the compelling evidence on behalf of Darwin's (...)
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  48. Martin Kreitman (1996). The Neutral Theory is Dead. Long Live the Neutral Theory. Bioessays 18 (8):678-683.
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  49. Tore Lindholm, Nils Chr Stenseth & Audfinn Tjønneland (1988). A Final Note to Gilkey. Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):497-499.
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  50. David Loye & Michael Zimmerman (2011). Science and Religion: A New Alliance to Combat the New Wave of Creationism. World Futures 67 (1):1-10.
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