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  1. Scott F. Aikin, Michael Harbour & Robert B. Talisse (2010). Nagel on Public Education and Intelligent Design. Journal of Philosophical Research 35:209-219.
    In a recent article, Thomas Nagel argues against the court’s decision to strike down the Dover school district’s requirement that biology teachers in Dover public schools inform their students about Intelligent Design. Nagel contends that this ruling relies on questionable demarcation between science and nonscience and consequently misapplies the Establishment Clause of the constitution. Instead, he argues in favor of making room for an open discussion of these issues rather than an outright prohibition against Intelligent Design. We contend that Nagel’s (...)
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  2. Denis Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.) (2010). Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins. The University of Chicago Press.
    An accessible survey, this collection will enlighten historians of science, their students, practicing scientists, and anyone interested in the relationship ...
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  3. Paul C. Anders (2005). William Dembski and Michael Ruse, Eds., Debating Design: From Darwin to DNA Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 25 (3):175-179.
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  4. John Anderson (forthcoming). A Generic Distributed Simulation System for Intelligent Agent Design and Evaluation. Proceedings of the Tenth Conference on Ai, Simulation and Planning, Ais-2000, Society for Computer Simulation International.
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  5. V. Elving Anderson (1983). Scientific Creationism and Its Critique of Evolution. In J. Peter Zetterberg (ed.), Evolution Versus Creationism: The Public Education Controversy. Oryx Press. 235.
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  6. Agnes Robertson Arber (1954/1985). The Mind and the Eye: A Study of the Biologist's Standpoint. Cambridge University Press.
    Agnes Arber's international reputation is due in part to her exceptional ability to interpret the German tradition of scholarship for the English-speaking world. The Mind and the Eye is an erudite book, revealing its author's familiarity with philosophy from Plato and Aristotle through Aquinas to Kant and Hegel; but it is not dull, because the quiet enthusiasm of the author shines through. In this book she turns from the work of a specialist in one science to those wider questions which (...)
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  7. Elena Aronova (2007). Karl Popper and Lamarckism. Biological Theory 2 (1):37-51.
  8. Francisco J. Ayala (2010). Darwin and Intelligent Design. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell. 749-766.
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  9. Francisco J. Ayala (2007). The Vatican and Evolution. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (2):225 - 229.
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  10. Francisco J. Ayala (2006). Evolution Vs. Creationism. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (1):71 - 82.
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  11. Francisco J. Ayala (2006). The Blasphemy of Intelligent Design. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (3):409 - 421.
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  12. Francisco J. Ayala (2003). Intelligent Design: The Original Version. Theology and Science 1 (1):9-32.
    William Paley ( Natural Theology , 1802) developed the argument-from-design. The complex structure of the human eye evinces that it was designed by an intelligent Creator. The argument is based on the irreducible complexity ("relation") of multiple interacting parts, all necessary for function. Paley adduces a wealth of biological examples leading to the same conclusion; his knowledge of the biology of his time was profound and extensive. Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species is an extended argument demonstrating that the "design" of (...)
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  13. Francisco J. Ayala (2000). An American Malaise: The Debate Between Darwin and Christian Fundamentalism. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (2):273 - 293.
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  14. Francisco J. Ayala (1988). Darwin and the Bible. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 10 (1):137 - 144.
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  15. Justin Barrett (2009). The Antagonism Between Christianity and Evolution Continues. For Over 100 Years Numerous Anti-Theists Have Bludgeoned Christianity Using Evolution by Natural Selection as a Bat. Christians Have Assailed Evolu-Tionary Theory as Bad Science Advanced Only for Ulterior Motives. Inspired by Observations From Molecular Biology, the Battle has Crested Again in Terms of 'Intelligent Design'versus Unguided Materialist Evolution (Eg, Behe 1996). The End of This Struggle Remains Nowhere in Sight. And Then There's .. [REVIEW] In Jeffrey Schloss & Michael J. Murray (eds.), The Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Reflections on the Origin of Religion. Oxford University Press. 76.
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  16. Timothy M. Beardsley (2013). Defending the Faith. BioScience 63 (1):3.
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  17. Dene Bebbington (2005). The Wrong Way to Infer Design. Think 4 (11):85-90.
    Dene Bebbbington explains, and criticises, the intelligent design creationism of William Dembski.
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  18. Francis Beckwith (2003). Public Education, Religious Establishment, and the Challenge of Intelligent Design. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy 17 (2):461-520.
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  19. Francis J. Beckwith (2011). Or We Can Be Philosophers: A Response to Barbara Forrest. Synthese:1-23.
    This article is a response to Barbara Forrest’ 2011 Synthese article, “On the Non-Epistemology of Intelligent Design.” Forrest offers an account of my philosophical work that consists almost entirely of personal attacks, excursions into my religious pilgrimage, and misunderstandings and misrepresentations of my work as well as of certain philosophical issues. Not surprisingly, the Synthese editors include a disclaimer in the front matter of the special issue in which Forrest’s article was published. In my response, I address three topics: (1) (...)
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  20. Michael J. Behe (2001). Reply to My Critics: A Response to Reviews of Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):683-707.
    In Darwin's Black Box: The BiochemicalChallenge to Evolution I argued thatpurposeful intelligent design, rather thanDarwinian natural selection, better explainssome aspects of the complexity that modernscience has discovered at the molecularfoundation of life. In the five years since itspublication the book has been widely discussedand has received considerable criticism. Here Irespond to what I deem to be the mostfundamental objections. In the first part ofthe article I address empirical criticismsbased on experimental studies alleging eitherthat biochemical systems I discussed are notirreducibly complex (...)
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  21. Jesse M. Bering & Todd K. Shackelford (2004). Supernatural Agents May Have Provided Adaptive Social Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):732-733.
    Atran & Norenzayan's (A&N's) target article effectively combines the insights of evolutionary biology and interdisciplinary cognitive science, neither of which alone yields sufficient explanatory power to help us fully understand the complexities of supernatural belief. Although the authors' ideas echo those of other researchers, they are perhaps the most squarely grounded in neo-Darwinian terms to date. Nevertheless, A&N overlook the possibility that the tendency to infer supernatural agents' communicative intent behind natural events served an ancestrally adaptive function.
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  22. Larry Lee Blackman (2013). Kant and Dembski on Intelligent Design, Artistic Wisdom, and the Problem of Theodicy. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. 823-834.
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  23. Muriel Blaisdell (1982). Natural Theology and Nature's Disguises. Journal of the History of Biology 15 (2):163 - 189.
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  24. Stefaan Blancke (2010). Creationism in the Netherlands. Zygon 45 (4):791-816.
    Recent events indicate that creationists are becoming increasingly active in the Netherlands. This article offers an overview of these events. First, I discuss the introduction of intelligent-design (ID) creationism into the Dutch public sphere by a renowned physicist, Cees Dekker. Later, Dekker himself shifted toward a more evolution-friendly position, theistic evolution. Second, we see how Dekker was followed in this shift by Andries Knevel, an important figure within the Dutch evangelical broadcasting group, the Evangelische Omroep (EO). His conversion to ID, (...)
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  25. Charles A. Bleckmann (2006). Evolution and Creationism in Science: 1880–2000. BioScience 56 (2):151-158.
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  26. Mark E. Borrello (2004). Mutual Aid and Animal Dispersion: An Historical Analysis of Alternatives to Darwin. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (1):15-31.
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  27. Claire Bowern (2006). Punctuated Equilibrium and Language Change. In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 286--289.
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  28. Peter J. Bowler (1977). Darwinism and the Argument From Design: Suggestions for a Reevaluation. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 10 (1):29 - 43.
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  29. P. W. Bridgman (1939). The Intelligent Individual and Society. Philosophical Review 48 (2):221-223.
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  30. John Broadbent (2003). Designing with Evolving Systems. World Futures 59 (8):631 – 637.
    This article suggests that it may be timely to action the relationship between design and evolution. While this view is not particularly new, the form of its expression here may be. It is noted that the exponential (possibly double exponential) rate of technological change, and the merging of the technological evolutionary lineage with those of biology, cognition, and socioculture is causing greatly accelerated evolution in these latter lineages. So rapid are these change processes that the attendant evolutionary time frames are (...)
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  31. John Hedley Brooke (1977). Natural Theology and the Plurality of Worlds: Observations on the Brewster-Whewell Debate. Annals of Science 34 (3):221-286.
    Summary The object of this study is to analyse certain aspects of the debate between David Brewster and William Whewell concerning the probability of extra-terrestrial life, in order to illustrate the nature, constitution and condition of natural theology in the decades immediately preceding the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's Origin of species. The argument is directed against a stylised picture of natural theology which has been drawn from a backward projection of the Darwinian antithesis between natural selection and certain (...)
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  32. John Brookfield (2006). When is “Neutral” Neutral? Review of Robustness and Evolvability in Living Systems. By Andreas Wagner (2005). Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford Hardback. 322 Pp. ISBN: 0‐691‐12240‐7. [REVIEW] Bioessays 28 (9):957-958.
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  33. John Buckeridge (2007). Dossier Évolution Etcréationnisme. Creationism and Intelligent Design: A Critique. Natures Sciences Sociétés 15 (4):405-406.
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  34. William A. Calder (1979). The Kiwi and Egg Design: Evolution as a Package Deal. BioScience 29 (8):461-467.
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  35. R. C. Carrier (2004). The Argument From Biogenesis: Probabilities Against a Natural Origin of Life. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (5):739-764.
    No evidence exists that the accidental origin of life is too improbable to have occurred naturally, but there are numerous attempts to argue so. Dizzying statistics are cited to show that a god had to be responsible. This paper identifies the Argument from Biogenesis, then explains why all these arguments so far fail, and what would actually have to be done to make such an argument succeed. Describes seven general types of error, with examples. Includes a table of forty-seven statistics (...)
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  36. Paolo Casini (2009). The New World and the Intelligent Design. Rivista di Filosofia 1 (1):157-178.
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  37. Clark A. Chinn & Luke A. Buckland (2011). Differences in Epistemic Practices Among Scientists, Young Earth Creationists, Intelligent Design Creationists, and the Scientist-Creationists of Darwin's Era. In Roger S. Taylor & Michel Ferrari (eds.), Epistemology and Science Education: Understanding the Evolution Vs. Routledge. 38--76.
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  38. Kyungsan Cho, Kihyun Kim & Hyunku Cho (1990). An Intelligent Simulation Environment for Computer System Design. Ai and Simulation Theory and Applications: Proceedings of the Scs Eastern Multiconference, 23-26 April, 1990, Nashville, Tennessee 22:59.
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  39. Martin Lindsey Christoffersen (2011). Evolução, religião e ambiente (Evolution, religion and environment) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n17p109. Horizonte 8 (17):109-124.
    Neste Ano Internacional da Biodiversidade, reflito sobre as responsabilidades crescentes das entidades religiosas no contexto atual da Crise Ambiental. Faço uma retrospectiva sobre a origem evolutiva das religiões no contexto da evolução cultural do homem. Em seguida, menciono algumas dimensões ecológicas do pensamento religioso, significativas para os problemas ambientais. Paradigmas religiosos se originam de forma semelhante aos das ciências. As doutrinas sociais das igrejas, especialmente a igreja católica, estabelecem compromissos com os excluídos e promovem o desenvolvimento integral da pessoa humana, (...)
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  40. John Coleman & B. Keith (2006). Design Features of Language. In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 471--475.
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  41. Philippe Dalleur (2001). William A. Dembski, Intelligent Design. The Bridge Between Science and Theology. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 99 (2):327-335.
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  42. Richard Dawkins (2006). Intelligent Aliens. In John Brockman (ed.), Intelligent Thought: Science Versus the Intelligent Design Movement. Vintage. 92--106.
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  43. Andreas De Block (2008). En Evolutionair Geloof? Over 'Intelligent Design', Darwinisme En Theïsme. Bijdragen 69 (1):3-17.
    Both the so-called high priests of atheism and the proponents of Intelligent Design argue that the Darwinian theory of evolution is more problematic for theism than any other scientific theory. Against the grain of most contemporary philosophers and theologians, I contend that their arguments are largely correct. Moreover, neo-Darwinism is especially threatening the soft theism or deism, defended by Darwin and several of the most prominent Darwinian theorists . For the proponents of ID, this implies that a more theistic science (...)
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  44. David De Pomerai (1997). God, Dawkins, Holliday, the Universe and Other Matters. Bioessays 19 (10):937-938.
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  45. J. de Ridder (2010). Bradley Monton, Seeking God in Science: An Atheist Defends Intelligent Design. Philosophia Reformata 75 (1):85.
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  46. W. A. Dembski (2008). Darwin's Nemesis: Phillip Johnson and the Intelligent Design Movement. Hts Theological Studies 64 (3):1556-1558.
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  47. William Dembski, Detecting Design in the Natural Sciences by William A. Dembski [Word Count: 2106].
    How a designer gets from thought to thing is, at least in broad strokes, straightforward: (1) A designer conceives a purpose. (2) To accomplish that purpose, the designer forms a plan. (3) To execute the plan, the designer specifies building materials and assembly instructions. (4) Finally, the designer or some surrogate applies the assembly instructions to the building materials.
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  48. William Dembski, =====Foreword to How Blind is the Watchmaker?=====.
    For many critics of intelligent design, it is inconceivable that someone once properly exposed to Darwin's theory could doubt it. It is as though Darwin's theory were one of Descartes's clear and distinct ideas that immediately impels assent. Thus for design theorists to oppose Darwin's theory requires some hidden motivation, like wanting to shore up traditional morality or being a closet fundamentalist.
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  49. William Dembski, Intelligent Design's Contribution to the Debate Over Evolution: A Reply to Henry Morris.
    In the spring of 1992, I had lunch with Michael Ruse during a symposium at Southern Methodist University. The symposium addressed Phillip Johnson's then recently published book, Darwin on Trial . Johnson and Ruse were the keynote speakers, with Johnson defending his critique of evolution, Ruse challenging it. My role, and that of several other speakers, including Michael Behe, Stephen Meyer, Fred Grinnell, and Arthur Shapiro, was to contribute to the primary discussion between Johnson and Ruse. (The symposium proceedings, under (...)
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  50. William Dembski, Preface to Paperback Edition of No Free Lunch.
    Five years have elapsed since the publication of No Free Lunch. In that time, intelligent design (ID) has gone from a little-known and marginalized alternative to standard evolutionary theory to a national and international phenomenon that everyone with an interest in the biological origins debate is talking about. Gone is the former dichotomy between creationism and evolution. Leaving aside creationism’s insistence on treating Genesis as a scientific text and treating the detection and application of design as a research tool for (...)
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