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Applied Ethics

Edited by Ezio Di Nucci (University of Copenhagen)
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  1. added 2016-08-27
    Govind C. Persad & Ezekiel J. Emanuel (2016). The Ethics of Expanding Access to Cheaper, Less Effective Treatments. The Lancet:S0140-6736(15)01025-9.
    This article examines a fundamental question of justice in global health. Is it ethically preferable to provide a larger number of people with cheaper treatments that are less effective (or more toxic), or to restrict treatments to a smaller group to provide a more expensive but more effective or less toxic alternative? We argue that choosing to provide less effective or more toxic interventions to a larger number of people is favored by the principles of utility, equality, and priority for (...)
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  2. added 2016-08-27
    Dan C. Shahar (2016). Treading Lightly on the Climate in a Problem-Ridden World. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):183-195.
    Personal carbon footprints have become a subject of major concern among those who worry about global climate change. Conventional wisdom holds that individuals have a duty to reduce their impacts on the climate system by restricting their carbon footprints. However, I defend a new argument for thinking that this conventional wisdom is mistaken. Individuals, I argue, have a duty to take actions to combat the world’s problems. But since climate change is only one of a nearly endless list of such (...)
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  3. added 2016-08-26
    Megan A. Dean, Elizabeth Victor & Laura Guidry-Grimes (forthcoming). Inhospitable Healthcare Spaces: Why Diversity Training on LGBTQIA Issues Is Not Enough. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-14.
    In an effort to address healthcare disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer populations, many hospitals and clinics institute diversity training meant to increase providers’ awareness of and sensitivity to this patient population. Despite these efforts, many healthcare spaces remain inhospitable to LGBTQ patients and their loved ones. Even in the absence of overt forms of discrimination, LGBTQ patients report feeling anxious, unwelcome, ashamed, and distrustful in healthcare encounters. We argue that these negative experiences are produced by a variety (...)
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  4. added 2016-08-26
    Ezio Di Nucci (forthcoming). IVF, Same-Sex Couples and the Value of Biological Ties. Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF-with-ROPA ( Reception of Oocytes from Partner ), which allows lesbian couples to „share motherhood‟ with one partner providing the eggs while the other becomes pregnant. I believe that IVF-with-ROPA is, just like other IVF treatments, morally permissible; (...)
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  5. added 2016-08-26
    Toby Svoboda (2016). Environmental Philosophy as A Way of Life. Ethics and the Environment 21 (1):39-60.
    Environmental philosophy is particularly well-suited to facilitate a revival of a philosophical art of living, or the practice of philosophy as a way of life. The notion that philosophy involves the practice of living well is most often associated with Hellenistic figures, but it is also present in some modern philosophical writers. However, despite interest in this tradition of philosophy from the likes of Michel Foucault, Martha Nussbaum, and Pierre Hadot, the practice of philosophy as a way of life is (...)
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  6. added 2016-08-26
    Steven Fesmire (2016). USEFUL FOR WHAT? DEWEY's CALL TO HUMANIZE TECHNO-INDUSTRIAL CIVILIZATION. Pragmatism Today 7 (1):11-19.
    The heart of Dewey’s call to humanize technoindustrial civilization was to conceive science and technology in the service of aesthetic consummations. Hence his philosophy suggests a way to reclaim and affirm technology on behalf of living more fulfilling lives. He remains a powerful ally today in the fight against deadening efficiency, narrow means-end calculation, “frantic exploitation,” and the industrialization of everything. Nonetheless, it is common to depict him as a philosopher we should think around rather than with. The first section (...)
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  7. added 2016-08-25
    A. J. K. Pols (forthcoming). May Stakeholders Be Involved in Design Without Informed Consent? The Case of Hidden Design. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    Stakeholder involvement in design is desirable from both a practical and an ethical point of view. It is difficult to do well, however, and some problems recur again and again, both of a practical nature, e.g. stakeholders acting strategically rather than openly, and of an ethical nature, e.g. power imbalances unduly affecting the outcome of the process. Hidden Design has been proposed as a method to deal with the practical problems of stakeholder involvement. It aims to do so by taking (...)
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  8. added 2016-08-25
    S. Andrew Schroeder (forthcoming). Consequentializing and its Consequences. Philosophical Studies:1-23.
    Recently, a number of philosophers have argued that we can and should “consequentialize” non-consequentialist moral theories, putting them into a consequentialist framework. I argue that these philosophers, usually treated as a group, in fact offer three separate arguments, two of which are incompatible. I show that none represent significant threats to a committed non-consequentialist, and that the literature has suffered due to a failure to distinguish these arguments. I conclude by showing that the failure of the consequentializers’ arguments has implications (...)
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  9. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum, B. Sina & R. Glass (2015). International Research Ethics Education. Journal of the American Medical Association 313 (5):461-62.
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  10. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2014). Introduction: International Research Ethics Education. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal 9 (2):1-2.
    NIH's fogarty international Center has provided grants for the development of training programs in international research ethics for low- and middle-income (LMIC) professionals since 2000. Drawing on 12 years of research ethics training experience, a group of Fogarty grantees, trainees, and other ethics experts sought to map the current capacity and need for research ethics in LMICs, analyze the lessons learned about teaching bioethics, and chart a way forward for research ethics training in a rapidly changing health research landscape. This (...)
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  11. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2013). The 50th Anniversary of the Declaration of Helsinki: Progress but Many Remaining Challenges. Journal of the American Medical Association 310 (20):2143-44.
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  12. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2013). The Ethics of Placebo-Controlled Trials: Methodological Justifications. Contemporary Clinical Trials 36 (2):510-14.
    The use of placebo controls in clinical trials remains controversial. Ethical analysis and international ethical guidance permit the use of placebo controls in randomized trials when scientifically indicated in four cases: (1) when there is no proven effective treatment for the condition under study; (2) when withholding treatment poses negligible risks to participants; (3) when there are compelling methodological reasons for using placebo, and withholding treatment does not pose a risk of serious harm to participants; and, more controversially, (4) when (...)
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  13. added 2016-08-25
    Joseph Millum, Christine Grady, Gerald Keusch & Barbara Sina (2013). Introduction: The Fogarty International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Program in Historical Context. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal 8 (5):3-16.
    In response to the increasing need for research ethics expertise in low and middle income countries (LMICs), the NIH's Fogarty International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Program has provided grants for the development of training programs in international research ethics for LMIC professionals since 2000. This collection of papers draws upon the combined expertise of Fogarty grantees, trainees, and other experts to assess the state of research ethics in LMICs, and the lessons learned over 12 years of international research (...)
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  14. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum, Procreation and Parenthood. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  15. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2012). Global Bioethics and Political Theory. In J. Millum & E. J. Millum (eds.), Global Justice and bioethics. Oxford University Press 17-42.
    This chapter explains that resolving certain problems laid out by bioethics may lie in the study of theories of global justice. However, the field of global justice is riddled with complexities. Care must be taken in utilizing these differences across differing levels of poverty. This is apparent in the focuses of this chapter, the first of which concerns the development of global bioethics in relation to international judiciary practices. The second discusses the issue of intellectual property laws preventing access to (...)
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  16. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2012). Introduction: Global Justice and Bioethics. In J. Millum & E. J. Emanuel (eds.), Global Justice and Bioethics. Oxford University Press 1-14.
    This introduction begins with two simple case studies that reveal a background of socio-economic complexities that hinder development. The availability of healthcare and the issue of cross-border justice are the key points to be addressed in this study. The chapters consider philosophy, economics, and bioethics in order to provide a global perspective. Two theories come into play in this book—the ideal and non-ideal—which offer insight on why and how things are done.
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  17. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2012). Introduction: Case Studies in the Ethics of Mental Health Research. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 200:230-35.
    This collection presents six case studies on the ethics of mental health research, written by scientific researchers and ethicists from around the world. We publish them here as a resource for teachers of research ethics and as a contribution to several ongoing ethical debates. Each consists of a description of a research study that was proposed or carried out and an in-depth analysis of the ethics of the study.
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  18. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2012). Canada’s New Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans: A Critique and Comparison with the United States. Canadian Medical Association Journal 184:657-61.
    Canada’s Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical conduct for research involving humans, first published in 1998, has recently been updated.1 The US Department of Health and Human Services has just issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would substantially change the 20-year-old Common Rule governing most federally funded research involving human participants.2 A comparison of the two countries’ systems for protecting human research participants is therefore timely. This analysis situates the Canadian system in an international context, with particular attention to its (...)
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  19. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2012). Ethical and Human Rights Concerns in Global Health. In R. Skolnik (ed.), Global Health 101 2ed. Jones & Bartlett 71-86.
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  20. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum & J. Menikoff (2010). Streamlining Ethical Review. Annals of Internal Medicine 153 (10):655-72.
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  21. added 2016-08-25
    R. D. Ellis, I. Sagara, A. Durbin, A. Dicko, D. Shaffer, L. Miller, M. H. Assadou, M. Kone, B. Kamate, O. Guindo, M. P. Fay, D. A. Diallo, O. K. Doumbo, E. J. Emanuel & J. Millum (2010). Comparing the Understanding of Subjects Receiving a Candidate Malaria Vaccine in the United States and Mali. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83 (4):868-72.
    Initial responses to questionnaires used to assess participants' understanding of informed consent for malaria vaccine trials conducted in the United States and Mali were tallied. Total scores were analyzed by age, sex, literacy (if known), and location. Ninety-two percent (92%) of answers by United States participants and 85% of answers by Malian participants were correct. Questions more likely to be answered incorrectly in Mali related to risk, and to the type of vaccine. For adult participants, independent predictors of higher scores (...)
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  22. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2007). The Ethics of International Research with Abandoned Children. Science 318:1874-75.
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  23. added 2016-08-24
    Ben Kotzee, Agnieszka Ignatowicz & Hywel Thomas (forthcoming). Virtue in Medical Practice: An Exploratory Study. HEC Forum:1-19.
    Virtue ethics has long provided fruitful resources for the study of issues in medical ethics. In particular, study of the moral virtues of the good doctor—like kindness, fairness and good judgement—have provided insights into the nature of medical professionalism and the ethical demands on the medical practitioner as a moral person. Today, a substantial literature exists exploring the virtues in medical practice and many commentators advocate an emphasis on the inculcation of the virtues of good medical practice in medical education (...)
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  24. added 2016-08-24
    Erich Hatala Matthes (forthcoming). The Ethics of Historic Preservation. Philosophy Compass.
    This article draws together research from various sub-disciplines of philosophy to offer an overview of recent philosophical work on the ethics of historic preservation. I discuss how philosophers writing about art, culture, and the environment have appealed to historical significance in crafting arguments about the preservation of objects, practices, and places. By demonstrating how it relates to core themes in moral and political philosophy, I argue that historic preservation is essentially concerned with ethical issues.
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  25. added 2016-08-24
    Thomas Douglas (forthcoming). Nonconsensual Neurocorrectives and Bodily Integrity: A Reply to Shaw and Barn. Neuroethics:1-12.
    In this issue, Elizabeth Shaw and Gulzaar Barn offer a number of replies to my arguments in ‘Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity’, Journal of Ethics. In this article I respond to some of their criticisms.
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  26. added 2016-08-24
    M. Fowler, V. Tschudin & E. Peter (2016). Tributes to Sr. Marie Simone Roach, Sister of St. Martha of Antigonish, Canada 30th July 1922 to 2nd July 2016. Nursing Ethics 23 (5):487-489.
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  27. added 2016-08-24
    Andreas Müller (2016). Die Rolle der Selbstbestimmung in der Rechtfertigung passiver und aktiver Sterbehilfe. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 20 (1).
    Name der Zeitschrift: Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik Jahrgang: 20 Heft: 1 Seiten: 5-28.
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  28. added 2016-08-24
    Victoria Coathup, Harriet J. A. Teare, Jusaku Minari, Go Yoshizawa, Jane Kaye, Masanori P. Takahashi & Kazuto Kato (2016). Using digital technologies to engage with medical research: views of myotonic dystrophy patients in Japan. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):51.
    _BMC Medical Ethics_ is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in relation to the ethical aspects of biomedical research and clinical practice, including professional choices and conduct, medical technologies, healthcare systems and health policies. _BMC __Medical Ethics _is part of the _BMC_ series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. We do not make editorial decisions on the basis of the interest of a study or (...)
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  29. added 2016-08-24
    Axel Gosseries & Danielle Zwarthoed (2016). Generations and Global Justice. In David Held & Pietro Maffettone (eds.), Global Political Theory. Polity Chapter 14.
  30. added 2016-08-24
    Alexander E. P. Heazell, Dimitros Siassakos, Hannah Blencowe, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Joanne Cacciatore, Nghia Dang, Jai Das, Bicki Flenady, Katherine J. Gold, Olivia K. Mensah, Joseph Millum, Daniel Nuzum, Keelin O'Donoghue, Maggie Redshaw, Arjumand Rizvi, Tracy Roberts, Toyin Saraki, Claire Storey, Aleena M. Wojcieszek & Soo Downe (2016). Stillbirths: Economic and Psychosocial Consequences. The Lancet 387 (10018):604-16.
    Despite the frequency of stillbirths, the subsequent implications are overlooked and underappreciated. We present findings from comprehensive, systematic literature reviews, and new analyses of published and unpublished data, to establish the effect of stillbirth on parents, families, health-care providers, and societies worldwide. Data for direct costs of this event are sparse but suggest that a stillbirth needs more resources than a livebirth, both in the perinatal period and in additional surveillance during subsequent pregnancies. Indirect and intangible costs of stillbirth are (...)
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  31. added 2016-08-24
    J. Millum (2016). The Ethics of Transactions in an Unjust World. In K. Zeiler & E. Malmqvist (eds.), Bioethics and Border Crossing: Perspectives on Giving, Selling and Sharing Bodies. Routledge: Oxon 185-196.
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  32. added 2016-08-24
    Milos N. Mladenovic & Tristram McPherson (2016). Engineering Social Justice Into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles? Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1131-1149.
    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central (...)
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  33. added 2016-08-24
    Z. U. Qureshi (2015). A Silenced Cry: Should Stillbirth Be Given Greater Priority on the Global Health Agenda? British Medical Journal 351 (h4620).
  34. added 2016-08-24
    D. Sharp (2015). The Post-2015 Development Agenda: Keeping Our Focus On the Worst Off. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92 (6):1087-89.
    Non-communicable diseases now account for the majority of the global burden of disease and an international campaign has emerged to raise their priority on the post-2015 development agenda. We argue, to the contrary, that there remain strong reasons to prioritize maternal and child health. Policy-makers ought to assign highest priority to the health conditions that afflict the worst off. In virtue of how little healthy life they have had, children who die young are among the globally worst off. Moreover, many (...)
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  35. added 2016-08-23
    Leon Windscheid, Lynn Bowes-Sperry, Karsten Jonsen & Michèle Morner (forthcoming). Managing Organizational Gender Diversity Images: A Content Analysis of German Corporate Websites. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  36. added 2016-08-23
    Carl Mitcham & Elaine E. Englehardt (forthcoming). Ethics Across the Curriculum: Prospects for Broader Teaching and Learning in Research and Engineering Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-28.
    The movements to teach the responsible conduct of research and engineering ethics at technological universities are often unacknowledged aspects of the ethics across the curriculum movement and could benefit from explicit alliances with it. Remarkably, however, not nearly as much scholarly attention has been devoted to EAC as to RCR or to engineering ethics, and RCR and engineering ethics educational efforts are not always presented as facets of EAC. The emergence of EAC efforts at two different institutions—the Illinois Institute of (...)
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  37. added 2016-08-23
    Marcelo Saad & Roberta de Medeiros (2016). Programs of Religious/Spiritual Support in Hospitals - Five “Whies” and Five “Hows”. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 11 (1):5.
    A contemporary orientation of the hospital experience model must encompass the clients’ religious-spiritual dimension. The objective of this paper is to share a previous experience, highlighting at least five reasons hospitals should invest in this direction, and an equal number of steps required to achieve it. In the first part, the text discourses about five reasons to invest in religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Religious-spiritual wellbeing is related to better health; 2. Religious-spiritual appreciation is a standard for hospital accreditation; 3. To (...)
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  38. added 2016-08-23
    Ben Dixon (2016). Deriving Moral Considerability From Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):196-212.
    I argue that a reasonable understanding of Leopold’s ‘Land Ethic’ is one that identifies possession of health as being a sufficient condition for moral consideration. With this, Leopold extends morality not only to biotic wholes, but to individual organisms, as both can have their health undermined. My argument centers on explaining why Leopold thinks it reasonable to analogize ecosystems both to an organism and to a community: both have a health. My conclusions undermine J. Baird Callicott’s rhetorical dismissal of the (...)
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  39. added 2016-08-23
    Jovan Babić (2015). Trust, Predictability and Lasting Peace. Facta Universitatis, Series: Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History 14 (No 1):1 – 14.
    The main focus in the paper is the connection between trust and peace which makes predictability as a necessary condition of the normalcy of life possible, especially collective and communal life. Peace is defined as a specific articulation of the distribution of (political) power within a society. Peace defined in such a way requires a set of rules (norms, or laws) needed for the stability of the established social state of affairs. The main purpose of those norms, laws, is to (...)
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  40. added 2016-08-22
    Rafe McGregor (2016). The War on Cops: How the New Attack on Law and Order Makes Everyone Less Safe Heather Mac Donald, 2016 New York: Encounter Books 248 Pp., $23.99. [REVIEW] Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3).
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  41. added 2016-08-21
    Rima T. Nakkash, Sanaa Mugharbil, Hala Alaouié & Rima A. Afifi (forthcoming). Attitudes of Public Health Academics Toward Receiving Funds From for-Profit Corporations: A Systematic Review. Public Health Ethics:phw036.
    With dwindling support from governments toward universities, university–industry partnerships have increased. Ethical concerns over such partnerships have been documented, are particularly relevant when an institution receives money from a corporation whose products do harm and are intensified for academic public health institutions whose missions include promoting well-being. Academics in medicine and nutrition have often failed to recognize the potential conflicts of industry-sponsored research. It is unclear if research to date has explored attitudes of public health academics toward accepting such funds. (...)
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  42. added 2016-08-21
    Jason Kawall (2012). Rethinking Greed. In Allen Thompson Jeremy Bendik-Keymer (ed.), Human Adaptation to Climate Change: Human Virtues of the Future. The MIT Press 223-39.
    In this paper I attempt to clarify the nature of the vice of greed, focusing on what can be called “modest greed”. Agents who are modestly greedy do not long for material goods or wealth with intense desires. Rather, they have quite modest desires, but ones whose satisfaction they pursue excessively relative to other goods. Greed - including modest greed - emerges as a particularly troubling and problematic vice.
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  43. added 2016-08-20
    Jonny Anomaly (forthcoming). Defending Eugenics: From Cryptic Choice to Conscious Selection. In Gregg Caruso (ed.), Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. Palgrave MacMillan
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  44. added 2016-08-20
    Stephen W. Smith (forthcoming). Individualised Claims of Conscience, Clinical Judgement and Best Interests. Health Care Analysis:1-13.
    Conscience and conscientious objections are important issues in medical law and ethics. However, discussions tend to focus on a particular type of conscience-based claim. These types of claims are based upon predictable, generalizable rules in which an individual practitioner objects to what is otherwise standard medical treatment. However, not all conscience based claims are of this type. There are other claims which are based not on an objection to a treatment in general but in individual cases. In other words, these (...)
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  45. added 2016-08-20
    Chandler D. Rogers (2016). Review of Jean-Christophe Bailly, The Animal Side. [REVIEW] Between the Species 19 (1):215-220.
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  46. added 2016-08-20
    Minsu Ock, Hyun Joo Kim, Min-Woo Jo & Sang-il Lee (2016). Perceptions of the General Public and Physicians Regarding Open Disclosure in Korea: A Qualitative Study. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):50.
    BackgroundExperience with open disclosure and its study are restricted to certain western countries. In addition, there are concerns that open disclosure may be less suitable in non-western countries. The present study explored and compared the in-depth perceptions of the general public and physicians regarding open disclosure in Korea.MethodsWe applied the COREQ checklist to this qualitative study. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with 16 physicians and 18 members of the general public. In-depth interviews and focus group (...)
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  47. added 2016-08-20
    Jennifer Prah Ruger (2016). The Health Capability Paradigm and the Right to Health Care in the United States. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (4):275-292.
    Against a backdrop of non-ideal political and legal conditions, this article examines the health capability paradigm and how its principles can help determine what aspects of health care might legitimately constitute positive health care rights—and if indeed human rights are even the best approach to equitable health care provision. This article addresses the long American preoccupation with negative rights rather than positive rights in health care. Positive health care rights are an exception to the overall moral range and general thrust (...)
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  48. added 2016-08-20
    Billy Christmas (2016). Blood Oil: Tyrants, Violence, and the Rules That Run the World, Leif Wenar, 2016 Oxford & New York, Oxford University Press Liii + 494 Pp., £22.99. [REVIEW] Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):n/a-n/a.
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  49. added 2016-08-20
    Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada & Fernando J. García López (2016). Ethical considerations surrounding the response to Ebola: the Spanish experience. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):49.
    _BMC Medical Ethics_ is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in relation to the ethical aspects of biomedical research and clinical practice, including professional choices and conduct, medical technologies, healthcare systems and health policies. _BMC __Medical Ethics _is part of the _BMC_ series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. We do not make editorial decisions on the basis of the interest of a study or (...)
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  50. added 2016-08-20
    Christopher Nathan (2016). Liability to Deception and Manipulation: The Ethics of Undercover Policing. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):n/a-n/a.
    Does undercover police work inevitably wrong its targets? Or are undercover activities justified by a general security benefit? In this article I argue that people can make themselves liable to deception and manipulation. The debate on undercover policing will proceed more fruitfully if the tactic can be conceptualised along those lines, rather than as essentially ‘dirty hands’ activity, in which people are wronged in pursuit of a necessary good, or in instrumentalist terms, according to which the harms of undercover work (...)
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