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  1. R. P. Anschutz (1942). Aristotle and Syllogism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):228 – 231.
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  2. Maroun Aouad & Gregor Schoeler (2002). The Poetic Syllogism According to Al-Farabi: An Incorrect Syllogism of the Second Figure. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 12 (2):185-196.
    It is well-known that the Arab philosophers of the Aristotelian tradition, like some of their Alexandrian predecessors, attached rhetoric and poetics to logic, and supported this inclusion by the idea that the principal poetic procedure - that is, essentially, metaphor - is a kind of syllogism: the poetic syllogism. However, until now, no texts prior to those of Avicenna had been identified which render the structure of this syllogism explicit. In the present contribution, we present and translate a passage from (...)
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  3. A. Bain (1878). Mill's Theory of the Syllogism. Mind 3 (9):137-141.
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  4. Gregor Betz (2012). On Degrees of Justification. Erkenntnis 77 (2):237-272.
    This paper gives an explication of our intuitive notion of strength of justification in a controversial debate. It defines a thesis' degree of justification within the bipolar argumentation framework of the theory of dialectical structures as the ratio of coherently adoptable positions according to which that thesis is true over all coherently adoptable positions. Broadening this definition, the notion of conditional degree of justification, i.e.\ degree of partial entailment, is introduced. Thus defined degrees of justification correspond to our pre-theoretic intuitions (...)
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  5. Gregor Betz (2010). Petitio Principii and Circular Argumentation as Seen From a Theory of Dialectical Structures. Synthese 175 (3):327-349.
    This paper investigates in how far a theory of dialectical structures sheds new light on the old problem of giving a satisfying account of the fallacy of petitio principii, or begging the question. It defends that (i) circular argumentation on the one hand and petitio principii on the other hand are two distinct features of complex argumentation, and that (ii) it is impossible to make general statements about the defectiveness of an argumentation that exhibits these features. Such an argumentation, in (...)
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  6. Max Black (1945). A New Method of Presentation of the Theory of the Syllogism. Journal of Philosophy 42 (17):449-455.
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  7. Brand Blanshard (1954/1999). On Philosophical Style. St. Augustine's Press.
  8. V. A. Bocharov (1986). Boolean Algebra and Syllogism. Synthese 66 (1):35 - 54.
    This article contains the proof of equivalence boolean algebra and syllogistics arc2. The system arc2 is obtained as a superstructure above the propositional calculus. Subjects and predicates of syllogistic functors a, E, J, O may be complex terms, Which are formed using operations of intersection, Union and complement. In contrast to negative sentences the interpretation of affirmative sentences suggests non-Empty terms. To prove the corresponding theorem we demonstrate that boolean algebra is included into syllogistics arc2 and vice versa.
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  9. David Braybrooke (2003). Toward an Alliance Between the Issue-Processing Approach and Pragma-Dialectical Analysis. Argumentation 17 (4):513-535.
    On the approach to discussions of policy choices that treats such discussions as instances of issue-processing, the joint use of the logic of questions and the logic of rules gives precise formulation to two sorts of issues. To one sort of issue belong issue-circumscribing questions; to another sort, issues-simplicter, which consist of disjunctions of policy proposals – so many proposed social rules – that are answers, in the case of each disjunction, to a given issue-circumscribing question. Work in pragma-dialectics can (...)
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  10. Gregory Brazeal (2011). Webs of Faith as a Source of Reasonable Disagreement. Critical Review 23 (4):421-448.
    Abstract An individual's beliefs can be seen as rationally related to one another in a kind of web. These beliefs, however, may not form a single, seamless web. There may exist smaller, largely self-contained webs with few or no rational relations to the larger web. Such ?webs of faith? make it possible for reasonable deliberators to persist in a disagreement even under ideal deliberative conditions. The possibility of reasonable disagreement challenges the assumption that rationality should lead to consensus and presents (...)
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  11. Richmond Campbell & Lanning Snowden (eds.) (1985). Paradoxes of Rationality and Cooperation: Prisoner's Dilemma and Newcomb's Problem. University of British Columbia Press.
    1 Background for the Uninitiated RICHMOND CAMPBELL Paradoxes are intrinsically fascinating. They are also distinctively ...
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  12. Michael Clark (1980). The Place of Syllogistic in Logical Theory. Nottingham University Press.
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  13. H. B. Curry (1936). A Mathematical Treatment of the Rules of the Syllogism. Mind 45 (178):209-216.
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  14. A. J. Dale (1984). The Disjunctive Syllogism and Subjunctive Conditionals. Philosophical Quarterly 34 (135):152-156.
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  15. Marcelo Dascal, Dichotomies and Types of Debate.
    Dichotomies are ubiquitous in deliberative thinking, in decision making and in arguing in all spheres of life.[i] Sticking uncompromisingly to a dichotomy may lead to sharp disagreement and paradox, but it can also sharpen the issues at stake and help to find a solution. Dichotomies are particularly in evidence in debates, i.e., in argumentative dialogical exchanges characterized by their agonistic nature. The protagonists in a debate worth its name hold positions that are or that they take to be opposed; they (...)
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  16. Douglas D. Daye (1991). On Whether the Buddhist 'Syllogism' (Par Rth Num Na) is a Sui Generis Inference. Asian Philosophy 1 (2):175 – 183.
  17. Theodore de Laguna (1912). Opposition and the Syllogism. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 9 (15):393-400.
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  18. Max Deutsch (2010). Intuitions, Counter-Examples, and Experimental Philosophy. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (3):447-460.
    Practitioners of the new ‘experimental philosophy’ have collected data that appear to show that some philosophical intuitions are culturally variable. Many experimental philosophers take this to pose a problem for a more traditional, ‘armchair’ style of philosophizing. It is argued that this is a mistake that derives from a false assumption about the character of philosophical methods; neither philosophy nor its methods have anything to fear from cultural variability in philosophical intuitions.
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  19. Georg J. W. Dorn (2006). Deskriptive Argumente und Argumenthierarchien. In Günther Kreuzbauer & Georg J. W. Dorn (eds.), Argumentation in Theorie und Praxis: Philosophie und Didaktik des Argumentierens. LIT Verlag.
    Es werden vier verbreitete Verwendungsweisen des Wortes ‘Argument’ beschrieben, an Beispielen erläutert und dann schrittweise expliziert. Die wichtigsten Explikata sind: ‘eine Satzfolge x ist ein deskriptives Argument in Standardform’, ‘ein deskriptives Argument x in Standardform ist bei der subjektiven Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilung p stark (bzw. schwach)’, ‘ein Aussagesatz x ist bei der subjektiven Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilung p ein Argument für (bzw. gegen) einen Aussagesatz y’, ‘ein geordneter Tripel x von deskriptiven Argumenten in Standardform, von Argumentebenen und von Argumentsträngen ist eine deskriptive Argumenthierarchie in Standardform’, (...)
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  20. Georg J. W. Dorn (2005). Eine komparative Theorie der Stärke von Argumenten. Kriterion 19:34–43.
    This article presents a comparative theory of subjective argument strength simple enough for application. Using the axioms and corollaries of the theory, anyone with an elementary knowledge of logic and probability theory can produce an – at least minimally rational – ranking of any set of arguments according to their subjective strength, provided that the arguments in question are descriptive ones in standard form. The basic idea is that the strength of argument A as seen by person x is a (...)
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  21. James Duerlinger (1968). Aristotle's Conception of Syllogism. Mind 77 (308):480-499.
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  22. Frans H. Eemeren (2013). In What Sense Do Modern Argumentation Theories Relate to Aristotle? The Case of Pragma-Dialectics. Argumentation 27 (1):49-70.
    According to van Eemeren, argumentation theory is a hybrid discipline, because it requires a multidisciplinary, if not interdisciplinary approach, combining descriptive and normative insights. He points out that modern argumentation theorists give substance to the discipline by relying either on a dialectical perspective, concentrating on the reasonableness of argumentation, or on a rhetorical perspective, concentrating on its effectiveness. Both the dialectical and the rhetorical perspective are interpreted in ways related to how they were viewed by Aristotle, but in modern argumentation (...)
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  23. William Elton (1945). Professor Hartshorne's Syllogism: Criticism. Philosophical Review 54 (5):506.
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  24. Danny Frederick (forthcoming). The Contrast Between Dogmatic and Critical Arguments. Organon F.
    Karl Popper lamented the prevalence of dogmatic argument in philosophy and commended the kind of critical argument that is found in the sciences. David Miller criticises the uncritical nature of so-called critical thinking because of its attachment to dogmatic arguments. I expound and clarify Popper’s distinction between critical and dogmatic arguments and the background to it. I criticise some errors in Miller’s discussion. I reaffirm the need for philosophers to eschew dogmatic arguments in favour of critical ones.
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  25. Joseph S. Fulda (2010). Vann McGee’s Counterexample to Modus Ponens: An Enthymeme. Journal of Pragmatics 42 (1):271-273.
    Solves Vann McGee's counterexample to Modus Ponens within classical logic by disclosing the suppressed premises and bringing them /within/ the argument.
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  26. Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen (1954). The End of the Probability Syllogism? Philosophical Studies 5 (2):31 - 32.
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  27. Benjamin Ives Gilman (1923). The Paradox of the Syllogism Solved by Spatial Construction. Mind 32 (125):38-49.
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  28. Thomas F. Gordon & Douglas Walton (2012). A Carneades Reconstruction of Popov V Hayashi. Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (1):37-56.
    Carneades is an open source argument mapping application and a programming library for building argumentation support tools. In this paper, Carneades’ support for argument reconstruction, evaluation and visualization is illustrated by modeling most of the factual and legal arguments in Popov v Hayashi.
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  29. Paula Gottlieb (2006). The Practical Syllogism. In Richard Kraut (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Blackwell Pub.. 218--233.
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  30. Gary Gutting (2009). What Philosophers Know: Case Studies in Recent Analytic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Part I : how does that go? : the limits of philosophical argument -- Quine's "Two dogmas" : argument or imagination? -- Argument and intuition in Kripke's Naming and necessity -- The rise and fall of counterexamples : Gettier, Goldman, and Lewis -- Reflection : pictures, intuitions, and philosophical knowledge -- Part II : arguments and convictions -- Turning the tables : Plantinga and the rise of philosophy of religion -- Materialism and compatibilism : two dogmas of analytic philosophy? -- (...)
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  31. Alfred E. Haefner (1961). The Ethical Syllogism. Ethics 71 (4):289-295.
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  32. Charles Hartshorne (1945). Professor Hartshorne's Syllogism: Rejoinder. Philosophical Review 54 (5):506-508.
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  33. Paul Henle (1949). On the Fourth Figure of the Syllogism. Philosophy of Science 16 (2):94-104.
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  34. Isaac Husik (1906). Aristotle on the Law of Contradiction and the Basis of the Syllogism. Mind 15 (58):215-222.
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  35. Henry W. Johnstone Jr (1954). An Alternative Set of Rules for the Syllogism. Philosophy of Science 21 (4):348-351.
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  36. H. W. B. Joseph (1910). The Enumerative Universal Proposition and the First Figure of the Syllogism. Mind 19 (76):544-546.
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  37. Mehmet Karabela (2011). Philosophical Inquiries: An Introduction to Problems of Philosophy Nicholas Rescher Pittsburgh University Press, 2010 (Review). [REVIEW] Dialogue 50 (1):217-220.
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  38. William M. Keith & David E. Beard (2008). Toulmin's Rhetorical Logic: What's the Warrant for Warrants? Philosophy and Rhetoric 41 (1):22-50.
  39. Anthony Kenny (1966). The Practical Syllogism and Incontinence. Phronesis 11 (2):163 - 184.
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  40. J. D. Mabbott (1939). Two Notes on Syllogism. Mind 48 (191):326-337.
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  41. F. Macagno (2010). Dialectical and Heuristic Arguments: Presumptions and Burden of Proof. In C. Tindale & C. Reed (eds.), Dialectics, Dialogue and Argumentation: An Examination of Douglas Walton's Theories of Reasoning and Argument. College Publications.
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  42. F. Macagno & D. Walton (2007). The Fallaciousness of Threats: Character and Ad Baculum . [REVIEW] Argumentation 28 (3):203-228.
    Robert Kimball, in “What’s Wrong with Argumentum Ad Baculum?” (Argumentation, 2006) argues that dialogue-based models of rational argumentation do not satisfactorily account for what is objectionable about more malicious uses of threats encountered in some ad baculum arguments. We review the dialogue-based approach to argumentum ad baculum, and show how it can offer more than Kimball thinks for analyzing such threat arguments and ad baculum fallacies.
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  43. F. Macagno & D. Walton (2005). Common Knowledge and Argumentation Schemes . Studies in Communication Sciences 5 (2):1-22.
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  44. F. Macagno, D. Walton, G. Rowe & C. Reed (2006). Araucaria as a Tool for Diagramming Arguments in Teaching and Studying Philosophy . Teaching Philosophy 29 (2):111-124,.
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  45. D. L. C. Maclachlan (1970). The Pure Hypothetical Syllogism and Entailment. Philosophical Quarterly 20 (78):26-40.
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  46. J. P. Mahaffy (1876). Anticipation of Mill's Theory of Syllogism by Locke. Mind 1 (2):287-288.
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  47. Storrs McCall (1967). Connexive Implication and the Syllogism. Mind 76 (303):346-356.
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  48. Moti Mizrahi (forthcoming). Don't Believe the Hype: Why Should Philosophical Theories Yield to Intuitions? Teorema.
    In this paper, I argue that, contrary to common opinion, a counterexample against a philosophical theory does not amount to conclusive evidence against that theory. Instead, the method of counterexamples allows for the derivation of a disjunction, i.e., ‘either the theory is false or an auxiliary assumption is false’, not a negation of the target theory. This is so because, whenever the method of counterexamples is used in an attempt to refute a philosophical theory, there is a crucial auxiliary assumption (...)
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  49. Moti Mizrahi (2013). More Intuition Mongering. The Reasoner 7 (1):5-6.
    In this paper, I argue that appeals to intuition are weak arguments because intellectual intuition is an unreliable belief-forming process, since it yields incompatible verdicts in response to the same cases, and since the inference from 'It seems to S that p' to 'p' is unreliable. Since the reliability of intellectual intuition is a necessary condition for strong appeals to intuition, it follows that appeals to intuition are weak arguments.
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  50. Moti Mizrahi (2013). On Proving Too Much. Acta Analytica 28 (3):353-358.
    It is quite common to object to an argument by saying that it “proves too much.” In this paper, I argue that the “proving too much” charge can be understood in at least three different ways. I explain these three interpretations of the “proving too much” charge. I urge anyone who is inclined to level the “proving too much” charge against an argument to think about which interpretation of that charge one has in mind.
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