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Arguments for Theism

Edited by Daniel von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy)
About this topic
Summary Theism is generally taken to be the view that there is a person who is bodiless, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, perfectly good, perfectly free, and who is the creator and sustainer of the universe. There are of course  different ways to spell out these attributes, for example some spell out ‘eternal‘ as ‘being outside of time‘, others as ‘everlasting‘. However, those who present arguments for or against the ‘existence of God‘ use the term ‘God’ similarly enough to be discussing the same question. Philosophers rather say that there is no God than using ‘God’ in a very different sense, for example in the sense of something other than a person. Most or all arguments for or against theism, today as well as in the past, are not assumed to make belief in God somehow ‘apodictically‘ certain. However, some arguments are deductive, others inductive.
Key works The most thorough defense of the existence of God is Swinburne 2004, who gives probabilistic, inductive instead of deductive arguments and who rejects the ontological as well as the moral argument from the existence of values or duties. Plantinga 1992 defends the ontological argument, Adams 1979 the moral argument. Mackie 1982 is still a much quoted defense of atheism. Rowe 2010 presents an atheistic position.
Introductions Most anthologies with the title ‘philosophy of religion’ contain articles that give the various arguments, for example Craig 2002 or Davies 2000, and also Copan & Meister 2007, Taliaferro & Meister 2010, and Copan & Moser 2003. A simplified defense of theism with various arguments is Swinburne 1996, Le Poidevin 1996 is an introductory defense atheism.
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Arguments for Theism
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  1. Esteban J. Beltrán Ulate (2012). Un acercamiento a la concepción buberiana Eclipse de Dios. Persona Revista Iberoamericana de Personalismo Comunitario:36-43.
    El pensamiento buberiano resulta contestatario ala época actual en cuanto esgrime una crítica al carácter utilitario del modo de vida, en el cual descubre una supremacía de prácticas que evidencian la sobre posición del tener sobre el ser: la época moderna es diagnosticada por el vienés como un clima animado por fuerzas impersonales. Esta caracterización de la sociedad, es asumida por Buber como una consecuencia propia de la modernidad antropológica, que ha desencadenado lo que él denomina “Eclipse de Dios”.
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  2. Manuel Bremer, The Carriage Objection and the Creation of Logic.
    In the last twenty years analytic philosophy has seen a rising interest in the philosophy of religion in general and in rational reconstructions of religion related arguments and Christian doctrines. In this short note I like to point to a problem that although cosmological arguments play a great role in the present discussion has not received the attention, I believe, it deserves.[1] An old objection to cosmological arguments, named “the Carriage Objection” by Schopenhauer[2], charges them as being arbitrary: the arguments (...)
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  3. David W. Congdon, Marilyn Mccord Adams, Eleonore Stump & Alvin Plantinga (2011). The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology. Philosophy:567-569.
    This short source describes the history of the kalam and how it was adopted by Muslims. Furthermore it outlines an argument made by al-Ghazali in defense of the existence of a Creator. The chapter as a whole concerns the kalam cosmological argument, which holds that there is a reason for the existence of the universe.
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  4. A. B. D. (1964). Approche Contemporaine d'Une Affirmation de Dieu. Review of Metaphysics 17 (4):633-633.
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  5. Martin J. de Nys (2002). If Everything Can Not-Be There Would Be Nothing. Review of Metaphysics 56 (1):99-122.
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  6. Martin J. De Nys (2002). If Everything Can Not-Be There Would Be Nothing: Another Look at the Third Way. Review of Metaphysics 56 (1):99-122.
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  7. Willem B. Drees (2013). Constructive Theology, Bioethics, and Bodily Existence. Zygon 48 (3):511-513.
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  8. Robert K. Garcia & Nathan L. King (eds.) (2009). Is Goodness Without God Good Enough? Rowman and Littlefield.
    Morality and religion: intimately wed, violently opposed, or something else? Discussion of this issue appears in pop culture, the academy, and the media—often generating radically opposed views. At one end of the spectrum are those who think that unless God exists, ethics is unfounded and the moral life is unmotivated. At the other end are those who think that religious belief is unnecessary for—and even a threat to—ethical knowledge and the moral life. -/- This volume provides an accessible, charitable discussion (...)
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  9. Neal C. Gillespie (1990). The Interface of Natural Theology and Science in the Ethology of W. H. Thorpe. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (1):1 - 38.
    It should be clear by now the extent to which many features of Thorpe's interpretation of animal behavior and of the animal mind rested, at bottom, not simply on conventional scientific proofs but on interpretive inferences, which in turn rested on a willingress to make extensions of human experience to animals. This, in turn, rested on his view of evolution and his view of reality. And these were governed by his natural theology, which was the fundamental stratum of his intellectual (...)
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  10. John Kronen & Sandra Menssen (2013). The Argument From Wholes. Faith and Philosophy 30 (2):138-158.
    All wholes are made by an intelligent agent; some wholes were not made by an embodied agent; so, some things made by an intelligent agent were not made by an embodied agent. Such was the basic argument for God’s existence defended by Udayana, the greatest of the Nyāya-Vaiśeika philosophers, in his Kiraṇāvalī. Our paper explicates this argument and highlights its merits.
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  11. Lory Lemke & Pieranna Garavaso (1990). Taylor's Defenses of Two Traditional Arguments for the Existence of God. Sophia 29 (1):31-41.
    In 1963, in the first edition of his book Metaphysics, Richard Taylor presented two interesting defenses of the cosmological and design arguments for the existence of God. Surprisingly, even after the third edition has appeared, his defense of the cosmological argument has passed relatively unnoticed, and while his novel account of the argument from design has provoked a fair amount of critical discussion, little attention is given to Taylor's reply contained in the same text. In this paper, we attempt to (...)
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  12. Stephanie R. Lewis (2013). The Antipodean Philosopher, by Oppy Graham, & Trakakis N. N. (Eds). Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):815-818.
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  13. Neil Manson, Introduction to God and Design.
    This introduction has two functions. First, it apprises readers of some of the basic data, terminology, and formalisms used in contemporary discussions of the design argument while also giving a sense of the argument's history. Other pieces in this anthology – particularly those of Elliott Sober, John Leslie, Paul Davies, and Michael Ruse – cover some of the same ground. Second, it gives readers some idea of what the various contributors will say and why their contributions are important for understanding (...)
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  14. Robert Maydole (2010). On Oppy's Objections to the Modal Perfection Argument. Philo 8 (2):123-130.
    This paper is a reply to Graham Oppy’s “Maydole’s 2QS5 Argument,” published in Philo 7, 2 . I argue that he fails to refute myModal Perfection Argument for the existence of a Supreme Being, and that it remains arguably sound in the face of his alleged counterexamples and parodies.
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  15. Jason Megill (2014). Hume, Causation and Two Arguments Concerning God. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (2).
    In Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume (1779/1993) appeals to his account of causation (among other things) to undermine certain arguments for the existence of God. If 'anything can cause anything', as Hume claims, then the Principle of Causal Adequacy is false; and if the Principle of Causal Adequacy is false, then any argument for God's existence that relies on that principle fails. Of course, Hume's critique has been influential. But Hume's account of causation undermines the argument from evil at least (...)
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  16. J. P. Moreland (2012). Oppy on the Argument From Consciousness. Faith and Philosophy 29 (1):70-83.
    Graham Oppy has launched the most effective criticism to date of an argument for God’s existence from the existence of irreducible mental states or theirregular correlation with physical states (AC). I seek to undercut Oppy’s central defeaters of AC. In particular, I argue, first, that Oppy has not provided successful defeaters against the use of a distinctive form of explanation—personal explanation—employed in premise (3) of AC; second, I expose a confusion on Oppy’s part with respect to AC’s premise (5), and (...)
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  17. J. P. Moreland (2011). Oppy on the Argument From Consciousness: A Rejoinder. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (1):213 - 226.
    Graham Oppy had criticized my argument for God from consciousness (AC) in my recent book ’Consciousness and the Existence of God’ (N.Y.: Routledge, 2008). In this article I offer a rejoinder to Oppy. Specifically, I respond to his criticisms of my presentation of three forms of AC, and interact with his claims about theism, consciousness and emergent chemical properties.
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  18. Wes Morriston (2012). God and the Ontological Foundation of Morality. Religious Studies 48 (1):15 - 34.
    In recent years, William Lane Craig has vigorously championed a moral argument for God's existence. The backbone of Craig's argument is the claim that only God can provide a ' sound foundation in reality' for morality. The present article has three principal aims. The first is to interpret and clarify the account of the ontological foundation of morality proposed by Craig. The second is to press home an important objection to that account. The third is to expose the weakness of (...)
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  19. Stephen E. Parrish (1997). God and Necessity a Defense of Classical Theism.
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  20. A. R. Pruss & Richard M. Gale (2005). Cosmological and Design Arguments. In William J. Wainwright (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press 116--137.
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  21. Kevin Schilbrack (1994). Problems for a Complete Naturalism. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 15 (3):269 - 291.
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  22. John Smith (1660/1979). Select Discourses. Scholar’s Facsimiles and Reprints.
    Reprinted with Introduction by C. A. Patrides. Delmar, NY: Scholar’s Facsimiles and Reprints, 1979.
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  23. Miroslaw Szatkowski (2012). 8 Debate Maydole-Oppy. In Ontological Proofs Today. Ontos Verlag 55.
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  24. Patrick Todd (forthcoming). The Greatest Possible Being Needn't Be Anything Impossible. Religious Studies.
    There are various argumentative strategies for advancing the claim that God does not exist. One such strategy is this. First, one notes that God is meant to have a certain divine attribute (such as omniscience). One then argues that having the relevant attribute is impossible. One concludes that God doesn't exist. For instance, Dennis Whitcomb's recent paper, ‘Grounding and omniscience’, proceeds in exactly this way. As Whitcomb says, ‘I'm going to argue that omniscience is impossible and that therefore there is (...)
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Arguments from Miracles
  1. Carlo Dell 'Osso (2010). Leontius of Jerusalem. Against the Monophysites: Testimonies of the Saints and Aporiae. [REVIEW] Augustinianum 50 (2):615-617.
  2. Ed & John E. Curran (2012). Editor's Page. Renascence 65 (1):3-3.
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  3. R. A. (1967). Religion and Common Sense. Review of Metaphysics 20 (4):729-730.
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  4. Matthew C. Bagger (1997). Hume and Miracles. Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (2):237 - 251.
    "Hume and Miracles" relates Hume’s essay "Of Miracles" to the Port-Royal ’Logic’ and John Locke. It argues that Hume did not, as is often supposed, intend to suggest that well-attested miracle reports defeat themselves by undermining the laws of nature they defy. Instead, Hume argues that the specifically ’religious’ nature of the testimony relating to miracle claims rules out their acceptance because of the frequency of fraud in religious matters. Hume’s views are too austere because one might wish to reject (...)
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  5. David Basinger (1990). Miracles as Evidence for Theism. Sophia 29 (1):56 - 59.
    In an ongoing dialogue, Robert Larmer and I have been discussing whether the undisputed occurrence of certain conceivable events would require all honest, thoughtful individuals to acknowledge that God has intervened in earthly affairs. I argue that there is no reason to believe that a nontheist who acknowledged certain healings to be strong evidence for theism but did not see such evidence as outweighing what she viewed as the stronger counterevidence, and thus remained a nontheist, could justifiably be accused of (...)
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  6. Tristan Casabianca, The Shroud of Turin, the Resurrection of Jesus and the Realm of Science: One View of the Cathedral. Workshop on Advances in the Turin Shroud Investigation.
    In a topic as controversial as the shroud of Turin, it is always surprising to notice that there still exists a large area of consensus among scholars holding opposite opinions on the topic. According to the consensus view, neither science nor history can ever prove that the Turin Shroud shows signs of the Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. However, the reasons given for such an important claim are not convincing, especially in regard of recent developments in historiography and analytic philosophy.
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  7. Tristan Casabianca (2013). The Shroud of Turin: A Historiographical Approach. Heythrop Journal 54 (3):414-423.
    Criteria of historical assessment are applied to the Turin Shroud to determine which hypothesis relating to the image formation process is the most likely. To implement this, a ‘Minimal Facts’ approach is followed that takes into account only physicochemical and historical data receiving the widest consensus among contemporary scientists. The result indicates that the probability of the Shroud of Turin being the real shroud of Jesus of Nazareth is very high; historians and natural theologians should therefore pay it increased attention.
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  8. William Lane Craig & J. P. Moreland (eds.) (2009). The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology. Blackwell Pub.
  9. Helen De Cruz & Johan De Smedt (2015). A Natural History of Natural Theology. The Cognitive Science of Theology and Philosophy of Religion. MIT Press.
    [from the publisher's website] Questions about the existence and attributes of God form the subject matter of natural theology, which seeks to gain knowledge of the divine by relying on reason and experience of the world. Arguments in natural theology rely largely on intuitions and inferences that seem natural to us, occurring spontaneously—at the sight of a beautiful landscape, perhaps, or in wonderment at the complexity of the cosmos—even to a nonphilosopher. In this book, Helen De Cruz and Johan De (...)
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  10. Hent de Vries (2001). Of Miracles and Special Effects. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 50 (1-3):41 - 56.
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  11. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2008). Review Of: O. Gingerich: God’s Universe. [REVIEW] Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 11:232-234.
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  12. Philippe Gagnon (2015). Review Article on Amir D. Aczel, Why Science Does Not Disprove God (New York: W. Morrow, 2014). [REVIEW] ESSSAT News and Reviews 25 (2):22-27.
    Review of the book by mathematician and science writer Amir Aczel, Why Science does not Disprove God, recently reissued in paperback, with a focus on the chapters on mathematics and God, and criticisms from the standpoint of the epistemology of the science and religion dialogue.
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  13. William Grey (1993). Hume, Miracles, and the Paranorrnal. Cogito 7 (2):100-105.
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  14. Daniel Howard-Snyder (2003). On Hume's Philosophical Case Against Miracles. In Christopher Bernard (ed.), God Matters: Readings in the Philosophy of Religion. Longman Publications
    According to the Christian religion, Jesus was “crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again”. I take it that this rising again—the Resurrection of Jesus, as it’s sometimes called—is, according to the Christian religion, an historical event, just like his crucifixion, death, and burial. And I would have thought that to investigate whether the Resurrection occurred, we would need to do some historical research: we would need to assess the reliability of (...)
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  15. Anders Jeffner (1966). Butler and Hume on Religion: A Comparative Analysis. Diakonistyrelsens.
    TOPICS DISCUSSED INCLUDE THE ARGUMENT FROM DESIGN, THE THEOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF THE NEW NATURAL SCIENCES, ARGUMENTS FROM MIRACLES, THE MEANING OF STATEMENTS ABOUT GOD, THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE IDEA OF GOD AND VARIOUS APOLOGETIC ARGUMENTS, AND ETHICAL AND META-ETHICAL THEORIES. (BP, EDITED).
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  16. Robert Larmer (1999). Miracles As Evidence for God. In God and Argument. Univ Ottawa Pr
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  17. K. T. Maslin (1995). David Hume, 'of Miracles'. Cogito 9 (1):83-89.
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  18. Timothy McGrew & Lydia McGrew (2009). The Argument From Miracles: A Cumulative Case for the Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. In William Lane Craig & J. P. Moreland (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology. Blackwell Pub 593--662.
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  19. Peter Millican, Hume, Miracles, and Probabilities: Meeting Earman's Challenge.
    The centrepiece of Earman’s provocatively titled book Hume’s Abject Failure: The Argument against Miracles (OUP, 2000) is a probabilistic interpretation of Hume’s famous ‘maxim’ concerning the credibility of miracle reports, followed by a trenchant critique of the maxim when thus interpreted. He argues that the first part of this maxim, once its obscurity is removed, is simply trivial, while the second part is nonsensical. His subsequent discussion culminates with a forthright challenge to any would-be defender of Hume to ‘point (...)
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  20. N. N. (2005). Review of The Resurrection of God Incarnate. [REVIEW] Faith and Philosophy 22 (2):235 - 238.
    Whether or not Jesus rose bodily from the dead remains perhaps the most critical and contentious issue in Christianity. Until now, argument has centered upon the veracity of explicit New Testament accounts of the events following Jesus� crucifixion, often ending in deadlock. In Richard Swinburne�s new approach, though, ascertaining the probable truth of the resurrection requires a much broader approach to the nature of God and to the life and teaching of Jesus. (publisher, edited).
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  21. Douglas Odegard (1982). Miracles and Good Evidence. Religious Studies 18 (1):37-46.
    EVEN IF ’MIRACLE’ MEANS A VIOLATION OF A LAW OF NATURE, A CASE CAN BE MADE FOR THINKING THAT MIRACLES ARE POSSIBLE, DETECTABLE, AND COMPATIBLE WITH SCIENCE. THE CASE WORKS BY DEFINING A LAW-VIOLATION AS AN EVENT OF A KIND THAT IS EPISTEMICALLY IMPOSSIBLE UNLESS THERE IS GOOD EVIDENCE OF A GOD’S PRODUCING AN INSTANCE. HUMAN AND NON-HUMAN OBJECTIONS ARE CONSIDERED AND ANSWERED.
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  22. Christine Overall (2006). Miracles, Evidence, Evil, and God: A Twenty-Year Debate. Dialogue 45 (2):355-366.
    This paper is the latest in a debate with Robert Larmer as to whether the occurrence of a miracle would provide evidence for the existence of God or against the existence of God. Whereas Larmer’s view is categorical (miracles occur and are evidence for the existence of God), mine is hypothetical (if the events typically described as miracles were to occur -- although I do not believe they do -- they would be evidence against the existence of God). The reason (...)
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  23. Christine Overall (1985). Miracles as Evidence Against the Existence of God. Southern Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):347-353.
    AN ASSUMPTION IN DEBATES ABOUT THE PHILOSOPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MIRACLES IS THAT IF A MIRACLE (A VIOLATION OF NATURAL LAW OR A PERMANENTLY INEXPLICABLE EVENT) WERE TO OCCUR, IT WOULD BE EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF THE CHRISTIAN GOD. THE PAPER EXPLORES RESERVATIONS BY SEVERAL PHILOSOPHERS ABOUT THIS CONNECTION BETWEEN GOD AND MIRACLES, AND PRESENTS ARGUMENTS TO SHOW THAT IF A MIRACLE WERE TO OCCUR THERE WOULD BE GOOD REASON TO DENY THAT GOD EXISTS.
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  24. Terence Penelhum (2004). Review of Robert J. Fogelin, A Defense of Hume on Miracles, Princeton. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (1).
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  25. Richard L. Purtill (1976). Proofs of Miracles and Miracles as Proofs. Christian Scholar’s Review 6.
    AS AGAINST HUME’S VIEW THAT "A MIRACLE CAN NEVER BE PROVED SO AS TO BE THE FOUNDATION OF A SYSTEM OF RELIGION" I ARGUE THAT THE POSSIBILITY OF MIRACLES CAN BE DEFENDED ON PHILOSOPHICAL GROUNDS, THAT THERE IS HISTORICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF CERTAIN MIRACLES AND THAT SUCH MIRACLES CAN IN FACT GIVE GROUNDS FOR THE PREFERENCE OF ONE SYSTEM OF RELIGIOUS BELIEF OVER ANOTHER.
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  26. Victor Reppert (1989). Miracles and the Case for Theism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 25 (1):35 - 51.
    THIS PAPER IS A DISCUSSION OF MACKIE’S HUMEAN ARGUMENT THAT MIRACLES CANNOT PLAY A ROLE IN A CASE FOR THEISM. I ARGUE THAT MACKIE IS MISTAKEN IN CONTENDING THAT MIRACLES CANNOT FORM PART OF A CASE FOR THEISM. IF THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT CERTAIN EVENTS DEVIATE FROM THE ORDINARY COURSE OF NATURE, AND IF AFFIRMING THE EXISTENCE OF GOD WOULD RENDER THAT EVIDENCE MORE COMPREHENSIBLE THAN OTHERWISE, THEN IT MUST BE ADMITTED THAT EVIDENCE THAT THESE EVENTS HAVE OCCURRED IS EVIDENCE (...)
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