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The Direction of Time
  1. A. Ahmed (forthcoming). Causal Decision Theory and the Fixity of the Past. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt021.
  2. Peter Mark Ainsworth (2008). Cosmic Inflation and the Past Hypothesis. Synthese 162 (2):157 - 165.
    The past hypothesis is that the entropy of the universe was very low in the distant past. It is put forward to explain the entropic arrow of time but it has been suggested (e.g. [Penrose, R. (1989a). The emperor’s new mind. London:Vintage Books; Penrose, R. (1989b). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 571, 249–264; Price, H. (1995). In S. F. Savitt (Ed.), Times’s arrows today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Price, H. (1996). Time’s arrow and Archimedes’ point. Oxford: Oxford (...)
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  3. Frank Arntzenius (2004). Time Reversal Operations, Representations of the Lorentz Group, and the Direction of Time. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 35 (1):31-43.
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  4. Frank Arntzenius (1997). Mirrors and the Direction of Time. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):222.
    The frequencies with which photons pass through half-silvered mirrors in the forward direction of time is always approximately 1/2, whereas the frequencies with which photons pass through mirrors in the backward direction in time can be highly time-dependent. I argue that whether one should infer from this time-asymmetric phenomenon that time has an objective direction will depend on one's interpretation of quantum mechanics.
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  5. Frank Arntzenius (1995). Indeterminism and the Direction of Time. Topoi 14 (1):67-81.
    Many phenomena in the world display a striking time-asymmetry: the forwards transition frequencies are approximately invariant while the backwards ones are not. I argue in this paper that theories of such phenomena will entail that time has a direction, and that quantum mechanics in particular entails that the future is objectively different from the past.
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  6. O. Costa De Beauregard (1977). Two Lectures on the Direction of Time. Synthese 35 (2):129 - 154.
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  7. Helen Beebee, Peter Menzies & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.) (2009). The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press.
    Causation is a central topic in many areas of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, ethics, history of philosophy, and philosophy ...
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  8. Jonathan Bennett (1984). Counterfactuals and Temporal Direction. Philosophical Review 93 (1):57-91.
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  9. George Berger (1971). Earman on Temporal Anisotropy. Journal of Philosophy 68 (5):132-137.
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  10. Max Black (1959). The "Direction" of Time. Analysis 19 (3):54 - 63.
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  11. John Bowin (2009). Aristotle on the Order and Direction of Time. Apeiron 42 (1):49-78.
    This paper defends Aristotle’s project of deriving the order of time from the order of change in Physics 4.11, against the objection that it contains a vicious circularity arising from the assumption that we cannot specify the direction of a change without invoking the temporal relations of its stages. It considers and rejects a solution to this objection proposed by Ursula Coope, and proposes an alternative solution. It also considers the related problem of how the temporal orders and directions derived (...)
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  12. Craig Callender (ed.) (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oxford University Press.
    This is the first comprehensive book on the philosophy of time. Leading philosophers discuss the metaphysics of time, our experience and representation of time, the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially quantum mechanics and relativity theory.
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  13. Craig Callender, Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Thermodynamics is the science that describes much of the time asymmetric behavior found in the world. This entry's first task, consequently, is to show how thermodynamics treats temporally ‘directed’ behavior. It then concentrates on the following two questions. (1) What is the origin of the thermodynamic asymmetry in time? In a world possibly governed by time symmetric laws, how should we understand the time asymmetric laws of thermodynamics? (2) Does the thermodynamic time asymmetry explain the other temporal asymmetries? Does it (...)
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  14. Craig Callender (1997). What is 'the Problem of the Direction of Time'? Philosophy of Science 64 (4):234.
    This paper searches for an explicit expression of the so-called problem of the direction of time. I argue that the traditional version of the problem is an artifact of a mistaken view in the foundations of statistical mechanics, and that to the degree it is a problem, it is really one general to all the special sciences. I then search the residue of the traditional problem for any remaining difficulty particular to time's arrow and find that there is a special (...)
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  15. Craig Callender, There is No Puzzle About the Low Entropy Past.
    Suppose that God or a demon informs you of the following future fact: despite recent cosmological evidence, the universe is indeed closed and it will have a ‘final’ instant of time; moreover, at that final moment, all 49 of the world’s Imperial Faberge eggs will be in your bedroom bureau’s sock drawer. You’re absolutely certain that this information is true. All of your other dealings with supernatural powers have demonstrated that they are a trustworthy lot.
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  16. Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi (2009). The Global Non-Entropic Arrow of Time: From Global Geometrical Asymmetry to Local Energy Flow. Synthese 169 (1):1 - 25.
    Since the nineteenth century, the problem of the arrow of time has been traditionally analyzed in terms of entropy by relating the direction past-to-future to the gradient of the entropy function of the universe. In this paper, we reject this traditional perspective and argue for a global and non-entropic approach to the problem, according to which the arrow of time can be defined in terms of the geometrical properties of spacetime. In particular, we show how the global non-entropic arrow can (...)
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  17. Tobias Chapman (1973). The Direction of Time. By Hans Reichenbach. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1972. Pp. Vii, 280. Paper, $4.50. [REVIEW] Dialogue 12 (04):717-721.
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  18. Ferrel Christensen (1987). Time's Error: Is Time's Asymmetry Extrinsic? [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 26 (2):231 - 248.
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  19. J. Collier (1997). Review. Time's Arrow's Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time. SF Savitt (Ed). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):287-289.
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  20. Gabriele Contessa (2006). On the Supposed Temporal Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence; Or: It Wouldn't Have Taken a Miracle! Dialectica 60 (4):461–473.
    The thesis that a temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence characterizes our world plays a central role in Lewis’s philosophy, as. among other things, it underpins one of Lewis most renowned theses—that causation can be analyzed in terms of counterfactual dependence. To maintain that a temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence characterizes our world, Lewis committed himself to two other theses. The first is that the closest possible worlds at which the antecedent of a counterfactual conditional is true is one in which (...)
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  21. William Lane Craig (1999). Temporal Becoming and the Direction of Time. Philosophy and Theology 11 (2):349-366.
    The impression is frequently given that the static description of the 4-dimensional world given by a tenseless theory of time adequately accounts for the world and that a tensed theory of time has nothing to offer. In fact, the tenseless theory of time leaves us incapable of specifying the direction of time, whereas a tensed theory of time enables us to do so. Thus, the tensed theory enjoys a considerable advantage over the tenseless view.
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  22. O. Costa de Beauregard (1977). Two Lectures on the Direction of Time. Synthese 35 (2):129-154.
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  23. Kenneth G. Denbigh (1996). Time's Arrows Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (2):221-227.
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  24. Phil Dowe (1992). Process Causality and Asymmetry. Erkenntnis 37 (2):179-196.
    Process theories of causality seek to explicate causality as a property of individual causal processes. This paper examines the capacity of such theories to account for the asymmetry of causation. Three types of theories of asymmetry are discussed; the subjective, the temporal, and the physical, the third of these being the preferred approach. Asymmetric features of the world, namely the entropic and Kaon arrows, are considered as possible sources of causal asymmetry and a physical theory of asymmetry is subsequently developed (...)
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  25. Fred I. Dretske (1962). Moving Backward in Time. Philosophical Review 71 (1):94-98.
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  26. Antony Eagle (forthcoming). Is the Past a Matter of Chance? In Alastair Wilson (ed.), Chance and Temporal Asymmetry. Oxford University Press.
  27. John Earman (1974). An Attempt to Add a Little Direction to "the Problem of the Direction of Time". Philosophy of Science 41 (1):15-47.
    It is argued that the main problem with "the problem of the direction of time" is to figure out what the problem is or is supposed to be. Towards this end, an attempt is made to disentangle and to classify some of the many issues which have been discussed under the label of 'the direction of time'. Secondly, some technical apparatus is introduced in the hope of producing a sharper formulation of the issues than they have received in the philosophical (...)
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  28. John Earman (1969). The Anisotropy of Time. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 47 (3):273 – 295.
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  29. John Earman (1967). Irreversibility and Temporal Asymmetry. Journal of Philosophy 64 (18):543-549.
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  30. Matt Farr (2012). On A- and B-Theoretic Elements of Branching Spacetimes. Synthese 188 (1):85-116.
    This paper assesses branching spacetime theories in light of metaphysical considerations concerning time. I present the A, B, and C series in terms of the temporal structure they impose on sets of events, and raise problems for two elements of extant branching spacetime theories—McCall’s ‘branch attrition’, and the ‘no backward branching’ feature of Belnap’s ‘branching space-time’—in terms of their respective A- and B-theoretic nature. I argue that McCall’s presentation of branch attrition can only be coherently formulated on a model with (...)
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  31. Jan Faye (2002). When Time Gets Off Track. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 50:1-.
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  32. Gerald Feinberg, Shaughan Lavine & David Albert (1992). Knowledge of the Past and Future. Journal of Philosophy 89 (12):607-642.
  33. Peter Forrest (2010). 1. Why It Matters That We Cannot Alter the Past. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 5:29.
  34. Mathias Frisch (2009). Philosophical Issues in Electromagnetism. Philosophy Compass 4 (1):255-270.
    This paper provides a survey of several philosophical issues arising in classical electrodynamics arguing that there is a philosophically rich set of problems in theories of classical physics that have not yet received the attention by philosophers that they deserve. One issue, which is connected to the philosophy of causation, concerns the temporal asymmetry exhibited by radiation fields in the presence of wave sources. Physicists and philosophers disagree on whether this asymmetry reflects a fundamental causal asymmetry or is due to (...)
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  35. Mathias Frisch (2006). A Tale of Two Arrows. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 37 (3):542-558.
    In this paper I propose a reasonably sharp formulation of the temporal asymmetry of radiation. I criticize accounts that propose to derive the asymmetry from a low-entropy assumption characterizing the state of the early universe and argue that these accounts fail, since they presuppose the very asymmetry they are intended to derive. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  36. Owen Goldin (1998). Plato and the Arrow of Time. Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):125-143.
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  37. John R. Gregg, Time Consciousness and the Specious Present.
    Roger Penrose, in _The Emperor's New Mind_ (1989), writes about the way Mozart perceived music. Mozart did not play a piece in his mind in real time, or even speeded up, but could hold it before him all at once. We all do this, although usually for much shorter riffs than entire symphonies. I have argued that the all-at-onceness of our thoughts and perceptions is at least as inexplicable as what it is like to see red; I think the aural/temporal (...)
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  38. Meir Hemmo (2003). Remarks on the Direction of Time in Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1458-1471.
    I argue that in the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics time has no fundamental direction. I further discuss a way to recover thermodynamics in this interpretation using decoherence theory (Zurek and Paz 1994). Albert's proposal to recover thermodynamics from the collapse theory of Ghirardi et al. (1986) is also considered.
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  39. Meir Hemmo (2003). Remarks on the Direction of Time in Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1458-1471.
    I consider the question of the direction of time in the context of the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics. I focus on the special role of decoherence in the recovery of time asymmetric behaviour, such as the collapse of the quantum state and the thermodynamic regularities. The discussion is based on results in the consistent histories approach (Gell-Mann and Hartle 1993) and in decoherence theory (Zurek and Paz 1994). Finally, I compare the status of the direction of time in Everett (...)
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  40. Paul Horwich (1989). Asymmetries in Time: Problems in the Philosophy of Science. Bradford Books.
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  41. Nick Huggett, Draft the Past Hypothesis and the Knowledge Asymmetry.
    Why is our knowledge of the past so much more ‘expansive’ (to pick a suitably vague term) than our knowledge of the future, and what is the best way to capture the difference(s) (i.e., in what sense is knowledge of the past more ‘expansive’)? One could reasonably approach these questions by giving necessary conditions for different kinds of knowledge, and showing how some were satisfied by certain propositions about the past, and not by corresponding propositions about the future. I take (...)
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  42. Ernest H. Hutten (1959). The Direction of Time. By H. Reichenbach. (The University of California Press 1956. Pp. Xi + 280. Price 41s. 6d. Net.). Philosophy 34 (128):65-.
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  43. W. R. Inge (1920). The Presidential Address: "Is the Time Series Reversible?". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 21:1 - 12.
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  44. G. K. (1996). Time's Arrows Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (2):221-227.
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  45. A. David Kline (1980). Screening-Off and the Temporal Asymmetry of Explanation. Analysis 40 (3):139 - 143.
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  46. H. Krips (1971). The Asymmetry of Time. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49 (2):204 – 210.
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  47. Douglas Kutach, The Empirical Content of the Epistemic Asymmetry.
    I conduct an empirical analysis of the temporally asymmetric character of our epistemic access to the world by providing an experimental scheme whose results represent the core empirical content of the epistemic asymmetry. I augment this empirical content by formulating a gedanken experiment inspired by a proposal from David Albert. This second experiment cannot be conducted using any technology that is likely to be developed in the foreseeable future, but the expected results help us to state an important constraint on (...)
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  48. Douglas Kutach (2013). Causation and Its Basis in Fundamental Physics. Oxford University Press.
    I provide a comprehensive metaphysics of causation based on the idea that fundamentally things are governed by the laws of physics, and that derivatively difference-making can be assessed in terms of what fundamental laws of physics imply for hypothesized events. Highlights include a general philosophical methodology, the fundamental/derivative distinction, and my mature account of causal asymmetry.
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  49. Douglas Kutach (2011). Backtracking Influence. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (1):55-71.
    Backtracking influence is influence that zigzags in time. For example, backtracking influence exists when an event E_1 makes an event E_2 more likely by way of a nomic connection that goes from E_1 back in time to an event C and then forward in time to E_2. I contend that in our local region of spacetime, at least, backtracking influence is redundant in the sense that any existing backtracking influence exerted by E_1 on E_2 is equivalent to E_1's temporally direct (...)
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  50. Douglas Kutach (2011). The Asymmetry of Influence. In Craig Callender (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oxford University Press.
    An explanation of our seeming inability to influence the past.
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1 — 50 / 416