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  1. Peter Achinstein (2007). Atom's Empirical Eve: Methodological Disputes and How to Evaluate Them. Perspectives on Science 15 (3):359-390.
    : This paper examines the debate in the late 19th and early 20th centuries over the acceptability of atomic and molecular physics. It focuses on three prominent figures: Maxwell, who defended atomic physics, Ostwald, who initially rejected it but changed his mind as a result of experiments by Thomson and Perrin, and Duhem, who never accepted it. Each scientist defended the position he did in the light of strongly held methodological views concerning empirical evidence. The paper critically evaluates each of (...)
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  2. A. D. Allen (1973). The Bootstrap From the Perspective of Formal Logic. Foundations of Physics 3 (4):473-475.
    The rules of formal logic favor the bootstrap over the fundamentalist interpretation of hadronic constituents.
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  3. Grant Babkenovich Arakeli͡an (2007). Ot Logicheskikh Atomov K Fizicheskim Zakonam. Izd-Vo. "Lusanbat͡s".
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  4. Niels Bohr (1963/1987). Essays 1958-1962 on Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. Ox Bow Press.
    Quantum physics and philosophy--causality and complementarity -- The unit of human knowledge -- The connection between the sciences -- Light and life revisited -- The Rutherford memorial lecture 1958 -- The genesis of quantum mechanics -- The Solvay meetings and the development of quantum physics.
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  5. Niels Bohr (1958/2010). Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. New York, Wiley.
    These articles and speeches by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist date from 1934 to 1958. Rather than expositions on quantum physics, the papers are philosophical in nature, exploring the relevance of atomic physics to many areas of human endeavor. Includes an essay in which Bohr and Einstein discuss quantum and_wave equation theories. 1961 edition.
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  6. Niels Bohr (1958/1987). Essays 1932-1957 on Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. Ox Bow Press.
    Introduction -- Light and life -- Biology and atomic physics -- Natural philosophy and human cultures -- Discussion with Einstein on epistemological problems in atomic physics -- Unity of knowledge -- Atoms and human knowledge -- Physical science and the problem of life.
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  7. Max Born (1969). Atomic Physics. Blackie // Son, Ltd..
    For this eighth edition he also wrote a new chapter on the quantum theory of solids.
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  8. C. Carson (1996). The Peculiar Notion of Exchange Forces--I: Origins in Quantum Mechanics, 1926-1928. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (1):23-45.
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  9. Eduardo Castro (2013). Defending the Indispensability Argument: Atoms, Infinity and the Continuum. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 44 (1):41-61.
    This paper defends the Quine-Putnam mathematical indispensability argument against two objections raised by Penelope Maddy. The objections concern scientific practices regarding the development of the atomic theory and the role of applied mathematics in the continuum and infinity. I present two alternative accounts by Stephen Brush and Alan Chalmers on the atomic theory. I argue that these two theories are consistent with Quine’s theory of scientific confirmation. I advance some novel versions of the indispensability argument. I argue that these new (...)
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  10. L. Cerruti (1999). Marco Ciardi (Ed.), Amedeo Avogadro, Saggi E Memorie Sulla Teoria Atomica (1811-1838). History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 21 (2):228-228.
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  11. R. Delbourgo & D. Lashmar (2008). Born Reciprocity and the 1/R Potential. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):995-1010.
    Many structures in nature are invariant under the transformation pair, (p,r)→(b r,−p/b), where b is some scale factor. Born’s reciprocity hypothesis affirms that this invariance extends to the entire Hamiltonian and equations of motion. We investigate this idea for atomic physics and galactic motion, where one is basically dealing with a 1/r potential and the observations are very accurate, so as to determine the scale b≡mΩ. We find that an Ω∼1.5×10−15 s−1 has essentially no effect on atomic physics but might (...)
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  12. R. H. Dicke (1986). On Observing the Absence of an Atom. Foundations of Physics 16 (2):107-113.
    An atom is confined to a box in its ground state. An attempt is made to observe it in the left half of the box by scattering photons out of a photon wave packet passing through this half of the box. If no photons are scattered, the atom is missing. It is located on the right side of the box and its wave function is changed. The expectation value of the combined atom and photon energy is increased. For the other (...)
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  13. Joseph Earley (2011). Alan Chalmers: The Scientist's Atom and the Philosopher's Stone: How Science Succeeded and Philosophy Failed to Gain Knowledge of Atoms. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):79-83.
  14. S. Esposito & A. Naddeo (2012). Majorana Solutions to the Two-Electron Problem. Foundations of Physics 42 (12):1586-1608.
    The two-electron atom is the simplest nontrivial quantum system not amenable to exact solutions. Today, its relevance in the development of quantum mechanics and its pedagogical value within the realm of atomic physics are widely recognized. In this work, an historical review of the known different methods and results devised to study such a problem is presented, with an emphasis to the calculations of the ground state energy of helium. Then we discuss several, related, unpublished results obtained around the same (...)
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  15. J. Josephson (1980). An Alternative Formulation for the Analysis and Interpretation of the Dirac Hydrogen Atom. Foundations of Physics 10 (3-4):243-266.
    The second-order radial differential equations for the relativistic Dirac hydrogen atom are derived from the Dirac equation treated as a system of partial differential equations. The quantum operators which arise in the development are defined and interpreted as they appear. The splitting in the energy levels is computed by applying the theory of singularities for second-order differential equations to the Klein-Gordon and Dirac relativistic equations. In the Dirac radial equation additional terms appear containing a constant, which is shown to be (...)
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  16. H. Kleinert (1993). Group Theory and Orbital Fluctuations of the Hydrogen Atom. Foundations of Physics 23 (5):769-807.
    We review some of the progress made in the past 27 years in understanding the group theoretic and path integral aspects of the hydrogen atom. The group theoretic development was triggered by A. O. Barut who suggested to me the search for a dynamical group larger than SO(4). In this way he became indirectly responsible also for important recent path integral developments.
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  17. Olga Kocharovskaya & Y. V. Radeonychev (1998). Spontaneous Emission From the Ground Atomic State Due to Its Crossing with the Dynamic Stark Level. Foundations of Physics 28 (4):561-584.
    The ground state of the driven three-level atomic system becomes unstable as a result of its spontaneous decay to the dynamic Stark level when the last one falls below this state. Different peculiarities of the atomic response may appear depending on the intensity and detuning of the driving field providing such level crossing.
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  18. G. Ludwig (1989). Atoms: Are They Real or Are They Objects? Foundations of Physics 19 (8):971-983.
    The reality of atoms can be deduced from the reality of the devices by which the atoms are prepared and registered. A new, most general definition of the concept of “physical object” is given. The objects must not be classical; nevertheless they can be described objectively. Atoms are not such objects.
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  19. Trevor W. Marshall (2006). Are Atoms Waves or Particles? Foundations of Physics 36 (3):333-349.
    It is shown that the Kapitza-Dirac effect with atoms, which has been considered to be evidence for their wavelike character, can be interpreted as a scattering of pointlike objects by the periodic laser field.
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  20. S. Habib Mazharimousavi & M. Halilsoy (2012). Ground State H-Atom in Born-Infeld Theory. Foundations of Physics 42 (4):524-530.
    Within the context of Born-Infeld (BI) nonlinear electrodynamics (NED) we revisit the non-relativistic, spinless H-atom. The pair potential computed from the Born-Infeld equations is approximated by the Morse type potential with remarkable fit over the critical region where the convergence of both the short and long distance expansions slows down dramatically. The Morse potential is employed to determine both the ground state energy of the electron and the BI parameter.
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  21. Shmuel Nussinov & Jeff Tollaksen (2012). Extreme Sub-Radiance: Can Quantum Effects Generate Dramatically Longer Atomic Lifetimes? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 42 (9):1186-1199.
    The prolongation of lifetimes for an excited atom due to the presence of nearby atoms in the ground state is shown to follow simply from unitarity of the time evolution. We also discuss possible approaches to the detection and the overcoming of various technical obstacles.
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  22. José Edmar Arantes Ribeiro (2010). Was the Stern-Gerlach Phenomenon Classically Described? Foundations of Physics 40 (11):1779-1782.
    A criticism of a recent article published in this journal, claiming to have reached a classical description of the Stern-Gerlach phenomenon, is presented here. The author of the article, among other mistakes, wrongly writes the total energy of each silver atom and, moreover, presents a nonsensical equation, from which his results and the conclusion of his article are derived.
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  23. R. Rompe & H. -J. Treder (1983). Is Physics at the Threshold of a New Stage of Evolution? Foundations of Physics 13 (3):347-361.
    Starting from Planck's thesis concerning the aims and methods of theoretical physics as stated in his famous lecture (Leiden, 1908) onDie Einheit des physikalischen Weltbildes and his lectures in the next year at Columbia University, we discuss some aspects of physics and mathematics in our time. We compare relativity theory, quantum mechanics, and atomic physics at their inception with the situation today in field theories, elementary particle physics, and mathematical physics.
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  24. Yu P. Rybakov & B. Saha (1995). Soliton Model of Atom. Foundations of Physics 25 (12):1723-1731.
    The Einstein-de Broglie soliton concept is applied to simulate stationary states of an electron in a hydrogen atom. According to this concept, the electron is described by the localized regular solutions to some nonlinear equations. It is shown that the electron-solilon center travels along some stationary orbit around the Coulomb center. The electromagnetic radiation is absent as the Poynting vector has non-wave asymptote O(r −3)after averaging over angles.
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  25. L. S. Schulman (2007). Decoherence Induced Equilibration. Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1716-1726.
    A pair of harmonic oscillators come in contact and then separate. This could be a model of an atom encountering an electromagnetic field. We explore the coherence properties of the resulting state as a function of the sort of initial condition used. A surprising result is that if one imagines a large collection of these objects repeatedly coming in contact and separating, the asymptotic distribution functions are not Boltzmann distributions, but rather exponentials with the same rate of dropoff.
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  26. Shant Shahbazian (2014). Letter to the Editor: Are There “Really” Atoms in Molecules? [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):77-84.
    To be, or not to be, that is the question…In his wonderful Facts and Mysteries, Martinus Veltman terminates a section with an anecdote: “When quarks were not immediately discovered after the introduction by Gell-Mann he took to calling them symbolic, saying they were indices. In the early seventies I met him at CERN and he again said something in that spirit. I then jumped up, coming down with some impact that made the floor tremble, and asked him: Do I look (...)
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  27. N. Sukumar (2013). The Atom in a Molecule as a Mereological Construct in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):303-309.
    In this paper I discuss some consequences and manifestations of a mereology of structured wholes in chemistry, with particular reference to the concept of atoms in molecules.
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  28. Alwyn J. Van der Merwe & Johannes H. Van der Merwe (1974). Dispersion Interactions Between Unexcited Molecules Having Axial Symmetry: Contributions of Order Six and Eight. Foundations of Physics 4 (1):65-74.
    A study is made of the dominant terms of an earlier model-based formula describing the dispersion energy of axially symmetric interacting molecules. The existence of mixed-pole eighth-order terms is noted.
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  29. Alwyn J. Van der Merwe & Johannes H. Van der Merwe (1973). Dispersion Interactions Between Unexcited Molecules Possessing Axial Symmetry: Arbitrary-Order Contributions. Foundations of Physics 3 (3):297-311.
    The ground-state dispersion energy of a pair of axially symmetric molecules is calculated, to arbitrary order in the inverse intermolecular separation, on the basis of London's anisotropic oscillator model.
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  30. Lepša Vušković, Dušan Arsenović & Mirjana Božić (2002). Non-Classical Behavior of Atoms in an Interferometer. Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1329-1346.
    Using the time-dependent wave function we have studied the properties of the atomic transverse motion in an interferometer, and the cause of the non-classical behavior of atoms reported by Kurtsiefer, Pfau, and Mlynek [Nature 386, 150 (1997)]. The transverse wave function is derived from the solution of the two-dimensional Schrödinger's equation, written in the form of the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral. It is assumed that the longitudinal motion is classical. Comparing data of the space distribution and of the transverse momentum distribution (...)
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  31. Daniel W. Wyss & Walter Wyss (1993). Coincidental Spectral Lines for the Hydrogen Atom. Foundations of Physics 23 (3):465-468.
    Asim Barut once,en passant, asked the question “For what transitions of the hydrogen atom do the spectral lines coincide”? It is a pleasure for us to give the answer in this paper.
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  32. Władysław Żakowicz & Arkadiusz Orłowski (1998). Spontaneously Emitting Atom in Front of a Two-Slit Interferometer. Foundations of Physics 28 (4):601-609.
    A fully quantum-mechanical description of the spontaneous emission from an excited two-level atom placed in front of a two-slit interferometer is given. Global modes of the electromagnetic field in a two slit system are derived within the Kirchhoff-Huygens diffraction approximation, serving as a base for the field quantization. The standard Fermi's golden rule, supplemented by a factor coming from the nontrivial mode structure caused by the presence of the two-slit interferometer, is used to show that interference results from the position-dependent (...)
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