About this topic
Summary

The two central questions explored by papers in this area are: is there attention in the absence of consciousness (unconscious attention) and is there conscious experience or awareness in the absence of attention (consciousness without attention)? The debates about the existence of unconscious attention are frequently focused on the phenomenon of blindsight, though there have also been various experiments involving normal subjects that are taken to lend support to the existence of unconscious attention. Roughly, the point of contention is whether there is anything that is both unconscious and attended, and the candidates are objects, features of objects, and locations. Change and inattentional blindness experiments are sometimes taken to show that unattended objects or features are not consciously experienced. It has also been argued on an experimental basis that some visual phenomenal experience is unaccessed, and that vision has a finer grain than attention. 

Key works Key works on unconscious attention include: Kentridge et al 2008 and Mole 2008.  Key works on consciousness without attention include: Mack & Rock 1998 who claim that there may be no explicit awareness without attention; Mole 2008 who claims that attention may not be necessary for consciousness, but only for certain kinds of thought necessary for report; Block 2007 and Block 2011, who argues that some visual phenomenal experience is unaccessed; and Block 2013, Richards 2013, Taylor 2013, and Block 2013 who debate whether vision has a finer grain than attention that results in cases in which crowded objects are seen in the periphery of the visual field despite being unattended.
Introductions Mole et al 2011 is an anthology that provides a good introduction to issues surrounding attention and consciousness.
  Show all references
Related categories
Siblings:See also:
235 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 235
  1. Alan Allport (2011). Attention and Integration. In Christopher Mole, Declan Smithies & Wayne Wu (eds.), Attention: Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Oxford University Press. 24.
  2. Adam K. Anderson (2005). Affective Influences on the Attentional Dynamics Supporting Awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology 134 (2):258-281.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Bernard J. Baars (1999). Attention Vs Consciousness in the Visual Brain: Differences in Conception, Phenomenology, Behavior, Neuroanatomy, and Physiology. Journal of General Psychology 126:224-33.
  4. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Attention, Self, and Conscious Self-Monitoring. In A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press.
    ?In everday language, the word ?attention? implies control of access to consciousness, and we adopt this usage here. Attention itself can be either voluntary or automatic. This can be readily modeled in the theory. Further, a contrastive analysis of spontaneously self?attributed vs. self?alien experiences suggests that ?self? can be interpreted as the more enduring, higher levels of the dominant context hierarchy, which create continuity over the changing flow of events. Since context is by definition unconscious in GW theory, self in (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Metaphors of Consciousness and Attention in the Brain. Trends in Neurosciences 21:58-62.
  6. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Some Essential Differences Between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):363-371.
  7. A. D. Baddeley & Lawrence Weiskrantz (eds.) (1993). Attention: Selection, Awareness, and Control. Oxford University Press.
  8. David Badre (2011). Defining an Ontology of Cognitive Control Requires Attention to Component Interactions. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):217-221.
    Cognitive control is not only componential, but those components may interact in complicated ways in the service of cognitive control tasks. This complexity poses a challenge for developing an ontological description, because the mapping may not be direct between our task descriptions and true component differences reflected in indicators. To illustrate this point, I discuss two examples: (a) the relationship between adaptive gating and working memory and (b) the recent evidence for a control hierarchy. From these examples, I argue that (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Brian P. Bailey & Joseph A. Konstan (2006). On the Need for Attention-Aware Systems: Measuring Effects of Interruption on Task Performance, Error Rate, and Affective State. Computers in Human Behavior 22 (4):685-708.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Paolo Bartolomeo (2002). Commentary: Can Attention Capture Visual Awareness? Psicologica International Journal of Methodology and Experimental Psychology 23 (2):314-317.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Paolo Bartolomeo & Sylvie Chokron (2001). Visual Awareness Relies on Exogenous Orienting of Attention: Evidence From Unilateral Neglect. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):975-976.
    Unilateral neglect stems from a relatively selective impairment of exogenous, or stimulus-related, orienting of attention. This neuropsychological evidence parallels “change blindness” experiments, in which normal individuals lack awareness of salient details in the visual scene as a consequence of their attention being exogenously attracted by a competing event, suggesting that visual consciousness requires the integrity of exogenous orienting of attention.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Kevin Barton, Jonathan Fugelsang & Daniel Smilek (2011). Inhibiting Beliefs Demands Attention. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (3):250-267.
    Research across a variety of domains has found that people fail to evaluate statistical information in an atheoretical manner. Rather, people tend to evaluate statistical information in light of their pre-existing beliefs and experiences. The locus of these biases continues to be hotly debated. In two experiments we evaluate the degree to which reasoning when relevant beliefs are readily accessible (i.e., when reasoning with Belief-Laden content) versus when relevant beliefs are not available (i.e., when reasoning with Non-Belief-Laden content) differentially demands (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Kevin Barton, Jonathan Fugelsang & Daniel Smilek (2009). Inhibiting Beliefs Demands Attention. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (3):250 – 267.
    Research across a variety of domains has found that people fail to evaluate statistical information in an atheoretical manner. Rather, people tend to evaluate statistical information in light of their pre-existing beliefs and experiences. The locus of these biases continues to be hotly debated. In two experiments we evaluate the degree to which reasoning when relevant beliefs are readily accessible (i.e., when reasoning with Belief-Laden content) versus when relevant beliefs are not available (i.e., when reasoning with Non-Belief-Laden content) differentially demands (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. M. Beck, B. Angelone, D. Levin, M. Peterson & D. Varakin (2008). Implicit Learning for Probable Changes in a Visual Change Detection Task. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1192-1208.
  15. I. M. Bentley (1904). The Psychological Meaning of Clearness. Mind 13 (50):242-253.
  16. Ned Block & Susanna Siegel (2013). Attention and Perceptual Adaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):205-206.
  17. B. P. Bradley, K. Mogg, N. Millar, C. Bonham-Carter, E. Fergusson, J. Jenkins & M. Parr (1997). Attentional Biases for Emotional Faces. Cognition and Emotion 11 (1):25-42.
  18. Bruce Bridgeman (1986). Relations Between the Physiology of Attention and the Physiology of Consciousness. Psychological Research 48:259-266.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Ingar Brinck (2001). Attention and the Evolution of Intentional Communication. Pragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):259-277.
    Intentional communication is perceptually based and about attentional objects. Three attention mechanisms are distinguished: scanning, attention attraction, and attention-focusing. Attention-focusing directs the subject towards attentional objects. Attention-focusing is goal-governed (controlled by stimulus) or goal-intended (under the control of the subject). Attentional objects are perceptually categorised functional entities that emerge in the interaction between subjects and environment. Joint attention allows for focusing on the same attentional object simultaneously (mutual object-focused attention), provided that the subjects have focused on each other beforehand (subject-subject (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Ben Bronner (2013). Representationalism and the Determinacy of Visual Content. Philosophical Psychology:1-13.
    DETERMINACY is the claim that covert shifts in visual attention sometimes affect the determinacy of visual content (capital letters will distinguish the claim from the familiar word, 'determinacy'). Representationalism is the claim that visual phenomenology supervenes on visual representational content. Both claims are popular among contemporary philosophers of mind, and DETERMINACY has been employed in defense of representationalism. I claim that existing arguments in favor of DETERMINACY are inconclusive. As a result, DETERMINACY-based arguments in support of representationalism are not strong (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Brian Bruya (2010). Apertures, Draw, and Syntax: Remodeling Attention. In , Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. MIT Press. 219.
    Because psychological studies of attention and cognition are most commonly performed within the strict confines of the laboratory or take cognitively impaired patients as subjects, it is difficult to be sure that resultant models of attention adequately account for the phenomenon of effortless attention. The problem is not only that effortless attention is resistant to laboratory study. A further issue is that because the laboratory is the most common way to approach attention, models resulting from such studies are naturally the (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Brian Bruya (2010). Introduction: Toward a Theory of Attention That Includes Effortless Attention. In , Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. MIT Press.
    In this Introduction, I identify seven discrete aspects of attention brought to the fore by by considering the phenomenon of effortless attention: effort, decision-making, action syntax, agency, automaticity, expertise, and mental training. For each, I provide an overview of recent research, identify challenges to or gaps in current attention theory with respect to it, consider how attention theory can be advanced by including current research, and explain how relevant chapters of this volume offer such advances.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Joanna J. Bryson (2006). The Attentional Spotlight. Minds and Machines 16 (1):21-28.
    One of the interesting and occasionally controversial aspects of Dennett’s career is his direct involvement in the scientific process. This article describes some of Dennett’s participation on one particular project conducted at MIT, the building of the humanoid robot named Cog. One of the intentions of this project, not to date fully realized, was to test Dennett’s multiple drafts theory of consciousness. I describe Dennett’s involvement and impact on Cog from the perspective of a graduate student. I also describe the (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Nicolas Bullot (2009). Toward a Theory of the Empirical Tracking of Individuals: Cognitive Flexibility and the Functions of Attention in Integrated Tracking. Philosophical Psychology 22 (3):353-387.
  25. C. Bundesen & T. Habekost (2008). Principles of Visual Attention: Linking Mind and Brain. Oxford University Press Oxford.
    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Michael F. Bunting & Nelson Cowan (2005). Working Memory and Flexibility in Awareness and Attention. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung 69 (5):412-419.
  27. Eva Den Busschvane, Gethin Hughes, Nathalie Humbeecvank & Bert Reynvoet (2010). The Relation Between Consciousness and Attention: An Empirical Study Using the Priming Paradigm. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):86-97.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. M. C. & W. P. (2003). Hypnotic Control of Attention in the Stroop Task: A Historical Footnote. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):347-353.
    have recently provided a compelling demonstration of enhanced attentional control under post-hypnotic suggestion. Using the classic color-word interference paradigm, in which the task is to ignore a word and to name the color in which it is printed (e.g., RED in green, say ''green''), they gave a post-hypnotic instruction to participants that they would be unable to read. This eliminated Stroop interference in high suggestibility participants but did not alter interference in low suggestibility participants. replicated this pattern and further demonstrated (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. A. Charles Catania (2005). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Delay-of-Reinforcement Gradients and Other Behavioral Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):419-424.
    Sagvolden, Johansen, Aase, and Russell (Sagvolden et al.) examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at levels of analysis ranging from neurotransmitters to behavior. At the behavioral level they attribute aspects of ADHD to anomalies of delay-of-reinforcement gradients. With a normal gradient, responses followed after a long delay by a reinforcer may share in the effects of that reinforcer; with a diminished or steepened gradient they may fail to do so. Steepened gradients differentially select rapidly emitted responses (hyperactivity), and they limit the effectiveness (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. A. Charles Catania (2005). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): One Process or Many? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):446-450.
    Some commentaries suggest that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) theory of this condition does not explain enough. Because the theory includes parameters of the delay gradient that vary across individuals and developmental modulation of behavioral outcomes by different environments, it accommodates a wide range of manifestations of ADHD symptoms. Thus, the argument could instead be made that the theory allows too many degrees of freedom. For many purposes, behavior is better defined in terms of function (e.g., consequences) than in terms of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. G. Chastain & M. Cheal (1999). Attention Effects of Abrupt-Onset Precues with Central, Single-Element, and Multiple-Element Precues. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):510-528.
    Endogenous and exogenous processes of attention have been inferred with different types of precues used in allocation of attention to a target location. In the present research, a comparison was made between the typical peripheral single-element precue (SEP), a central precue, and a multiple-element precue (MEP) in order to further understanding of the processes involved in allocation of attention. Two precues were used on each trial in these experiments. An abrupt-onset precue appeared with an SEP, an MEP, or a central (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. James A. Cheyne, Jonathan S. A. Carriere & Daniel Smilek (2006). Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Conscious Awareness and Everyday Cognitive Failures. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):578-592.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. James Allan Cheyne, Jonathan S. A. Carriere & Daniel Smilek (2009). Absent Minds and Absent Agents: Attention-Lapse Induced Alienation of Agency. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):481-493.
  34. Gregory J. Christ (1993). Reply to the Ability of the Sweeping Model to Explain Human Attention. Journal of Mind and Behavior 14 (3):215-222.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Marvin Chun & Jeremy Wolfe (2001). Visual Attention. In E. B. Goldstein (ed.), Blackwell Handbook of Perception. Blackwell. 2--335.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. James J. Clark (1999). Linking Covert and Overt Attention. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):676-677.
    Findlay & Walker's target article questions whether covert attention plays any role in normal visual scanning (overt attention). My commentary suggests that there is indeed a very close link between the processes that govern covert and overt attention.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. C. Cobb (1955). Awareness, Attention, and Physiology of the Brain Stem. In P. Hoch & J. Zubin (eds.), Experimental Psychopathology. Grune & Stratton.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Josephine Cock, Claire Fordham, Janet Cockburn & Patrick Haggard (2003). Who Knows Best? Awareness of Divided Attention Difficulty in a Neurological Rehabilitation Setting. Brain Injury 17 (7):561-574.
  39. Jonathan D. Cohen & Jonathan W. Schooler (eds.) (1997). Scientific Approaches to Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  40. Daniel Collerton, Elaine Perry & Ian McKeith (2005). Why People See Things That Are Not There: A Novel Perception and Attention Deficit Model for Recurrent Complex Visual Hallucinations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):737-757.
    As many as two million people in the United Kingdom repeatedly see people, animals, and objects that have no objective reality. Hallucinations on the border of sleep, dementing illnesses, delirium, eye disease, and schizophrenia account for 90% of these. The remainder have rarer disorders. We review existing models of recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH) in the awake person, including cortical irritation, cortical hyperexcitability and cortical release, top-down activation, misperception, dream intrusion, and interactive models. We provide evidence that these can neither (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. H. B. Coslett (1997). Consciousness and Attention. Seminars in Neurology 17:137-44.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Nelson Cowan & N. L. Wood (1997). Constraints on Awareness, Attention, Processing, and Memory: Some Recent Investigations with Ignored Speech. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):182-203.
  43. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1978). Attention and the Holistic Approach to Behavior. In K. S. Pope & Jerome L. Singer (eds.), The Stream of Consciousness: Scientific Investigation Into the Flow of Experience. Plenum.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Ruud Custers & Henk Aarts (2011). Learning of Predictive Relations Between Events Depends on Attention, Not on Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):368-378.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. R. Davidson, R. Schwartz & D. Shapiro (eds.) (1986). Consciousness and Self-Regulation: Advances in Research and Theory IV. Plenum Press.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. T. N. Davies & D. D. Hoffman (2003). Facial Attention and Spacetime Fragments. Axiomathes 13 (3-4):303-327.
    Inverting a face impairs perception of its features and recognition of its identity. Whether faces are special in this regard is a current topic of research and debate. Kanizsa studied the role of facial features and environmental context in perceiving the emotion and identity of upright and inverted faces. He found that observers are biased to interpret faces in a retinal coordinate frame, and that this bias is readily overruled by increased realism of facial features, but not easily overruled by (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Greg Davis (2001). There is No Four-Object Limit on Attention. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):119-120.
    The complex relationship between attention and STM forms a core issue in the study of human cognition, and Cowan's target article attempts, quite successfully, to elucidate an important part of this relationship. However, while I agree that aspects of STM performance may reflect the action mechanisms that we normally consider to subserve “attention” I shall argue here that attention is not subject to a fixed four-object capacity limit as Cowan suggests. Rather, performance in attention tasks as (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Felipe De Brigard (2012). The Role of Attention in Conscious Recollection. Frontiers in Psychology 3.
    Most research on the relationship between attention and consciousness has been limited to perception. However, perceptions are not the only kinds of mental contents of which we can be conscious. An important set of conscious states that has not received proper treatment within this discussion is that of memories. This paper reviews compelling evidence indicating that attention may be necessary, but probably not sufficient, for conscious recollection. However, it is argued that unlike the case of conscious perception, the kind of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. K. K. De Valois (ed.) (2000). Seeing. Academic Press.
    This book provides a comprehensive overview of research on the myriad complexities of this task.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. J. A. Debner & Larry L. Jacoby (1994). Unconscious Perception: Attention, Awareness, and Control. Journal of Experimental Psychology 20:304-17.
1 — 50 / 235