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The two central questions explored by papers in this area are: is there attention in the absence of consciousness (unconscious attention) and is there conscious experience or awareness in the absence of attention (consciousness without attention)? The debates about the existence of unconscious attention are frequently focused on the phenomenon of blindsight, though there have also been various experiments involving normal subjects that are taken to lend support to the existence of unconscious attention. Roughly, the point of contention is whether there is anything that is both unconscious and attended, and the candidates are objects, features of objects, and locations. Change and inattentional blindness experiments are sometimes taken to show that unattended objects or features are not consciously experienced. It has also been argued on an experimental basis that some visual phenomenal experience is unaccessed, and that vision has a finer grain than attention. 

Key works Key works on unconscious attention include: Kentridge et al 2008 and Mole 2008.  Key works on consciousness without attention include: Mack & Rock 1998 who claim that there may be no explicit awareness without attention; Mole 2008 who claims that attention may not be necessary for consciousness, but only for certain kinds of thought necessary for report; Block 2007 and Block 2011, who argues that some visual phenomenal experience is unaccessed; and Block 2013, Richards 2013, Taylor 2013, and Block 2013 who debate whether vision has a finer grain than attention that results in cases in which crowded objects are seen in the periphery of the visual field despite being unattended.
Introductions Mole et al 2011 is an anthology that provides a good introduction to issues surrounding attention and consciousness.
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  1. Alan Allport (2011). Attention and Integration. In Christopher Mole, Declan Smithies & Wayne Wu (eds.), Attention: Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Oxford University Press. 24.
  2. M. Ambinder & D. J. Simons (2005). Attention Capture: The Interplay of Expectations, Attention, and Awareness. In Laurent Itti, Geraint Rees & John K. Tsotsos (eds.), Neurobiology of Attention. Academic Press. 69--75.
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  3. Adam K. Anderson (2005). Affective Influences on the Attentional Dynamics Supporting Awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology 134 (2):258-281.
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  4. Daniel R. Anderson, Deborah G. Kemler & Bryan E. Shepp (1973). Selective Attention and Dimensional Learning: A Logical Analysis of Two-Stage Attention Theories. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 2 (5):273-275.
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  5. Samuel W. Anderson, Marina Koulomzin, Beatrice Beebe & Joseph Jaffe (2002). Visual Attention and Self-Grooming Behaviors Among Four-Month-Old Infants. In Maxim I. Stamenov & Vittorio Gallese (eds.), Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language. John Benjamins. 295.
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  6. Katherine M. Armstrong (2011). Covert Spatial Attention and Saccade Planning. In Christopher Mole, Declan Smithies & Wayne Wu (eds.), Attention: Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Oxford University Press. 78.
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  7. Bernard J. Baars (1999). Attention Vs Consciousness in the Visual Brain: Differences in Conception, Phenomenology, Behavior, Neuroanatomy, and Physiology. Journal of General Psychology 126:224-33.
  8. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Metaphors of Consciousness and Attention in the Brain. Trends in Neurosciences 21:58-62.
  9. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Attention, Self, and Conscious Self-Monitoring. In A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press.
    ?In everday language, the word ?attention? implies control of access to consciousness, and we adopt this usage here. Attention itself can be either voluntary or automatic. This can be readily modeled in the theory. Further, a contrastive analysis of spontaneously self?attributed vs. self?alien experiences suggests that ?self? can be interpreted as the more enduring, higher levels of the dominant context hierarchy, which create continuity over the changing flow of events. Since context is by definition unconscious in GW theory, self in (...)
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  10. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Some Essential Differences Between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):363-371.
    When “divided attention” methods were discovered in the 1950s their implications for conscious experience were not widely appreciated. Yet when people process competing streams of sensory input they show both selective processesandclear contrasts between conscious and unconscious events. This paper suggests that the term “attention” may be best applied to theselection and maintenanceof conscious contents and distinguished from consciousness itself. This is consistent with common usage. The operational criteria for selective attention, defined in this way, are entirely different from those (...)
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  11. A. D. Baddeley & Lawrence Weiskrantz (eds.) (1993). Attention: Selection, Awareness, and Control. Oxford University Press.
  12. David Badre (2011). Defining an Ontology of Cognitive Control Requires Attention to Component Interactions. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):217-221.
    Cognitive control is not only componential, but those components may interact in complicated ways in the service of cognitive control tasks. This complexity poses a challenge for developing an ontological description, because the mapping may not be direct between our task descriptions and true component differences reflected in indicators. To illustrate this point, I discuss two examples: (a) the relationship between adaptive gating and working memory and (b) the recent evidence for a control hierarchy. From these examples, I argue that (...)
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  13. Brian P. Bailey & Joseph A. Konstan (2006). On the Need for Attention-Aware Systems: Measuring Effects of Interruption on Task Performance, Error Rate, and Affective State. Computers in Human Behavior 22 (4):685-708.
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  14. Paolo Bartolomeo (2002). Commentary: Can Attention Capture Visual Awareness? Psicologica International Journal of Methodology and Experimental Psychology 23 (2):314-317.
  15. Paolo Bartolomeo & Sylvie Chokron (2001). Visual Awareness Relies on Exogenous Orienting of Attention: Evidence From Unilateral Neglect. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):975-976.
    Unilateral neglect stems from a relatively selective impairment of exogenous, or stimulus-related, orienting of attention. This neuropsychological evidence parallels “change blindness” experiments, in which normal individuals lack awareness of salient details in the visual scene as a consequence of their attention being exogenously attracted by a competing event, suggesting that visual consciousness requires the integrity of exogenous orienting of attention.
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  16. Kevin Barton, Jonathan Fugelsang & Daniel Smilek (2011). Inhibiting Beliefs Demands Attention. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (3):250-267.
    Research across a variety of domains has found that people fail to evaluate statistical information in an atheoretical manner. Rather, people tend to evaluate statistical information in light of their pre-existing beliefs and experiences. The locus of these biases continues to be hotly debated. In two experiments we evaluate the degree to which reasoning when relevant beliefs are readily accessible (i.e., when reasoning with Belief-Laden content) versus when relevant beliefs are not available (i.e., when reasoning with Non-Belief-Laden content) differentially demands (...)
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  17. Kevin Barton, Jonathan Fugelsang & Daniel Smilek (2009). Inhibiting Beliefs Demands Attention. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (3):250 – 267.
    Research across a variety of domains has found that people fail to evaluate statistical information in an atheoretical manner. Rather, people tend to evaluate statistical information in light of their pre-existing beliefs and experiences. The locus of these biases continues to be hotly debated. In two experiments we evaluate the degree to which reasoning when relevant beliefs are readily accessible (i.e., when reasoning with Belief-Laden content) versus when relevant beliefs are not available (i.e., when reasoning with Non-Belief-Laden content) differentially demands (...)
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  18. M. Beck, B. Angelone, D. Levin, M. Peterson & D. Varakin (2008). Implicit Learning for Probable Changes in a Visual Change Detection Task. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1192-1208.
    Previous research demonstrates that implicitly learned probability information can guide visual attention. We examined whether the probability of an object changing can be implicitly learned and then used to improve change detection performance. In a series of six experiments, participants completed 120–130 training change detection trials. In four of the experiments the object that changed color was the same shape on every trial. Participants were not explicitly aware of this change probability manipulation and change detection performance was not improved for (...)
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  19. I. M. Bentley (1904). The Psychological Meaning of Clearness. Mind 13 (50):242-253.
  20. Catherine A. Best, Christopher W. Robinson & Vladimir M. Sloutsky (2010). The Effect of Labels on Visual Attention: An Eye Tracking Study. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. 1846--1851.
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  21. Ned Block & Susanna Siegel (2013). Attention and Perceptual Adaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):205-206.
  22. Howard Bowman, Marco Filetti, Brad Wyble & Christian Olivers (2013). Attention is More Than Prediction Precision [Commentary on Target Article]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):26 - 28.
    A cornerstone of the target article is that, in a predictive coding framework, attention can be modelled by weighting prediction error with a measure of precision. We argue that this is not a complete explanation, especially in the light of ERP (event-related potentials) data showing large evoked responses for frequently presented target stimuli, which thus are predicted.
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  23. B. P. Bradley, K. Mogg, N. Millar, C. Bonham-Carter, E. Fergusson, J. Jenkins & M. Parr (1997). Attentional Biases for Emotional Faces. Cognition and Emotion 11 (1):25-42.
  24. Bruce Bridgeman (1986). Relations Between the Physiology of Attention and the Physiology of Consciousness. Psychological Research 48:259-266.
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  25. Ingar Brinck (2001). Attention and the Evolution of Intentional Communication. Pragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):259-277.
    Intentional communication is perceptually based and about attentional objects. Three attention mechanisms are distinguished: scanning, attention attraction, and attention-focusing. Attention-focusing directs the subject towards attentional objects. Attention-focusing is goal-governed (controlled by stimulus) or goal-intended (under the control of the subject). Attentional objects are perceptually categorised functional entities that emerge in the interaction between subjects and environment. Joint attention allows for focusing on the same attentional object simultaneously (mutual object-focused attention), provided that the subjects have focused on each other beforehand (subject-subject (...)
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  26. D. E. Broadbent (1970). Stimulus Set and Response Set: Two Kinds of Selective Attention. In D. Mostofsky (ed.), Attention: Contemporary Theory and Analysis. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 51--60.
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  27. D. E. Broadbent (1952). Failures of Attention in Selective Listening. Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (6):428.
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  28. Ben Bronner (2015). Representationalism and the Determinacy of Visual Content. Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):227-239.
    DETERMINACY is the claim that covert shifts in visual attention sometimes affect the determinacy of visual content (capital letters will distinguish the claim from the familiar word, 'determinacy'). Representationalism is the claim that visual phenomenology supervenes on visual representational content. Both claims are popular among contemporary philosophers of mind, and DETERMINACY has been employed in defense of representationalism. I claim that existing arguments in favor of DETERMINACY are inconclusive. As a result, DETERMINACY-based arguments in support of representationalism are not strong (...)
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  29. Brian Bruya (2010). Apertures, Draw, and Syntax: Remodeling Attention. In , Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. MIT Press. 219.
    Because psychological studies of attention and cognition are most commonly performed within the strict confines of the laboratory or take cognitively impaired patients as subjects, it is difficult to be sure that resultant models of attention adequately account for the phenomenon of effortless attention. The problem is not only that effortless attention is resistant to laboratory study. A further issue is that because the laboratory is the most common way to approach attention, models resulting from such studies are naturally the (...)
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  30. Brian Bruya (2010). Introduction: Toward a Theory of Attention That Includes Effortless Attention. In , Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. MIT Press.
    In this Introduction, I identify seven discrete aspects of attention brought to the fore by by considering the phenomenon of effortless attention: effort, decision-making, action syntax, agency, automaticity, expertise, and mental training. For each, I provide an overview of recent research, identify challenges to or gaps in current attention theory with respect to it, consider how attention theory can be advanced by including current research, and explain how relevant chapters of this volume offer such advances.
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  31. Joanna J. Bryson (2006). The Attentional Spotlight. Minds and Machines 16 (1):21-28.
    One of the interesting and occasionally controversial aspects of Dennett’s career is his direct involvement in the scientific process. This article describes some of Dennett’s participation on one particular project conducted at MIT, the building of the humanoid robot named Cog. One of the intentions of this project, not to date fully realized, was to test Dennett’s multiple drafts theory of consciousness. I describe Dennett’s involvement and impact on Cog from the perspective of a graduate student. I also describe the (...)
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  32. Nicolas Bullot (2009). Toward a Theory of the Empirical Tracking of Individuals: Cognitive Flexibility and the Functions of Attention in Integrated Tracking. Philosophical Psychology 22 (3):353-387.
    How do humans manage to keep track of a gradually changing object or person as the same persisting individual despite the fact that the extraction of information about this individual must often rely on heterogeneous information sources and heterogeneous tracking methods? The article introduces the Empirical Tracking of Individuals theory to address this problem. This theory proposes an analysis of the concept of integrated tracking, which refers to the capacity to acquire, store, and update information about the identity and location (...)
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  33. C. Bundesen & T. Habekost (2008). Principles of Visual Attention: Linking Mind and Brain. Oxford University Press Oxford.
    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects (...)
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  34. Michael F. Bunting & Nelson Cowan (2005). Working Memory and Flexibility in Awareness and Attention. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung 69 (5):412-419.
  35. Eva Den Busschvane, Gethin Hughes, Nathalie Humbeecvank & Bert Reynvoet (2010). The Relation Between Consciousness and Attention: An Empirical Study Using the Priming Paradigm. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):86-97.
    6 and 14 recently proposed taxonomies that distinguish between four processing states, based on bottom-up stimulus strength and top-down attentional amplification. The aim of the present study was to empirically test these processing states using the priming paradigm. Our results showed that attention and stimulus strength significantly modulated priming effects: either receiving top-down attention or possessing sufficient bottom-up strength was a prerequisite for a stimulus to elicit priming. When both top-down attention and sufficient bottom-up strength were present, the priming effect (...)
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  36. George Butterworth (1995). Factors in Visual Attention Eliciting Manual Pointing in Human Infancy. In H. Roitblat & Jean-Arcady Meyer (eds.), Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science. Mit Press. 329--338.
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  37. M. C. & W. P. (2003). Hypnotic Control of Attention in the Stroop Task: A Historical Footnote. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):347-353.
    have recently provided a compelling demonstration of enhanced attentional control under post-hypnotic suggestion. Using the classic color-word interference paradigm, in which the task is to ignore a word and to name the color in which it is printed (e.g., RED in green, say ''green''), they gave a post-hypnotic instruction to participants that they would be unable to read. This eliminated Stroop interference in high suggestibility participants but did not alter interference in low suggestibility participants. replicated this pattern and further demonstrated (...)
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  38. Lance K. Canon (1971). Directed Attention and Maladaptive "Adaptation" to Displacement of the Visual Field. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (3):403.
  39. L. A. Carlson & G. D. Logan (2005). Attention and Spatial Language. In Laurent Itti, Geraint Rees & John K. Tsotsos (eds.), Neurobiology of Attention. Academic Press. 330--336.
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  40. Marisa Carrasco (2005). Transient Covert Attention Increases Contrast Sensitivity and Spatial Resolution: Support for Signal Enhancement. In Laurent Itti, Geraint Rees & John K. Tsotsos (eds.), Neurobiology of Attention. Academic Press. 442--447.
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  41. A. Charles Catania (2005). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Delay-of-Reinforcement Gradients and Other Behavioral Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):419-424.
    Sagvolden, Johansen, Aase, and Russell (Sagvolden et al.) examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at levels of analysis ranging from neurotransmitters to behavior. At the behavioral level they attribute aspects of ADHD to anomalies of delay-of-reinforcement gradients. With a normal gradient, responses followed after a long delay by a reinforcer may share in the effects of that reinforcer; with a diminished or steepened gradient they may fail to do so. Steepened gradients differentially select rapidly emitted responses (hyperactivity), and they limit the effectiveness (...)
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  42. A. Charles Catania (2005). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): One Process or Many? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):446-450.
    Some commentaries suggest that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) theory of this condition does not explain enough. Because the theory includes parameters of the delay gradient that vary across individuals and developmental modulation of behavioral outcomes by different environments, it accommodates a wide range of manifestations of ADHD symptoms. Thus, the argument could instead be made that the theory allows too many degrees of freedom. For many purposes, behavior is better defined in terms of function (e.g., consequences) than in terms of (...)
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  43. Patrick Cavanagh, S. He & James Intriligator (1999). Attentional Resolution: The Grain and Locus of Visual Awareness. In C. Taddei-Ferretti & C. Musio (eds.), Neuronal Basis and Psychological Aspects of Consciousness. World Scientific.
  44. G. Chastain & M. Cheal (1999). Attention Effects of Abrupt-Onset Precues with Central, Single-Element, and Multiple-Element Precues. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):510-528.
    Endogenous and exogenous processes of attention have been inferred with different types of precues used in allocation of attention to a target location. In the present research, a comparison was made between the typical peripheral single-element precue (SEP), a central precue, and a multiple-element precue (MEP) in order to further understanding of the processes involved in allocation of attention. Two precues were used on each trial in these experiments. An abrupt-onset precue appeared with an SEP, an MEP, or a central (...)
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  45. Garvin Chastain (1991). Time-Course of Location Changes of Visual Attention. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (5):425-428.
  46. James A. Cheyne, Jonathan S. A. Carriere & Daniel Smilek (2006). Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Conscious Awareness and Everyday Cognitive Failures. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):578-592.
    A brief self-report scale was developed to assess everyday performance failures arising directly or primarily from brief failures of sustained attention . The ARCES was found to be associated with a more direct measure of propensity to attention lapses and to errors on an existing behavioral measure of sustained attention . Although the ARCES and MAAS were highly correlated, structural modelling revealed the ARCES was more directly related to SART errors and the MAAS to SART RTs, which have been hypothesized (...)
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  47. James Allan Cheyne, Jonathan S. A. Carriere & Daniel Smilek (2009). Absent Minds and Absent Agents: Attention-Lapse Induced Alienation of Agency. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):481-493.
    We report a novel task designed to elicit transient attention-lapse induced alienation of agency experiences in normal participants. When attention-related action slips occur during the task, participants reported substantially decreased self control as well as a high degree of perceived agency attributed to the errant hand. In addition, participants reported being surprised by, and annoyed with, the actions of the errant hand. We argue that ALIA experiences occur because of constraints imposed by the close and precise temporal relations between intention (...)
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  48. Gregory J. Christ (1993). Reply to the Ability of the Sweeping Model to Explain Human Attention. Journal of Mind and Behavior 14 (3):215-222.
    This is a reply to Weinfurt's article examining the Sweeping Model. Overall, our positions are not as incompatible as they may seem, although I feel that his conclusion, that the Sweeping Model cannot explain human attention, does not follow from his comments. I will proceed through his article and clarify issues as they arise. Our difference of opinion may result from differing goals, with Weinfurt being concerned with more abstract aspects of cognition, and myself with basic perception and how it (...)
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  49. M. M. Chun (2005). Contextual Guidance of Visual Attention. In Laurent Itti, Geraint Rees & John K. Tsotsos (eds.), Neurobiology of Attention. Academic Press. 246--250.
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  50. Marvin Chun & Jeremy Wolfe (2001). Visual Attention. In E. B. Goldstein (ed.), Blackwell Handbook of Perception. Blackwell. 2--335.
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