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  1. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2013). Gestalt, Equivalency, and Functional Dependency. Kurt Grelling’s Formal Ontology. In Nikolay Milkov & Volker Peckhaus (eds.), The Berlin Group and the Philosophy of Logical Empiricism. Springer. 245--261.
    In his ontological works Kurt Grelling tries to give a rigorous analysis of the foundations of the so-called Gestalt-psychology. Gestalten are peculiar emergent qualities, ontologically dependent on their foundations, but nonetheless non reducible to them. Grelling shows that this concept, as used in psychology and ontology, is often ambiguous. He distinguishes two important meanings in which the word “Gestalt” is used: Gestalten as structural aspects available to transposition and Gestalten as causally self-regulating wholes. Gestalten in the first meaning are, according (...)
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  2. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2009). Brentano, Marty, and Meinong on Emotions and Values. In Beatrice Centi & Huemer Wolfgang (eds.), Values and Ontology. Ontos. 12--171.
    At least since Hume we have a serious problem with explaining our moral valuations. Most of us – with notable exception of certain (in)famous esoteric thinkers like Nietzsche or De Sade – share a common intuition that our moral claims are in an important sense objective. We believe that they can be right or wrong; and we believe that if they happen to be right, then they are binding for each human being conducting a similar action in similar circumstances. Now (...)
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  3. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2009). Genshogaku-teki na Imi no Riron: Husserl kara Ingarden made. Gendai Shiso (The Review of Contemporary Thought) 37 (16):66-88.
    This is a japanese translation of Arkadiusz Chrudzimski, "Von Brentano zu Ingarden. Die phänomenologische Bedeutungslehre", Husserl Studies 18 (2002), 3, pp. 185-208.
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  4. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2002). Brentano und Meinong. Zur Ontologie der Denkobjekte. In Winfried Löffler (ed.), Substanz und Identität. Beiträge zur Ontologie. Mentis.
    1. Die Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt (1874) Brentanos gilt als das Werk der Theorie der Intentionalität. Brentano macht dort die „intentionale Inexistenz” des Denkobjekts zum Definitionsmerkmal des Psychischen und zugleich zum zentralen Begriff eines einflußreichen Forschungsprogramms. Die Idee der intentionalen Beziehung, die in der Psychologie diese zentrale Stellung genießt, hat jedoch ganz bestimmte Aristotelisch-scholastische Wurzeln und wurde bereits in Brentanos Dissertation (1862) sowie in seiner Habilita¬tions¬schrift (1867) als ein unproblematisches Werzeug der Analyse verwendet. 2. Die Rede von der „objektiven Existenz (...)
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  5. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (1999). Die Theorie der Intentionalität bei Franz Brentano. Grazer Philosophische Studien 57:45-66.
    Bei Brentano finden sich zwei deutlich voneinander abweichende Lehren von der Intentionalität. Beide Theorien der Intentionalität werden im Detail analysiert und mit Freges Theorie von Sinn und Bedeutung verglichen. Die frühe Lehre, wie sie Brentano in seiner Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt einführt, ist eine Objekt-Theorie, bei der gewisse irreale Entitäten als Objekte der Intention fungieren, mit den bekannten kontraintuitiven Aspekten und logischen Anomalien als Folge, die von Brentano durch eine Umformulierung des Begriffs des Objektes der Intention gelöst werden. Diese Theorie (...)
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  6. Haim Gordon (1973). Would Martin Buber Endorse the Buber Model? Educational Theory 23 (3):215-223.
  7. Mordechai Gordon (2011). Listening as Embracing the Other: Martin Buber's Philosophy of Dialogue. Educational Theory 61 (2):207-219.
    In this essay, Mordechai Gordon interprets Martin Buber's ideas on dialogue, presence, and especially his notion of embracing in an attempt to shed some light on Buber's understanding of listening. Gordon argues that in order to understand Buber's conception of listening, one needs to examine this concept in the context of his philosophy of dialogue. More specifically, his contention is that closely examining Buber's notion of embracing the other is critical to making sense of his conception of listening. Gordon's analysis (...)
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  8. Wolfgang Grassl & Barry Smith (eds.) (2010). Austrian Economics: Historical and Philosophical Background. Croom Helm / Routledge.
    First published in 1986 and reprinted in 2010 in the Routledge Revivals series, this book presents the first detailed confrontation between the Austrian school of economics and Austrian philosophy, especially the philosophy of the Brentano school. It contains a study of the roots of Austrian economics in the liberal political theory of the nineteenth-century Hapsburg empire, and a study of the relations between the general theory of value underlying Austrian economics and the new economic approach to human behaviour propounded by (...)
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  9. Thomas Mormann (forthcoming). Frank’s Austrian Reading of the Aufbau. In Veronika Hofer & Michael Stöltzner (eds.), Philipp Frank: Vienna, Prague, Boston. Open Court.
  10. Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith (1988). Mach and Ehrenfels: The Foundations of Gestalt Theory. In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. 1988. 124.
    Ernst Mach's atomistic theory of sensation faces problems in doing justice to our ability to perceive and remember complex phenomena such as melodies and shapes. Christian von Ehrenfels attempted to solve these problems with his theory of "Gestalt qualities", which he sees as entities depending one-sidedly on the corresponding simple objects of sensation. We explore the theory of dependence relations advanced by Ehrenfels and show how it relates to the views on the objects of perception advanced by Husserl and by (...)
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  11. Artur Rojszczak & Barry Smith (2003). Truthmakers, Truthbearers and the Objectivity of Truth. In Jaako Hintikka (ed.), Philosophy and Logic: In Search of the Polish Tradition. Kluwer.
    The aim of this paper is to show that the account of objective truth taken for granted by logicians at least since the publication in 1933 of Tarski’s “The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages” arose out of a tradition of philosophical thinking initiated by Bolzano and Brentano. The paper shows more specifically that certain investigations of states of affairs and other objectual correlates of judging acts, investigations carried out by Austrian and Polish philosophers around the turn of the century, (...)
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  12. Anne Siegetsleitner (2014). Ethik und Moral im Wiener Kreis. Zur Geschichte eines engagierten Humanismus. Böhlau.
    Die vorliegende Schrift unternimmt eine Revision des vorherrschenden Bildes der Rolle und der Konzeptionen von Moral und Ethik im Wiener Kreis. Dieses Bild wird als zu einseitig und undifferenziert zurückgewiesen. Die Ansicht, die Mitglieder des Wiener Kreises hätten kein Interesse an Moral und Ethik gezeigt, wird widerlegt. Viele Mitglieder waren nicht nur moralisch und politisch interessiert, sondern auch engagiert. Des Weiteren vertraten nicht alle die Standardauffassung logisch-empiristischer Ethik, die neben der Anerkennung deskriptiv-empirischer Untersuchungen durch die Ablehnung jeglicher normativer und inhaltlicher (...)
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  13. Peter Simons (1997). Bolzano on Collections. Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:87-108.
    Bolzano's theory of collections (Inbegriffe) has usually been taken as a rudimentary set theory. More recently, Frank Krickel has claimed it is a mereology. I find both interpretations wanting. Bolzano's theory is, as I show, extremely broad in scope; it is in fact a general theory of collective entities, including the concrete wholes of mereology, classes-as-many, and many empirical collections. By extending Bolzano's ideas to embrace the three factors of kind, components and mode of combination, one may develop a coherent (...)
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  14. Barry Smith (2010). Austrian Economics and Austrian Philosophy. In Wolfgang Grassl & Barry Smith (eds.), Austrian Economics and Austrian Philosophy.
    Austrian economics starts out from the thesis that the objects of economic science differ from those of the natural sciences because of the centrality of the economic agent. This allows a certain a priori or essentialistic aspect to economic science of a sort which parallels the a priori dimension of psychology defended by Brentano and his student Edmund Husserl. We outline these parallels, and show how the theory of a priori dependence relations outlined in Husserl’s Logical Investigations can throw light (...)
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  15. Barry Smith (2010). Metaphysics. In Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen (ed.), Metaphysics: Five Questions. Automatic Press.
    Attempts to trace a unifying thread of ontological realism extending through 1. my early writings on Frege, Brentano, Husserl, Wittgenstein, Ingarden and (with Kevin Mulligan and Peter Simons) on truthmakers; 2. work on formal theories of the common-sense world, and on mereotopology, fiat objects, geographical categories, and environments (with David Mark, Roberto Casati, Achille Varzi), to 3. current work on applied ontology in biology and medicine, and on the theory of document acts and on the ontology of information artifacts.
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  16. Barry Smith (2003). Kraus on Weininger, Kraus on Women, Kraus on Serbia. In Wolfgang Huemer & Marc-Oliver Schuster (eds.), Writing the Austrian Traditions: Relations Between Philosophy and Literature, Edmonton:. University of Alberta Press.
    Otto Weininger’s Sex and Character interprets Kant’s categorical imperative in a way which takes it to imply that all human relations, including human sexual relations, are immoral; it is thus in a certain sense impossible to lead a moral life on this earth. We discuss Weininger’s ideas on man, woman, value and intellect, and describe their influence among the Central European intellectuals of his day, including Wittgenstein, and also including Karl Kraus.
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  17. Barry Smith (1999). Kafka et Brentano. Philosophiques 26 (2):349–371.
    Un mince fil dans la vaste littérature sur Kafka concerne la connaissance qu’avait Kafka de la philosophie, et plus précisément l’utilisation, dans les récits de Kafka, de quelques-unes des idées principales de Franz Brentano. Kafka a suivi des cours de philosophie à l’Université Charles, cours donnés par des étudiants de Brentano, Anton Marty et Christian von Ehrenfels. Il fut aussi, pendant plusieurs années, membre d’un groupe de discussion organisé par des partisans orthodoxes de la philosophie brentanienne à Prague. Le présent (...)
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  18. Barry Smith (1994). Filozofia austriacka i dziedzictwo Brentany. Principia 8:19-50.
    A study of the contrasts between Austrian and German philosophy, with special reference to the role of logic and science, of the Brentano School and the Vienna Circle, and of the different ways in which Austrian and German ways of thinking have influenced contemporary analytical and Continental philosophy.
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  19. Barry Smith (1993). The New European Philosophy. In János Kristóf Nyíri & Barry Smith (eds.), Philosophy and Political Change in Eastern Europe. Hegeler Institute.
    The paper seeks to indicate ways in which the crude distinction between Anglo-Saxon and Continental philosophy may have to be amended in light of recent developments in Eastern Europe. As is well known, the philosophy of science is to no small part a product of the universities of the Habsburg Empire (in Vienna, Prague, Lemberg/Lwow, etc.). Logic, too, has played a more significant role in Eastern Europe (not least in Poland) than in the philosophical cultures of Germany or France. For (...)
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  20. Barry Smith (1993). Von T. G. Masaryk Bis Jan Patočka. Eine Philosophische Skizze. In J. Zumr & T. Binder (eds.), T. G. Masaryk und die Brentano-Schule. Czech Academy of Sciences.
    Thomas Garrigue Masaryk, later founder and President of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, studied philosophy in the University of Vienna from 1872 to 1876, where he came under the powerful influence of Franz Brentano. We survey the role of Brentano’s philosophy, and especially of his ethics, in Masaryk’s life and work.
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  21. Barry Smith (1989). Kasimir Twardowski: An Essay on the Borderlines of Psychology, Ontology and Logic. In K. Szaniawski (ed.), The Vienna Circle and the Philosophy of the Lvov-Warsaw School. Kluwer.
    The influence of Kasimir Twardowski on modern Polish philosophy is all-pervasive. As is well known, almost all important 20th century Polish philosophers went through the hard training of his curses in Lvov. Twardowski instilled in his students an enduring concern for clarity and rigour. He taught them to regard philosophy as a collaborative effort, a matter of disciplined discussion and argument. And he encouraged them to work together with scientists from other disciplines — above all with psychologists, and also with (...)
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  22. Barry Smith (1988). Gestalt Theory: An Essay in Philosophy. In , Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia. 11--81.
    The Austrian philosopher Christian von Ehrenfels published his essay "On 'Gestalt Qualities'" in 1890. The essay initiated a current of thought which enjoyed a powerful position in the philosophy and psychology of the first half of this century and has more recently enjoyed a minor resurgence of interest in the area of cognitive science, above all in criticisms of the so-called 'strong programme' in artificial intelligence. The theory of Gestalt is of course associated most specifically with psychologists of the Berlin (...)
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  23. Barry Smith (1986). The Theory of Value of Christian von Ehrenfels. In R. Fabian (ed.), Christian von Ehrenfels: Leben und Werk. Rodopi. 150.
    Christian von Ehrenfels was a student of both Franz Brentano and Carl Menger and his thinking on value theory was inspired both by Brentano’s descriptive psychology and by the subjective theory of economic value advanced by Menger, the founder of the Austrian school of economics. Value, for Ehrenfels, is a function of desire, and we ascribe value to those things which we either do in fact desire, or would desire if we were not convinced of their existence. He asserts that (...)
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  24. Barry Smith (ed.) (1981). Structure and Gestalt: Philosophy and Literature in Austria-Hungary and Her Successor States. Benjamins.
    The majority of the papers in the present volume were presented at, or prepared in conjunction with, meetings of the Seminar for Austro-German Philosophy, a group of philosophers interested in the work of Brentano and Husserl and of the ...
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  25. Barry Smith (1978). Wittgenstein and the Background of Austrian Philosophy. In E. Leinfellner (ed.), Wittgenstein and His Impact on Contemporary Thought. Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky / Reidel.
    Surveys the evidence for an influence of Austrian philosophers – specifically Brentano, Meinong, Husserl, Twardowski and Mach – on the early Wittgenstein. Such influence might either have been direct, for instance through Wittgenstein’s reading of Mach, or indirect, through the mediation of Russell and Moore. The paper concludes by addressing the possible influence of Stumpf and Reinach on Wittgenstein’s technical usage of the term ‘Sachverhalt’ in the Tractatus.
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  26. Monika Wulz (2012). The Material Memory of History: Edgar Zilsel's Epistemology of Historiography. [REVIEW] Studies in East European Thought 64 (1-2):91-105.
    The paper focuses on the concept of matter and the material in Edgar Zilsel’s considerations about historiographical methods in the context of the Marxist debates on the materialist conception of history in the 1920s and 1930s (György Lukács, Max Adler). It sheds light on Zilsel’s understanding of matter as fluctuating, interfering processes in the lapse of time and the related concept of irreversible laws and relates it to Ernst Mach’s philosophy and to Richard Semon’s theory of mneme . Finally, it (...)
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  1. Sean Crawford (2013). The Myth of Logical Behaviourism and the Origins of the Identity Theory. In Michael Beaney (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    The identity theory’s rise to prominence in analytic philosophy of mind during the late 1950s and early 1960s is widely seen as a watershed in the development of physicalism, in the sense that whereas logical behaviourism proposed analytic and a priori ascertainable identities between the meanings of mental and physical-behavioural concepts, the identity theory proposed synthetic and a posteriori knowable identities between mental and physical properties. While this watershed does exist, the standard account of it is misleading, as it is (...)
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  2. W. Grassl & B. Smith (eds.) (1986). Austrian Economics: Historical and Philosophical Background. Helm Croom.
  3. Peter Simons (1995). Meinong's Theory of Sense and Reference. Grazer Philosophische Studien 50:171-186.
    Gilbert Ryle wrote that "Meaning-theory expanded just when and just in so far as it was released from that 'Fido'-Fido box, the lid of which was never even lifted by Meinong". This paper sets out to relieve Ryle's oversimplification about Meinong and the role of meaning theory in his thought. One step away from canine simplicity about meaning is the recognition of a distinction between sense and reference, such as we find in Frege, Husserl, and the early Russell. In Über (...)
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20th Century Austrian Philosophy, Misc
  1. Christian Bonnet & Elisabeth Nemeth (eds.) (forthcoming). Zur Wissenschaftsphilosophie in Frankreich Und Oesterreich in der Ersten Hälfte des 20.Jahrhunderts. Springer.
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  2. Keith Lehrer & Johann Christian Marek (eds.) (1997). Austrian Philosophy, Past and Present. Kluwer.
    This book concerns the history of Austrian philosophy, including the Vienna Circle, Wittgenstein, Meinong, Brentano, and Haller. It exhibits the continuity of empiricism and analysis in Austrian philosophy past and present.
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  3. Thomas Mormann (forthcoming). Wissenschaftliche Philosophie im Exil: Cassirer und der Wiener Kreis nach 1933. In Matthias Neuber (ed.), Husserl, Cassirer, Schlick. "Wissenschaftliche Philosophie im Spannungsfeld von Phänomenologie, Neukantianismus und logischem Empirismus. Springer.
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  4. Thomas Mormann (forthcoming). Morris’ Pariser Programm einer wissenschaftlichen Philosophie. In Christian Bonnet & Elisabeth Nemeth (eds.), Wissenschaft und Praxis. Zur Wissenschaftsphilosophie in Österreich und Frankreich in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Veröffentlichungen Institut Wiener Kreis Bd. 20, Springer.
    Abstract: One of the institutional highlights of the encounter between Austrian “wissen¬schaftliche Philosophie” and French “philosophie scientifique” in the first half of the 20th century was the “First International Congress for Unity of Science” that took place 1935 in Paris. In my contribution I deal with an episode of the philosophical mega-event whose protagonist was the American philosopher and semiotician Charles William Morris. At the Paris congress he presented his programme of a comprehensive, practice-oriented scientific philosophy and, in a more (...)
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  5. Thomas Mormann (2010). Zwischen Weisheit Und Wissenschaft - Schlicks Weites Philosophisches Spektrum. Grazer Philosophische Studien 80:263 - 285.
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  6. Barry Smith (1995). L’Autriche Et la Naissance de la Philosophie Scientifique. Actes de la Recherche En Sciences Sociales 109: 61–71.
    The term ‘Continental philosophy’ designates not philosophy on the continent of Europe as a whole, but rather a selective slice of Franco-German philosophy. Through a critical analysis of the arguments advanced by Otto Neurath, the paper addresses the issue of why Austrian philosophers in particular are not counted in the pantheon of Continental philosophers. Austrian philosophy is marked by the predominance of philosophical analysis and of the philosophy of science. The paper concludes that it is not Austria which is the (...)
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Austrian Philosophy, Misc
  1. Tamás Demeter (ed.) (2004). Essays on Wittgenstein and Austrian Philosophy. Rodopi.
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  2. Tamás Demeter (2004). The Many Faces of Sociological Interpretation: The Unity of Nyíri's Thought. In , Essays on Wittgenstein and Austrian Philosophy. Rodopi. 38--1.
    J.C. Nyíri’s work is well-known for his interpretation of Wittgenstein as a conservative thinker. Nevertheless, his reading of Wittgenstein is only one strand, even if presumably the most influential one, in his general interpretation of Austro-Hungarian philosophy. Therefore his reading of Wittgenstein is best understood if viewed as part of a complex, sociologically inspired picture of Austrian philosophy. In this introductory essay I present Nyíri’s work as an exercise in the sociology of philosophical knowledge, broadly understood, and provide a unified (...)
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  3. Alfred Schramm (1998-1999). Metaphysics, Carnap's Remedy and Mach's Science. Philosophia Scientiae 3 (2):109 - 120.
    Starting from the question of whether Ernst Mach's well-known notion of "Elemente" (elements) must lead to the verdict that the arch-anti-metaphysician himself may be justly accused of holding an essantially metaphysical position, the idea of metaphysical neutrality is explained in Section I. Section II deals with Quine's verdict on abstract entities, among which Mach's elements would have to be counted if there were no way out of the Quinean test. Such a way out, it is proposed in section III, is (...)
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  4. Barry Smith (2005). Wüsteria. Studies in Health Technology and Informatic 116:647–652.
    The last two decades have seen considerable efforts directed towards making Electronic Health Records interoperable through improvements in medical ontologies, terminologies and coding systems. Unfortunately, these efforts have been hampered by a number of influential ideas inherited from the work of Eugen Wüster, the father of terminology standardization and the founder of ISO TC 37. We here survey Wüster’s ideas – which see terminology work as being focused on the classification of concepts in people’s minds – and we argue that (...)
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  5. Barry Smith (2000). Philosophie, Politik und Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Grazer Philosophische Studien 58:241–262.
    Die Entwicklung der Philosophie in Österreich unterscheidet sich in markanter Weise von der Hauptlinie der philosophischen Entwicklung in Deutschland. Dabei fällt bei der österreichischen Philosophie vor allem die konsequente Orientierung an den Wissenschaften auf. In der philosophiegeschichtlichen Forschung sind für diese Besonderheit der österreichischen Philosophie z. B. von Otto Neurath, Rudolf Haller, Friedrich Stadier und J.C. Nyiri verschiedene Erklärungen vorgeschlagen worden. In diesen spielen in jeweils unterschiedlicher Weise Faktoren der spezifisch österreichischen Entwicklungen in historischer, institutioneller, politischer und religiöser Hinsicht eine (...)
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