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Summary Authenticity is the distinctive ethical ideal of modern western societies.  Few people raised in the West will not, at some point in their lives, encounter the injunction: "be true to yourself".  However, it is not at all clear what this ideal amounts to, and philosophers in both Analytic and Continental traditions have been increasingly concerned to make sense of it. One descriptive philosophical puzzle concerns the ontological status of this 'self' to which the authentic person is true.  Perhaps the most important normative question involves the relation of the authentic person to his or her community, which, on some conceptions of authenticity, appears troublingly self-centred or individualistic.  While the literature contains several interesting answers to these (and many other) questions, it is probably fair to say that no one conception of authenticity enjoys widespread acceptance by contemporary philosophers.
Introductions Trilling 1974; Guignon 2004; Adorno 1973; Taylor 1992.
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  1. I. I. I. Abonado (2014). The Emergence of Authentic Human Person in Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche's Philosophy of the Superman: An Hermeneutics Approach to Literary Criticism. Iamure International Journal of Literature, Philosophy and Religion 5.
    The paper interprets Nietzsche’s description of authentic human person.Based on the works of Nietzsche, commentaries and philosophical interpretationsof various authors, authentic human person evolves into a superman by usingthe principles of discipline and mastery of oneself. His authenticity, however,requires persistence, courage and strength to endure many forms of sufferingsand to overcome alienation brought about by his environment. Otherwise,man would become slave of his desires or alien to his own powers, talents andcapacities. Thus, Nietzsche’s thought of superman is an invitation to (...)
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  2. Theodor W. Adorno (1973). The Jargon of Authenticity. Evanston, Ill.,Northwestern University Press.
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  3. Azizah al-Hibri (2014). Developing Islamic Jurisprudence in the Diaspora: Balancing Authenticity, Diversity, and Modernity. Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):7-24.
  4. Joel Anderson (2003). Autonomy and the Authority of Personal Commitments: From Internal Coherence to Social Normativity. Philosophical Explorations 6 (2):90 – 108.
    It has been argued - most prominently in Harry Frankfurt's recent work - that the normative authority of personal commitments derives not from their intrinsic worth but from the way in which one's will is invested in what one cares about. In this essay, I argue that even if this approach is construed broadly and supplemented in various ways, its intrasubjective character leaves it ill-prepared to explain the normative grip of commitments in cases of purported self-betrayal. As an alternative, I (...)
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  5. Joel Anderson (1995). The Persistence of Authenticity. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Social Criticism 21 (1).
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  6. Joel Anderson (1995). Review Essay : The Persistence of Authenticity: Alessandro Ferrara, Modernity and Authenticity: A Study of the Social and Ethical Thought of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Albany, Ny: Suny Press, 1993) Charles Taylor, the Ethics of Authenticity (Cambridge, Ma: Harvard University Press, 1992) [Originally Published as the Malaise of Modernity (Concord, Ontario: House of Anansi Press, 1991)]. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Social Criticism 21 (1):101-109.
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  7. Thomas C. Anderson (1993). Sartre's Two Ethics From Authenticity to Integral Humanity.
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  8. Keith Ansell-Pearson (2010). In Search of Authenticity and Personality. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 84 (2):283-312.
    Throughout Nietzsche’s writings we find discussion of various human maladies and sicknesses, such as the historical malady and decadence, along withvarious conceptions of a possible cure or therapy. In this essay I argue that Nietzsche’s conception of philosophy’s therapeutic role centres on the protection and promotion of authenticity and explore his preoccupation with authentic existence in each one of his three main intellectual periods. After an opening section on therapeia and paideia in Nietzsche, I focus first on writings from his (...)
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  9. Yoav Ariel (1989). SECTION 3. The Authenticity, Date, and Authorship of the KTT. In , K'ung-Ts'ung-Tzu: The K'ung Family Masters' Anthology. Princeton University Press. 56-70.
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  10. John D. Arras (1976). A Critique of Sartrian Authenticity. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 57 (2):171.
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  11. Héctor Oscar Arrese Igor (2011). The Ethics of Authenticity in Being and Time [Spanish]. Eidos 15:118-141.
    In this paper I try to show that Heidegger develops in Being and Time an ethics of the authenticity, which doesn´t consist in the prescription of rules of action, but in a certain attitude, which the Dasein has to adopt toward his own mortality. In relation to this aim I will consider the problems of the state of Verfallenheit, the anxiety and the death as an own possibility. These themes are analyzed from the point of view of the dichotomy that (...)
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  12. B. W. Ballard (1990). Marxist Challenges to Heidegger on Alienation and Authenticity. Man and World 23 (2):121-141.
    From what has been argued, it should now be apparent how Heidegger's philosophy of the affect, its ontological disclosures and its relation to authenticity might be enlarged to meet certain marxist challenges. The most valuable instruction to be gained from these citicisms, I think, is that which Lukacs offers in the example of Szilasi's intuition of co-presence. Traditional phenomenology needs to enrich its investigations into the social and historical reality of situation. Kosik's point that Heideggerian authenticity lacks the crucial third (...)
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  13. Bruce Baugh (1988). Authenticity Revisited. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 46 (4):477-487.
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  14. Rodger Beehler (1990). Freedom and Authenticity. Journal of Applied Philosophy 7 (1):39-44.
    ABSTRACT The essay enquires whether action that authentically expresses the self who acts constitutes freedom. Features of authentic action that tempt toward this assimilation are identified, and a recent theory of freedom that propounds the assimilation is examined. An illustrative example of authentic action in conditions of unfreedom is discussed. Reasons are proposed for judging the equation of freedom with authenticity a mistake. Noted in particular is the error of confusing the subjective condition of authentic choice with the objective circumstance (...)
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  15. Linda A. Bell (1989). Sartre's Ethics of Authenticity. The University of Alabama Press.
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  16. Dana S. Belu (2004). Taylor Carman, Interpretation, Discourse, and Authenticity in Being and Time. Philosophical Inquiry 26 (1-2):99-103.
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  17. Sven Bernecker (2009). Self-Knowledge and the Bounds of Authenticity. Erkenntnis 71 (1):107 - 121.
    This paper criticizes the widespread view whereby a second-order judgment of the form ‘I believe that p ’ qualifies as self-knowledge only if the embedded content, p , is of the same type as the content of the intentional state reflected upon and the self-ascribed attitude, belief, is of the same type as the attitude the subject takes towards p . Rather than requiring identity of contents across levels of cognition self-knowledge requires only that the embedded content of the second-order (...)
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  18. Daniel Berthold-Bond (1991). A Kierkegaardian Critique of Heidegger's Concept of Authenticity. Man and World 24 (2):119-142.
  19. Kenneth C. Bessant (2011). Authenticity, Community, and Modernity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (1):2-32.
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  20. Lauren Bialystok (forthcoming). Authenticity and the Limits of Philosophy. Dialogue:1-28.
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  21. Lauren Bialystok (2011). Refuting Polonius: Sincerity, Authenticity, and 'Shtick'. Philosophical Papers 40 (2):207 - 231.
    Abstract In this paper I probe the kinds of views about selfhood that inform our understanding of sincerity and authenticity and argue that the terms have separate, but related, boundaries. Borrowing Harry Frankfurt's notion of wholeheartedness, I argue that authenticity is a form of alignment or consistency within the self, which requires self-knowledge and intentionality in order to be actualized. Sincerity involves representing oneself truthfully to others but does not depend on the presence of authenticity. I contrast sincerity and authenticity (...)
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  22. Lauren Bialystok (2009). Meaning and Authenticity. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 13 (1):144-147.
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  23. Agata Bielik (1996). Żargon Autentyczności (Charles Taylor, The Ethics of Authenticity). Etyka 29.
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  24. James S. Bielo (2012). Belief, Deconversion, and Authenticity Among US Emerging Evangelicals. Ethos 40 (3):258-276.
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  25. Michelle Boulous Walker (2010). Love, Ethics, and Authenticity: Beauvoir's Lesson in What It Means to Read. Hypatia 25 (2):334-356.
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  26. Jan Bransen (1998). True to Ourselves. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 6 (1):67 – 85.
    The paper addresses the problem of authenticity from a point of view that diverges from the more usual social, political, or moral approaches, by focusing very explicitly on the internal psychological make-up of human agents in an attempt to identify the conditions that would enable us to use the colloquial phrase 'being true to ourselves' in a way that is philosophically tenable. First, it is argued that the most important and problematic condition is the requirement that agents can be the (...)
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  27. David O. Brink (2003). Prudence and Authenticity: Intrapersonal Conflicts of Value. Philosophical Review 112 (2):215-245.
    Prudence and authenticity are sometimes seen as rival virtues. Prudence,as traditionally conceived, is temporally neutral. It attaches no intrinsic significance to the temporal location of benefits or harms within the agent’s life; the prudent agent should be equally concerned about all parts of her life. But people’s values and ideals often change over time, sometimes in predictable ways, as when middle age and parenthood often temporize youthful radicalism or spontaneity with concerns for comfort,security, and predictability. In situations involving diachronic, intrapersonal (...)
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  28. Garry M. Brodsky (1985). Authenticity and Learning. Review of Metaphysics 38 (4):883-884.
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  29. Sarah Buss (2013). Accountability, Integrity, Authenticity, and Self-Legislation: Reflections on Ruediger Bittner's Reflections on Autonomy. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis:1-14.
    In this paper I consider three widespread assumptions: (1) the assumption that we are accountable for our intentional actions only if they are in some special sense ours; (2) the assumption that it is possible for us to be more or less “true to” ourselves, and that we are flawed human beings to the extent that we lack “integrity”; and (3) the assumption that we can sometimes give ourselves reasons by giving ourselves commands. I acknowledge that, as Ruediger Bittner has (...)
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  30. A. T. Campbell, S. F. Derrington, D. M. Hester & C. D. Lew (2011). Her Own Decision: Impairment and Authenticity in Adolescence. Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (1):47-55.
    This case describes an adolescent in a crisis of a chronic medical condition whose situation is complicated by substance abuse and mental illness. D. Micah Hester provides an analytic approach, teasing apart the multiple layers of medical, developmental, and moral issues at hand and describing possible responses and outcomes. Amy T. Campbell examines existing legal guidelines for adolescent decision making, arguing that greater space exists for clinical discretion in these matters than commonly thought. Cheryl D. Lew discusses the development of (...)
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  31. Thiebaut Carlos (1997). The Logic of Autonomy and the Logic of Authenticity. A Two-Tiered Conception of Moral Subjectivity. Philosophy and Social Criticism 23 (3).
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  32. Paul Carron & Anne-Marie Schultz (2014). The Virtuous Ensemble: Socratic Harmony and Psychological Authenticity. Southwest Philosophy Review 30 (1):127-136.
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  33. Paul Carus (1901). The Authenticity of The. The Monist 11 (4):574-601.
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  34. Chris Chandler, Jeff Brooks, Ryan Mulvaney & W. Pitt Derryberry (2009). Addressing the Relationships Among Moral Judgment Development, Authenticity, Nonprejudice, and Volunteerism. Ethics and Behavior 19 (3):201-217.
    This study addresses how moral judgment development, authenticity, and nonprejudice account for variance in scores pertaining to various motivational functions underlying volunteerism in order to clarify certain problems associated with previous research that has considered such relationships. In the study, 127 participants completed measurements that pertain to these constructs. Correlations revealed that moral judgment had a negligible relationship with both authenticity and nonprejudice, thereby affirming that the former construct is distinct from the latter two. Linear regression analyses supported that moral (...)
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  35. Maeve Cooke (1997). Authenticity and Autonomy: Taylor, Habermas, and the Politics of Recognition. Political Theory 25 (2):258-288.
  36. John Cottingham (2010). Integrity and Fragmentation. Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):2-14.
    The virtue of integrity does not appear explicitly in either the Aristotelian or the Judaeo- Christian list of virtues, but elements of both ethical systems implicitly acknowledge the importance of a unified and integrated life. This paper argues that integrity is indispensible for a good human life; the fragmented or compartmentalized life is always subject to instability, in so far as unresolved psychological conflicts and tensions may threaten to derail our ethical plans and projects. Achieving a stable and integrated life (...)
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  37. Denis Crnković (2009). Nil Sorsky: The Authentic Writings. [REVIEW] The Medieval Review 10.
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  38. Christine Daigle (2010). The Ethics of Authenticity. In Jonathan Webber (ed.), Reading Sartre: On Phenomenology and Existentialism. Routledge.
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  39. Jennifer Davis (2009). Brian J. Braman, Meaning and Authenticity: Bernard Lonergan & Charles Taylor on the Drama of Authentic Human Existence. Philosophy in Review 29 (6):397.
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  40. Stephen A. Dinan (1998). Thomas C. Anderson, Sartre's Two Ethics: From Authenticity to Integral Humanity. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 31 (4):435-440.
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  41. Mark J. Doorley (2001). To Thine Own Self Be True: Self-Appropriation and Human Authenticity. In Laura Duhan Kaplan (ed.), Philosophy and Everyday Life. Seven Bridges Press. 19.
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  42. Pieter Duvenage (2004). Review Essay: Alessandro Ferrara’s Reflective Authenticity: Rethinking the Project of Modernity. Philosophy and Social Criticism 30 (1):127-134.
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  43. Jenny Edkins (2001). Authenticity and Memory at Dachau. Cultural Values 5 (4):405-420.
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  44. Laura W. Ekstrom (2010). Ambivalence and Authentic Agency. Ratio 23 (4):374-392.
    It is common to believe that some of our concerns are deeper concerns of ours than are others and that some of our attitudes are central rather than peripheral to our psychological identity. What is the best approach to characterizing depth or centrality to the self? This paper addresses the matter of the depth and authenticity of attitudes and the relation of this matter to the autonomy of action. It defends a conception of the real self in terms of preferences (...)
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  45. Ralph D. Ellis (2009). Emotional Authenticity as a Central Basis of Moral Psychology. In Mikko Salmela & Verena Mayer (eds.), Emotions, Ethics, and Authenticity. John Benjamins. 5--179.
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  46. Kimberly S. Engels (2014). Bad Faith, Authenticity, and Responsibilities to Future Generations: A Sartrean Approach. Environmental Ethics 36 (4):455-470.
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  47. Michael Ewbank (1993). Tradition and Authenticity. Review of Metaphysics 47 (2):374-375.
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  48. Elizabeth Ewing (1995). Authenticity in Heidegger: A Response to Dreyfus. Inquiry 38 (4):469 – 487.
    In his book, Being?in?the?World: A Commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time, Division I, Hubert Dreyfus argues that Heidegger's concept of authenticity is incomprehensible. He maintains that there are two conflicting accounts of inauthenticity in Being and Time. He elucidates what he calls the ?structural account? of inauthenticity and being?in?the?world in the main body of his work, and then criticizes what he calls the ?motivational account? in an Appendix. Because he overlooks certain textual evidence and underemphasizes fleeing and the role of (...)
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  49. Simon Feldman (2014). Against Authenticity: Why You Shouldn't Be Yourself. Lexington Books.
    Simon Feldman explores how the concept of authenticity has become an unrealistic ideal founded on metaphysically confused notions of the self. In Against Authenticity, Feldman argues for the validity and value of inauthenticity in our lives, providing an exciting challenge for studies of ethics, metaethics, metaphysics, and moral psychology.
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  50. Simon D. Feldman & Allan Hazlett, In Defense of Ambivalence.
    Harry Frankfurt (1988, 1998, 2004) defends an ethical ideal of wholeheartedness. We follow Frankfurt in distinguishing between ambivalence (a species of incoherence in desire) and wholeheartedness (the absence of ambivalence), but part ways with him by arguing against the idea that wholeheartedness is an ethical ideal. Our argument is based on cases of ethically valuable ambivalence – cases in which ambivalence contributes to the wellbeing of the ambivalent person.
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