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Summary Given its popularity in contemporary philosophy, it is not surprising that autonomy is discussed often in applied ethics.  Many believe that in medical ethics, for one example, doctors and other medical practitioners must always protect and respect their patient's autonomy.  Others insist that patients can't really have (very much) autonomy in a medical setting since the power and knowledge difference between they and the practitioners is so extensive.  Given these sorts of thoughts, it is not only Kantian applied ethicists that show concern with this central value.  Moreover, it is not only in medical ethics, but also in legal ethics, military ethics, and elsewhere that the value is important.  Interestingly, it is now also a moral issue whether robots can be autonomous in any sense that matters for their ethical use.  (We already use robots that are "autonomous" in the weak sense that they can perform their programmed events without anyone commanding then, once they are turned on.)
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  1. &Na (2013). Advance Practice Registered Nurse Intended Actions Toward Patient-Directed Dying. Jona’s Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 15 (2):89-90.
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  2. &Na (2013). Informed Consent. Jonaʼs Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 15 (4):145-146.
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  3. &Na (2011). Is It Ethical to Do Dialysis But Not Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation? Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 13 (2):53-54.
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  4. &Na (2010). A Review of Basic Patient Rights in Psychiatric Care. [REVIEW] Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 12 (4):126-127.
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  5. &Na (2008). Do Psychiatric Advance Directives Protect Autonomy? Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 10 (1):25-26.
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  6. &Na (2007). Minors' Rights in Medical Decision Making. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 9 (3):105-106.
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  7. &Na (2007). The Patient Self-Determination Act. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 9 (4):132-133.
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  8. &Na (2006). When Parents Refuse Treatment for Their Child. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 8 (1):10-11.
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  9. Philip Q. Yang * & Nihan Kayaardi (2004). Who Chooses Non‐Public Schools for Their Children? Educational Studies 30 (3):231-249.
    Using the pooled 1998?2000 GSS data, this study examines what kinds of parents tend to select non?public schools for their children, a question that is fundamental but lacks direct, adequate answers in the literature. The results of logistic regression analysis show that religion, socio?economic status, age, nativity, number of children and region play significant roles in parental choice of religious schools, but race, gender, urban residence and family composition make no difference. Parental socio?economic status is a key factor in determining (...)
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  10. Hanan A. Sultan (2013). Legalization and Islamic Bioethical Perspectives on Prenatal Diagnosis and Advanced Uses of Pre Implantation Genetic Diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 1 (S1).
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  11. E. M. Aasen, M. Kvangarsnes & K. Heggen (2012). Nurses' Perceptions of Patient Participation in Hemodialysis Treatment. Nursing Ethics 19 (3):419-430.
    The aim of this study is to explore how nurses perceive patient participations of patients over 75 years old undergoing hemodialysis treatment in dialysis units, and of their next of kin. Ten nurses told stories about what happened in the dialysis units. These stories were analyzed with critical discourse analysis. Three discursive practices are found: (1) the nurses’ power and control; (2) sharing power with the patient; and (3) transferring power to the next of kin. The first and the predominant (...)
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  12. Teresa Abada & Eric Y. Tenkorang (2012). Women's Autonomy and Unintended Pregnancies in the Philippines. Journal of Biosocial Science 44 (6):703-718.
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  13. George Abaunza (2009). Overindulgence: The Nemesis of Happiness. Veritas: Revista de Filosofia da PUCRS 54 (1):69-88.
    This article brings to light some of the characteristics of the pervasive parental overpermissiveness and hyper-protectionism that unfortunately have made their way into our culture. With the aid of philosophers of education, such as Locke, Rousseau, and Dewey, I expose the corrosive effects that parental overindulgence has on the potential happiness of those in their charge, as well as on those who share their social space. As these philosophers warned long ago, by overindulging their desires, parents either overextend their children’s (...)
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  14. G. J. M. Abbarno (2001). Huckstering in the Classroom: Limits to Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 32 (2):179 - 189.
    The familiar issue of corporate social responsibility takes on a new topic. Added to the list of concerns from affirmative action and environmental integrity is their growing contributions to education. At first glance, the efforts may appear to be ordinary gestures of communal good will in terms of providing computers, sponsoring book covers, and interactive materials provided by Scholastic Magazine. A closer view reveals a targeted market of student life who are vulnerable to commercials placed in these formats. Among the (...)
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  15. Giampaolo Abbate (2012). On the Principle of Any Domination. Aristotle's Reasons Why Slavery is by Nature and for the Better. Astrolabio: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 13:1-16.
    Aristotle�s account on natural slavery is neither misleading nor paradoxical, but plausible even though controversial, unlike many commentators think of. On his view natural masters are essentially the virtuous people, viz. those who have been perfected in their process of growing, and natural slaves are essentially the vicious people, viz. those who have been injured or corrupted in some way in their growing up so as to suffer from a lack of autonomous practical rationality. Of course, many barbarians are in (...)
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  16. H. E. Abdulhameed, M. M. Hammami & E. A. Hameed Mohamed (2011). Disclosure of Terminal Illness to Patients and Families: Diversity of Governing Codes in 14 Islamic Countries. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):472-475.
    Background The consistency of codes governing disclosure of terminal illness to patients and families in Islamic countries has not been studied until now. Objectives To review available codes on disclosure of terminal illness in Islamic countries. Data source and extraction Data were extracted through searches on Google and PubMed. Codes related to disclosure of terminal illness to patients or families were abstracted, and then classified independently by the three authors. Data synthesis Codes for 14 Islamic countries were located. Five codes (...)
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  17. Tineke A. Abma, Barth Oeseburg, Guy Am Widdershoven, Minke Goldsteen & Marian A. Verkerk (2005). Two Women with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Caregivers: Conflicting Normative Expectations. Nursing Ethics 12 (5):479-492.
    It is not uncommon that nurses are unable to meet the normative expectations of chronically ill patients. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate Walker’s expressive-collaborative view of morality to interpret the normative expectations of two women with multiple sclerosis. Both women present themselves as autonomous persons who make their own choices, but who also have to rely on others for many aspects of their lives, for example, to find a new balance between work and social contacts (...)
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  18. Tineke Abma, Anne Bruijn, Tinie Kardol, Jos Schols & Guy Widdershoven (2012). Responsibilities in Elderly Care: Mr Powell's Narrative of Duty and Relations. Bioethics 26 (1):22-31.
    In Western countries a considerable number of older people move to a residential home when their health declines. Institutionalization often results in increased dependence, inactivity and loss of identity or self-worth (dignity). This raises the moral question as to how older, institutionalized people can remain autonomous as far as continuing to live in line with their own values is concerned. Following Walker's meta-ethical framework on the assignment of responsibilities, we suggest that instead of directing all older people towards more autonomy (...)
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  19. Hanan Aboumatar, Mary Catherine Beach, Ting Yang, Emily Branyon, Lindsay Forbes & Jeremy Sugarman (2015). Measuring Patients’ Experiences of Respect and Dignity in the Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Study. Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 5 (1A):69A-84A.
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  20. Terrence F. Ackerman (1984). Medical Ethics and the Two Dogmas of Liberalism. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (1).
    Two dogmas of liberalism in the therapeutic setting are challenged: (1) that patients have a ready-made ability to act autonomously; and (2) that non-intervention by physicians is the best strategy for protecting the autonomy of patients. Recognition of the impact of illness upon autonomous behavior forms the basis of this challenge. It is suggested that autonomy is better conceived as a process of personal growth by which patients become better able to overcome the disruptive effects of illness. The physician is (...)
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  21. Terrence F. Ackerman (1980). Moral Duties of Parents and Nontherapeutic Clinical Research Procedures Involving Children. Bioethics Quarterly 2 (2):94-111.
    Shared views regarding the moral respect which is owed to children in family life are used as a guide in determining the moral permissibility of nontherapeutic clinical research procedures involving children. The comparison suggests that it is not appropriate to seek assent from the preadolescent child. The analogy with interventions used in family life is similarly employed to specify the permissible limit of risk to which children may be exposed in nontherapeutic research procedures. The analysis indicates that recent writers misconceive (...)
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  22. Harry Adams (2008). Justice for Children: Autonomy Development and the State. State University of New York Press.
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  23. Richard Adams (2013). Moral Autonomy in Australian Legislation and Military Doctrine. Ethics and Global Politics 6 (3):135-154.
    "Australian legislation and military doctrine stipulate that soldiers ‘subjugate their will’ to" "government, and fight in any war the government declares. Neither legislation nor doctrine enables the conscience of soldiers. Together, provisions of legislation and doctrine seem to take soldiers for granted. And, rather than strengthening the military instrument, the convention of legislation and doctrine seems to weaken the democratic foundations upon which the military may be shaped as a force for justice. Denied liberty of their conscience, soldiers are denied (...)
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  24. Kathryn Pyne Addelson (1987). Autonomy and Respect. Journal of Philosophy 84 (11):628-629.
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  25. Olujide A. Adekeye, Adolescents and the HIV Pandemic.
    This study highlighted the importance of counselling adolescents on HIV/AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases. The study presents an overview of the dreaded disease-AIDS, which is a condition that is associated with infection of the immune system. Adolescents are the target group of this paper because they are the most vulnerable. It is evidenced that sexually transmitted diseases are on the increase and so is unplanned pregnancy among adolescents. The problem affects all aspects of life of the adolescents . Also, (...)
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  26. T. Adorno & H. Becker (1983). Education for Autonomy. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 1983 (56):103-110.
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  27. Theodor W. Adorno (1983). Education for Autonomy. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 56:103.
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  28. Anders Ågård, Ethical Issues in Cardiology Patients' Views of Information and Decision-Making.
    The over-riding aim of this thesis was to obtain a deeper understanding of the way patients with cardiac problems view both information related to their health and medical decisions and their role in decision-making processes. An important objective was to identify reasons why patients do not ask for or assimilate information or why they do not want or feel that they are able to influence medical decisions. The starting point for the investigations was five ethical problem areas in cardiology practice. (...)
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  29. Ellen Agard, Daniel Finkelstein & Edward Wallach (1998). Cultural Diversity and Informed Consent. Journal of Clinical Ethics 9 (2):173.
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  30. G. Agich & M. Battin (2008). Dependence and Autonomy in Old Age; An Ethical Framework for Long-Term Care 2nd. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (3):347-351.
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  31. George J. Agich (2010). Why I Wrote … Dependence and Autonomy in Old Age. Clinical Ethics 5 (2):108-110.
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  32. George J. Agich (2007). 2. Autonomy as a Problem for Clinical Ethics. In Thomas Nys, Yvonne Denier & T. Vandevelde (eds.), Autonomy & Paternalism: Reflections on the Theory and Practice of Health Care. Peeters. 5--71.
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  33. George J. Agich (2004). Seeking the Everyday Meaning of Autonomy in Neurologic Disorders. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (4):295-298.
  34. George J. Agich (2003). Dependence and Autonomy in Old Age an Ethical Framework for Long-Term Care. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  35. George J. Agich (1993). Autonomy and Long-Term Care. Oxford University Press.
    The realities and myths of long-term care and the challenges it poses for the ethics of autonomy are analyzed in this perceptive work. The book defends the concept of autonomy, but argues that the standard view of autonomy as non-interference and independence has only a limited applicability for long term care. The treatment of actual autonomy stresses the developmental and social nature of human persons and the priority of identification over autonomous choice. The work balances analysis of the ethical concepts (...)
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  36. George J. Agich (1990). Reassessing Autonomy in Long‐Term Care. Hastings Center Report 20 (6):12-17.
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  37. George J. Agich (1990). Rationing and Professional Autonomy. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 18 (1-2):77-84.
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  38. George J. Agich (1987). Incentives and Obligations Under Prospective Payment. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (2):123-144.
    In this paper I analyze the alleged conflict between economic incentives to efficiently utilize health care resources and the obligation to provide patients with the best possible medical care. My analysis is developed in four stages. First, I discuss briefly the nature of prospective payment systems and economic incentives as well as the issue of professional autonomy. Second, I disscuss the notion of an incentive for action both as an economic incentive and as a concept of moral psychology. Third, I (...)
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  39. George J. Agich (1985). Roles and Responsibilities: Theoretical Issues in the Definition of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (2):105-126.
    Central to much medical ethical analysis is the concept of the role of the physician. While this concept plays an important role in medical ethics, its function is largely tacit. The present paper attempts to bring the concept of a social role to prominence by focusing on an historically recent and rather richly contextured role, namely, that of consultation liaison psychiatry. Since my intention is primarily theoretical, I largely ignore the empirical studies which purport to develop the detailed functioning of (...)
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  40. George J. Agich & Heidi Forster (2000). Conflicts of Interest and Management in Managed Care. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (02):189-204.
    The bioethics literature on managed care has devoted significant attention to a broad range of conflicts that managed care is perceived to have introduced into the practice of medicine. In the first part of this paper we discuss three kinds of conflict of interest: conflicts of economic incentives, conflicts with patient and physician autonomy, and conflicts with the fiduciary character of the physician–patient relationship. We argue that the conflicts are either not as serious as they are often alleged to be (...)
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  41. George J. Agich & Trans-Disciplinary Symposium on Philosophy And Medicine (1982). Responsibility in Health Care.
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  42. Kari Milch Agledahl, Reidun Førde & Åge Wifstad (2011). Choice is Not the Issue. The Misrepresentation of Healthcare in Bioethical Discourse. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):212-215.
    Next SectionThe principle of respect for autonomy has shaped much of the bioethics' discourse over the last 50 years, and is now most commonly used in the meaning of respecting autonomous choice. This is probably related to the influential concept of informed consent, which originated in research ethics and was soon also applied to the field of clinical medicine. But while available choices in medical research are well defined, this is rarely the case in healthcare. Consideration of ordinary medical practice (...)
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  43. Kenneth A. Agu, Emmanuel I. Obi, Boniface I. Eze & Wilfred O. Okenwa (2014). Attitude Towards Informed Consent Practice in a Developing Country: A Community-Based Assessment of the Role of Educational Status. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):77.
    It has been reported by some studies that the desire to be involved in decisions concerning one’s healthcare especially with regard to obtaining informed consent is related to educational status. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the influence of educational status on attitude towards informed consent practice in three south-eastern Nigerian communities.
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  44. Jove Jim S. Aguas (2009). Aquinas and Wojtyla on the Human Person and Human Dignity. Budhi: A Journal of Ideas and Culture 13 (1-3).
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  45. William K. A. Agyei (1984). Family Planning in Lae Urban Area of Papua New Guinea 1981. Journal of Biosocial Science 16 (2):269-275.
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  46. Aviram Aharon (2000). Beyond Constructivism: Autonomy-Oriented Educaton. Studies in Philosophy and Education 19.
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  47. Aziza Ahmed (2015). Informed Decision Making and Abortion: Crisis Pregnancy Centers, Informed Consent, and the First Amendment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):51-58.
    Shifting laws and regulations increasingly displace the centrality of women's health concerns in the provision of abortion services. This is exemplified by the growing presence of deceptive Crisis Pregnancy Centers alongside new informed consent laws designed to dissuade women from seeking abortions. Litigation on informed consent is further complicated in the clinical context due to the increased mobilization of facts – such as the gestational age or sonogram of the fetus – delivered with the intent to dissuade women from accessing (...)
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  48. Ken Aizawa & Carl Gillett, &Amp.
    Over fifty years ago, H.M. was treated for chronic epilepsy by a bilateral hippocampectomy. Among the lasting side effects of this treatment was that H.M. could no longer form certain types of long term memories, although he could form others. One of the many morals philosophers and psychologists have sometimes drawn from this sad case (and others) is that information about the brain can be used to guide theorizing about the mind. More specifically, it has been claimed that differences in (...)
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  49. A. Akabayashi, M. D. Fetters & T. S. Elwyn (1999). Family Consent, Communication, and Advance Directives for Cancer Disclosure: A Japanese Case and Discussion. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (4):296-301.
    The dilemma of whether and how to disclose a diagnosis of cancer or of any other terminal illness continues to be a subject of worldwide interest. We present the case of a 62-year-old Japanese woman afflicted with advanced gall bladder cancer who had previously expressed a preference not to be told a diagnosis of cancer. The treating physician revealed the diagnosis to the family first, and then told the patient: "You don't have any cancer yet, but if we don't treat (...)
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  50. Sahin Aksoy (2000). Can Euthanasia Be Part of ‘Good-Doctoring? Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 10 (5):152-153.
    Euthanasia is a popular subject that health care professionals, lawyers and theologians has dealt with for a long time. While it was an extreme and exceptional case to support and argue in favour of euthanasia among health care professionals and lay public, it becomes more and more common to see supporters of this act especially among health care professionals.In this article euthanasia is examined from different perspectives, and tried to draw a conclusion that may be helpful to clarify our thinking (...)
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