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  1. Helen Beebee & Julian Dodd (eds.) (2005). Truthmakers: The Contemporary Debate. Clarendon.
    This volume will be the starting point for future discussion and research.
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  2. Stefano Borgo, Noemi Spagnoletti, Laure Vieu & Elisabetta Visalberghi (2013). Artifact and Artifact Categorization: Comparing Humans and Capuchin Monkeys. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):375-389.
    We aim to show that far-related primates like humans and the capuchin monkeys show interesting correspondences in terms of artifact characterization and categorization. We investigate this issue by using a philosophically-inspired definition of physical artifact which, developed for human artifacts, turns out to be applicable for cross-species comparison. In this approach an artifact is created when an entity is intentionally selected and some capacities attributed to it (often characterizing a purpose). Behavioral studies suggest that this notion of artifact is not (...)
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  3. Alex Byrne (1994). Behaviorism. In Samuel Guttenplan (ed.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind. Blackwell.
    Introductory texts in the philosophy of mind often begin with a discussion of behaviourism, presented as one of the few theories of mind that have been conclusively refuted. But matters are not that simple: behaviourism, in one form or another, is still alive and kicking.
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  4. Randall K. Campbell (1991). Nonnomic Properties of Stimuli and Psychological Explanation. Behavior and Philosophy 19 (1):77 - 92.
    Recently there has been a great deal of argument about what justifies references to representational states in explanations of behavior. I discuss Jerry Fodor's claim that it is necessary to ascribe representational states to organisms that respond to "nonnomic properties" of stimuli. Zenon Pylyshyn's (apparently equivalent) claim that it is necessary to ascribe representational states to organisms that respond to "nonprojectable properties" of stimuli and Fodor's claim that an organism's ability to respond to nonnomic properties of stimuli is a criterion (...)
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  5. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2014). Minds as Social Institutions. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):121-143.
    I will first discuss how social interactions organize, coordinate, and specialize as “artifacts,” tools; how these tools are not only for coordination but for achieving something, for some outcome (goal/function), for a collective work. In particular, I will argue that these artifacts specify (predict and prescribe) the mental contents of the participants, both in terms of beliefs and acceptances and in terms of motives and plans. We have to revise the behavioristic view of “scripts” and “roles”; when we play a (...)
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  6. Alan Costall (1980). The Limits of Language: Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy and Skinner's Radical Behaviorism. Behaviorism 8 (2):123-131.
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  7. George Englebretsen (1974). Behaviorism and Perception. Man and World 7 (2):149-157.
  8. Gordon R. Foxall (2008). Intentional Behaviorism Revisited. Behavior and Philosophy 36:113 - 155.
    The central fact in the delineation of radical behaviorism is its conceptual avoidance of propositional content. This eschewal of the intentional stance sets it apart not only from cognitivism but from other non-behaviorisms. Indeed, the defining characteristic of radical behaviorism is not that it avoids mediating processes per se but that it sets out to account for behavior without recourse to propositional attitudes. Based, rather, on the contextual stance, it provides definitions of contingency-shaped, rule-governed verbal and private behaviors which are (...)
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  9. Gordon R. Foxall (2007). Intentional Behaviorism. Behavior and Philosophy 35:1 - 55.
    Two of the leading contenders to explain behavior are radical behaviorism and intentionality: an account that seeks to confine itself to descriptions of response–environment correlations and one that employs the language of beliefs and desires to explicate its subject matter. While each claims an exclusive right to undertake this task, this paper argues that neither can be eliminated from a complete explanatory account of human behavior. The behavior analysis derived from radical behaviorism is generally sufficient for the prediction and control (...)
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  10. Gordon R. Foxall & Jorge M. Oliveira-Castro (2009). Intentional Consequences of Self-Instruction. Behavior and Philosophy 37:87 - 104.
    Discrepancies between animal and human responding on standard schedules of reinforcement have been explained by reference to the human capacity for language and consequent formulation of self-instructions. As a result, schedule responding has been causally attributed to private events. However, the operations that individuals are assumed to carry out in the formulation of self-instructions cannot be described other than intentionally and this raises important issues of explanation for an extensional behavioral science. It is argued that radical behaviorism is ultimately dependent (...)
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  11. Joseph Germana (1980). Wittgenstein Zen. Behaviorism 8:149-150.
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  12. Joseph Germana (1977). Wittgenstein/WITTGENSTEIN. Behaviorism 5 (1):61-62.
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  13. Israel Goldiamond (1976). Your Use of the JSTOR Archive Indicates Your Acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, Available At. Behaviorism 4 (1):1-41.
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  14. Israel Goldiamond (1975). Alternative Sets as a Framework for Behavioral Formulations and Research. Behaviorism 3 (1):49-86.
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  15. Israel Goldiamond (1973). Toward a Constructional Approach to Social Problems: Ethical and Constitutional Issues Raised by Applied Behavior Analysis. Behaviorism 2 (1):1-84.
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  16. I. Gormezano & S. R. Coleman (1985). An Essay Review of Mechanisms of Adaptive Behavior: Clark L. Hull's Theoretical Papers, with Commentary, Edited by A. Amsel and M. E. Rashotte. Columbia University Press: New York. 1984. Behaviorism 13 (2):171-182.
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  17. George Graham (1982). Spartans and Behaviorists. Behaviorism 10 (2):137-149.
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  18. George Graham (1977). On What is Good: A Study of BF Skinner's Operant Behaviorist View. Behaviorism 5 (2):97-112.
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  19. George Graham & Peter Killeen (1985). Behaviorism: The Next Generation. Behaviorism 13 (1):1-2.
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  20. Samuel D. Guttenplan (ed.) (1994). A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind. Cambridge: Blackwell.
  21. Frank Hammonds (2010). Is Justified True Behavior Knowledge?. Behavior and Philosophy 38:49-59.
    Edmund Gettier (1963) argued against defining knowledge as justified true belief. Using two examples, he demonstrated that (a) believing a proposition to be true, (b) having justification for that belief, and (c) the proposition in fact being true, do not constitute sufficient conditions for one to be said to know the proposition. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the utility of a behavioral definition of justified true belief. I will define “justified,” “true,” and “belief” in behavioral terms. Then (...)
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  22. Forest Hansen (1979). A Critique of the Epistemological Skepticism of Campbell's Phenomenological Behavorist Psychology. Behaviorism 7 (2):65-84.
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  23. Steven C. Hayes (1984). Making Sense of Spirituality. Behaviorism 12 (2):99-110.
    In ordinary language a clear distinction is made between the world of matter and that of spirit. While dualism is typically thought to be incompatible with behaviorism, a behavioral analysis of self-awareness suggests that there are good reasons for dualistic talk. Reputed qualities of both the spiritual aspect of humans and of a metaphysical God seem to flow naturally from the analysis. The use of the spiritual facet of self in therapy is briefly discussed.
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  24. Steven C. Hayes & Aaron J. Brownstein (1985). Mentalism and the" as-yet Unexplained": A Reply to Killeen. Behaviorism 13 (2):151-154.
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  25. Steven C. Hayes & Roger F. Maley (1977). Your Use of the JSTOR Archive Indicates Your Acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, Available At. Behaviorism 5 (2):87-95.
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  26. Philip N. Hineline (1980). The Language of Behavior Analysis: Its Community, its Functions, and its Limitations. Behaviorism 8 (1):67-86.
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  27. Max Hocutt (2009). Private Events. Behavior and Philosophy 37:105 - 117.
    What are "private events" and what is their significance? The term is B. F. Skinner's, but the idea is much older. Before J. B. Watson challenged their methods and their metaphysics, virtually all psychologists assumed that the only way to discover a person's supposedly private states of mind was to ask her about them. Not a believer in minds, Skinner nevertheless agreed that sensations, feelings, and certain unspecified forms of "covert behavior" cannot be observed by others, because they take place (...)
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  28. Max Hocutt (2009). Values: A Reply to Staddon's "Faith and Goodness". Behavior and Philosophy 37:187 - 194.
    In his spirited "Faith and Goodness" (this issue), John Staddon says that my defense of B. F. Skinner's definition of the good—as what has the potential to reinforce desire for it—overlooks the fact that people sometimes desire the wrong things. Staddon appears to agree with G. E. Moore that the good should, rather, be equated with what is worthy of being desired, so ought to be desired, whether it ever is desired or not. But since there is no objective test (...)
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  29. Max Hocutt (2007). Gordon Foxall on Intentional Behaviorism. Behavior and Philosophy 35:77 - 92.
    "Intentional behaviorism" is Gordon Foxall's name for his proposal to mix the oil of mentalist language with the water of empiricist behaviorism. The trouble is, oil and water don't mix. To remain scientific, the language of behavioral science must remain non-mental. Folk psychological ascriptions of belief and desire do not explain the patterns of behavior identified by behavior analysis; they merely describe these patterns in less scientific language. The underpinnings of these patterns, if not intentionality, must be sought in physiology, (...)
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  30. Max Hocutt (1985). The Truth in Behaviorism: A Review of Ge Zuriff, Behaviorism: A Conceptual Reconstr Uction. [REVIEW] Behaviorism 13 (1):77.
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  31. Richard T. Hull (1974). Psycho-Physical Correlations and Ontology: A Reply to Shaffer. Behaviorism 2 (2):194-199.
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  32. Lisa M. Johnson & Edward K. Morris (1987). When Speaking of Probability in Behavior Analysis. Behaviorism 15 (2):107-129.
    Probability is not an unambiguous concept within the sciences or in vernacular language, yet it is fundamental to much of behavior analysis. The present paper examines some problems this ambiguity creates in general,as well as within the experimental analysis of behavior, in particular. As background material, we first introduce the three most common theories of probability in mathematics and science, discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and their relevance to behavior analysis. Next, we discuss the concept of probability as encountered in (...)
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  33. Peter R. Killeen (1984). Emergent Behaviorism. Behaviorism 12 (2):25-39.
    In this article I examine Skinner's objections to mentalism. I conclude that his only valid objections concern the "specious explanations" that mentalism might afford ? explanations that are incomplete, circular, or faulty in other ways. Unfortunately, the mere adoption of behavioristic terminology does not solve that problem. It camouflages the nature of "private events," while providing no protection from specious explanations. I argue that covert states and events are causally effective, and may be sufficiently different in their nature to deserve (...)
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  34. Richard F. Kitchener (2004). Bertrand Russell's Flirtation with Behaviorism. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):273 - 291.
    Although numerous aspects of Bertrand Russell's philosophical views have been discussed, his views about the nature of the mind and the place of psychology within modern science have received less attention. In particular, there has been little discussion of what I will call "Russell's flirtation with behaviorism." Although some individuals have mentioned this phase in Russell's philosophical career, they have not adequately situated it within Russell's changing philosophical views, in particular, his naturalistic epistemology. I briefly discuss this naturalistic epistemology and (...)
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  35. Richard F. Kitchener (1977). Behavior and Behaviorism. Behaviorism 5 (2):11-71.
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  36. Terry J. Knapp (1980). Beyond Verbal Behavior. Behaviorism 2 (2):187-194.
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  37. Hugh Lacey (2007). Intentional Behaviorism and the Intentional Scheme: Comments on Gordon R. Foxall's "Intentional Behaviorism". Behavior and Philosophy 35:101 - 111.
    This commentary discusses critically the proposal of Foxall's intentional behaviorism that, when the use of intentional categories can be justifiably portrayed as heuristic overlay to theories incorporating radical behaviorist principles, intentionality may be part of behaviorist interpretations of behavior that occurs outside of the controlled conditions of the laboratory and practical behavioral interventions. I sketch an argument that typical uses of intentional categories for the explanation of human agency (e.g., its exercise in conducting scientific research) are not properly grasped as (...)
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  38. Hugh Lacey (1998). On the Limits of Radical Behaviorism: A Reply to Leigland's Reply. Behavior and Philosophy 26 (1/2):63 - 71.
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  39. Hugh Lacey (1995). Review: Behaviorisms: Theoretical and Teleological. [REVIEW] Behavior and Philosophy 23:61 - 78.
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  40. Hugh Lacey & Barry Schwartz (1986). Behaviorism, Intentionality and Socio-Historical Structure. Behaviorism 14 (2):193-210.
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  41. P. A. Lamal (1986). A Response to a Call to Cognition. Behaviorism 13 (2):147-149.
    The view of Deitz and Arrington (1984) that Wittgenstein's ordinary language philosophy allows behaviorism to use cognitive terms with a behavioristic system is disputed and an alternative is suggested.
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  42. P. A. Lamal (1984). Getting It Right: A Reply to Woolfolk. Behaviorism 12 (2):97-98.
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  43. P. A. Lamal (1983). A Cogent Critique of Epistemology Leaves Radical Behaviorism Unscathed. Behaviorism 11 (1):103-109.
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  44. Klaus Landwehr (1983). On Taking Skinner on His Own Terms: Comments on Wessells' Critique of Skinner's View of Cognitive Theories. Behaviorism 11 (2):187-191.
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  45. Vicki L. Lee (1987). The Structure of Conduct. Behaviorism 15 (2):141-148.
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an argument about the location of psychological structure. It argues that psychological structure can be found in the domain of acts. The paper begins by arguing that all natural domains have concrete and abstract tiers. The concrete tier consists of concrete particulars that exist in time and space, and the abstract tier consists of classes, elements and relations that underlie the concrete tier. Having described the general nature of natural domains, the paper argues that acts are (...)
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  46. Vicki L. Lee (1984). Some Notes on the Subject Matter of Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Behaviorism 12 (1):29-40.
    This paper offers some comments about the subject matter of Skinner's book Verbal Behavior (1957). It first presents an argument against the common misconception that Verbal Behavior is about language. It then discusses the nature of verbal behavior as a subdivision of op?rant .behavior. Following that, the paper identifies three aspects of the concept of verbal behavior that need some clarification. Finally, the paper concludes by pointing out that the significance of Verbal Behavior lies most centrally in its effort to (...)
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  47. Vicki L. Lee (1983). Your Use of the JSTOR Archive Indicates Your Acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, Available At. Behaviorism 11 (2):199-224.
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  48. Vicki L. Lee (1981). Terminological and Conceptual Revision in the Experimental Analysis of Language Development: Why. Behaviorism 9 (1):25-53.
    This paper recommends that experimental analysts of language development abandon for the purposes of experimental inquiry both the term "language" and the concept it designates. In support of this recommendation, the paper dis cusses the multiple meanings of "language," the proposal that "language" refers to behavior, the implicit acceptance by behavior analysts of psycholinguistic thought despite their ostensible rejection of it, and the nature of language as a subject matter. In addition, the nature of common-sense psychology, the domain of behavior (...)
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  49. David Liggins (2005). Truthmakers and Explanation. In Helen Beebee & Julian Dodd (eds.), Truthmakers: The Contemporary Debate. Clarendon. 105--115.
    Truthmaker theory promises to do some useful philosophical work: equipping us to argue against phenomenalism and Rylean behaviourism, for instance, and helping us decide what exists (Lewis 1999, 207; Armstrong 1997, 113-119). But it has proved hard to formulate a truthmaker theory that is both useful and believable. I want to suggest that a neglected approach to truthmakers – that of Ian McFetridge – can surmount some of the problems that make other theories of truthmaking unattractive. To begin with, I’ll (...)
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  50. A. W. Logue (1978). Behaviorist John B. Watson and the Continuity of the Species. Behaviorism 6 (1):71-81.
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