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  1. Arif Ahmed, A Quantum Mechanical Argument Against Causal Decision Theory.
    The paper argues that on three out of five possible hypotheses about the Stern-Gerlach experiment we can construct novel and comparatively realistic decision problems on which (a) Causal decision Theory and Evidential Decision Theory conflict (b) Causal Decision Theory and Quantum Mechanics conflict. It concludes that Causal Decision Theory is false.
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  2. Robert Alicki (2009). On von Neumann and Bell Theorems Applied to Quantumness Tests. Foundations of Physics 39 (4):352-360.
    The issues, raised in Żukowski (arXiv:0809.0115v1, 2008), concerning the relevance of the von Neumann theorem for the single-system’s quantumness test proposed in Alicki and Van Ryn (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41:062001, 2008) and performed for the case of single photon polarization in Brida et al. (Opt. Express 16:11750, 2008; arXiv:0811.3376, 2008) and the usefulness of Bell’s inequality for testing the idea of macroscopic quantum systems are discussed in some details. Finally, the proper quantum mechanical description of the experiment with (...)
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  3. Valia Allori (2013). Review of "Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics?&Quot; by Franck Laloë. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Review.
  4. Donald Bedford & Henry P. Stapp (1995). Bell's Theorem in an Indeterministic Universe. Synthese 102 (1):139 - 164.
    A variation of Bell's theorem that deals with the indeterministic case is formulated and proved within the logical framework of Lewis's theory of counterfactuals. The no-faster-than-light-influence condition is expressed in terms of Lewis would counterfactual conditionals. Objections to this procedure raised by certain philosophers of science are examined and answered. The theorem shows that the incompatibility between the predictions of quantum theory and the idea of no faster-than-light influence cannot be ascribed to any auxiliary or tacit assumption of either determinism (...)
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  5. Darrin W. Belousek (1999). Bell's Theorem, Nonseparability, and Spacetime Individuation in Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):46.
    We first examine Howard's analysis of the Bell factorizability condition in terms of 'separability' and 'locality' and then consider his claims that the violations of Bell's inequality by the statistical predictions of quantum mechanics should be interpreted in terms of 'nonseparability' rather than 'nonlocality' and that 'nonseparability' implies the failure of spacetime as a principle of individuation for quantum-mechanical systems. We will argue that his argument for the first claim is less than compelling and that any argument for the second (...)
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  6. Enrico G. Beltrametti & Maciej J. Maczynski (1994). On Bell-Type Inequalities. Foundations of Physics 24 (8):1153-1159.
    A Bell-type inequality is defined as an inequality of the type 0⩽L⩽1,where L is a linear combination with real coefficients of probabilities p i and joint probabilities p ij ,p ijk ,...,p l ,...,n corresponding to n events. A general theorem on the validity of such inequalities in correspondence to physical assumptions about commutativity or noncommutativity is given. Examples and possible physical applications are discussed.
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  7. S. Bergia, F. Cannata & V. Monzoni (1985). Explicit Examples of Theories Satisfying Bell's Inequalities: Do They Miss Their Goal Prior to Contradicting Experiments? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 15 (2):145-154.
    We show that a local theory conforming to the requirement of reducing to usual quantum mechanics for single-particle states and describing two-particle correlations in terms of mixtures violates the condition of perfect anticorrelation between spin components in the case of Bohm's version of EPR.
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  8. Tomasz Bigaj (2010). How to (Properly) Strengthen Bell's Theorem Using Counterfactuals. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 41 (1):58-66.
    Bell’s theorem in its standard version demonstrates that the joint assumptions of the hidden-variable hypothesis and the principle of local causation lead to a conflict with quantum-mechanical predictions. In his latest counterfactual strengthening of Bell’s theorem, Stapp attempts to prove that the locality assumption itself contradicts the quantum-mechanical predictions in the Hardy case. His method relies on constructing a complex, non-truth functional formula which consists of statements about measurements and outcomes in some region R, and whose truth value depends on (...)
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  9. Tomasz Bigaj (2007). Counterfactuals and Non-Locality of Quantum Mechanics: The Bedford–Stapp Version of the GHZ Theorem. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 12 (1):85-108.
    In the paper, the proof of the non-locality of quantum mechanics, given by Bedford and Stapp (1995), and appealing to the GHZ example, is analyzed. The proof does not contain any explicit assumption of realism, but instead it uses formal methods and techniques of the Lewis calculus of counterfactuals. To ascertain the validity of the proof, a formal semantic model for counterfactuals is constructed. With the help of this model it can be shown that the proof is faulty, because it (...)
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  10. Tomasz Bigaj (2006). Non-Locality and Possible Worlds. A Counterfactual Perspective on Quantum Entanglement. Ontos Verlag.
    This book uses the formal semantics of counterfactual conditionals to analyze the problem of non-locality in quantum mechanics. Counterfactual conditionals enter the analysis of quantum entangled systems in that they enable us to precisely formulate the locality condition that purports to exclude the existence of causal interactions between spatially separated parts of a system. They also make it possible to speak consistently about alternative measuring settings, and to explicate what is meant by quantum property attributions. The book develops the possible-world (...)
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  11. A. Bramon, R. Escribano & G. Garbarino (2006). Bell's Inequality Tests with Meson–Antimeson Pairs. Foundations of Physics 36 (4):563-584.
    Recent proposals to test Bell’s inequalities with entangled pairs of pseudoscalar mesons are reviewed. This includes pairs of neutral kaons or B-mesons and offers some hope to close both the locality and the detection loopholes. Specific difficulties, however, appear thus invalidating most of those proposals. The best option requires the use of kaon regeneration effects and could lead to a successful test if moderate K0 and k̄0 detection efficiencies are achieved.
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  12. Matthew J. Brown (2014). Quantum Frames. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 45:1-10.
  13. Jeremy Butterfield, Quantum Chance and Non-Locality.
    This is an excellent book, by one of the philosophy of quantum theory's brightest stars. It combines a clear presentation of determinism, probability and non-locality in several current interpretations of quantum theory, with a good deal of detailed analysis, both reporting other people's and Dickson's own results, and developing his own ideas|which are often heterodox, but always well-defended and thought-provoking. The treatment is often concise, especially when reporting standard material or others' results. There are also frequent changes of gear; both (...)
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  14. Jeremy Butterfield (2001). Book Review:Quantum Chance and Non-Locality: Probablity and Non-Locality in the Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics W. Michael Dickson. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 68 (2):263-.
  15. Jeremy Butterfield (1992). Bell's Theorem: What It Takes. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (1):41-83.
    I compare deterministic and stochastic hidden variable models of the Bell experiment, exphasising philosophical distinctions between the various ways of combining conditionals and probabilities. I make four main claims. (1) Under natural assumptions, locality as it occurs in these models is equivalent to causal independence, as analysed (in the spirit of Lewis) in terms of probabilities and conditionals. (2) Stochastic models are indeed more general than deterministic ones. (3) For factorizable stochastic models, relativity's lack of superluminal causation does not favour (...)
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  16. Adán Cabello (2005). Bell's Theorem Without Inequalities and Without Unspeakable Information. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1927-1934.
    A proof of Bell’s theorem without inequalities is presented in which distant local setups do not need to be aligned, since the required perfect correlations are achieved for any local rotation of the local setups.
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  17. Michele Caponigro & Enrico Giannetto (2012). Epistemic Vs Ontic Classification of Quantum Entangled States? Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (20):137 - 145.
    In this brief paper, starting from recent works, we analyze from conceptual point of view this basic question: can be the nature of quantum entangled states be interpreted ontologically or epistemologically? According to some works, the degrees of freedom (and the tool of quantum partitions) of quantum systems permit us to establish a possible classification between factorizable and entangled states. We suggest, that the "choice" of degree of freedom (or quantum partitions), even if mathematically justified introduces an epistemic element, not (...)
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  18. Eric Cator & Klaas Landsman (2014). Constraints on Determinism: Bell Versus Conway–Kochen. Foundations of Physics 44 (7):781-791.
    Bell’s Theorem from Physics 36:1–28 (1964) and the (Strong) Free Will Theorem of Conway and Kochen from Notices AMS 56:226–232 (2009) both exclude deterministic hidden variable theories (or, in modern parlance, ‘ontological models’) that are compatible with some small fragment of quantum mechanics, admit ‘free’ settings of the archetypal Alice and Bob experiment, and satisfy a locality condition akin to parameter independence. We clarify the relationship between these theorems by giving reformulations of both that exactly pinpoint their resemblance and their (...)
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  19. Eric G. Cavalcanti (2010). Causation, Decision Theory, and Bell's Theorem: A Quantum Analogue of the Newcomb Problem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):569-597.
    I apply some of the lessons from quantum theory, in particular from Bell’s theorem, to a debate on the foundations of decision theory and causation. By tracing a formal analogy between the basic assumptions of causal decision theory (CDT)—which was developed partly in response to Newcomb’s problem— and those of a local hidden variable theory in the context of quantum mechanics, I show that an agent who acts according to CDT and gives any nonzero credence to some possible causal interpretations (...)
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  20. José L. Cereceda (1995). The Kochen-Specker Theorem and Bell's Theorem: An Algebraic Approach. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (6):925-949.
    In this paper we present a systematic formulation of some recent results concerning the algebraic demonstration of the two major no-hidden-variables theorems for N spin-1/2 particles. We derive explicitly the GHZ states involved and their associated eigenvalues. These eigenvalues turn out to be undefined for N=∞, this fact providing a new proof showing that the nonlocality argument breaks down in the limit of a truly infinite number of particles.
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  21. Robert K. Clifton, Jeremy N. Butterfield & Michael L. G. Redhead (1990). Nonlocal Influences and Possible Worlds--A Stapp in the Wrong Direction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):5-58.
    give a proof of the existence of nonlocal influences acting on correlated spin-1/2 particles in the singlet state which does not require any particular interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM). (Except Stapp holds that the proof fails under a many-worlds interpretation of QM—a claim we analyse in 1.2.) Recently, in responding to Redhead's ([1987], pp. 90-6) criticism that the Stapp 1 proof fails under an indeterministic interpretation of QM, Stapp [1989] (henceforth Stapp 2), has revised the logical structure of his proof (...)
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  22. Richard Corry, Retrocausal Models for EPR.
    Huw Price, among others, has argued that much of the weirdness of quantum mechanics can be avoided if we are willing to accept the possibility of “retrocausation” (i.e. backwards causation). In particular, retrocausal interpretations of quantum mechanics promise to solve the incompleteness problem (namely that Quantum state descriptions do not assign determinate values to all the observable properties of a system at any one time), and hence also the Measurement Problem. Inspired by Price's "Helsinki" model of retrocausal quantum mechanics, I (...)
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  23. John Cramer, Einstein's Spooks and Bell's Theorem.
    Einstein's "spookiness" is now called nonlocality, the mysterious ability of Nature to enforce correlations between separated but entangled parts of a quantum system that are out of speed-of-light contact, to reach faster-than-light across vast spatial distances or even across time itself to ensure that the parts of a quantum system are made to match. This column is about nonlocality, and how, through Bell's theorem, the nonlocality implicit in nature has been demonstrated in the laboratory.
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  24. Michael E. Cuffaro, On the Significance of the Gottesman-Knill Theorem.
    According to the Gottesman-Knill theorem, quantum algorithms utilising operations chosen from a particular restricted set are efficiently simulable classically. Since some of these algorithms involve entangled states, it is commonly concluded that entanglement is not sufficient to enable quantum computers to outperform classical computers. It is argued in this paper, however, that what the Gottesman-Knill theorem shows us is only that if we limit ourselves to the Gottesman-Knill operations, we will not have used the entanglement with which we have been (...)
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  25. Michael E. Cuffaro (2013). On the Physical Explanation for Quantum Computational Speedup. Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario
    The aim of this dissertation is to clarify the debate over the explanation of quantum speedup and to submit, for the reader's consideration, a tentative resolution to it. In particular, I argue, in this dissertation, that the physical explanation for quantum speedup is precisely the fact that the phenomenon of quantum entanglement enables a quantum computer to fully exploit the representational capacity of Hilbert space. This is impossible for classical systems, joint states of which must always be representable as product (...)
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  26. B. D'Espagnat (1981). The Concepts of Influences and of Attributes as Seen in Connection with Bell's Theorem. Foundations of Physics 11 (3-4):205-234.
    With regard to the notion of cause—or more generally of influence—the various methods of proof of Bell's theorem do not all have the same bearing. The differences between two of these methods are analyzed, with regard to both their conceptual basis and their conclusions. It is shown that both methods give valuable information but, not too surprisingly, the one that is based on the more detailed and specific definition of the concept of influences, and that makes use of the concept (...)
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  27. W. De Baere, A. Mann & M. Revzen (1999). Locality and Bell's Theorem. Foundations of Physics 29 (1):67-77.
    It is shown that the violation of Bell's inequality allowed by quantum mechanics and the related Bell's theorem without inequalities is accounted for by local commutations of operators representing single-particle observables. It is argued that the idea of nonlocal influencing of one particle on another when they are in spacelike separated regions clearly has neither empirical nor theoretical support.
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  28. Michael Dickson (1997). Book Review:Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity: Metaphysical Intimations of Modern Physics Tim Maudlin. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 64 (3):516-.
  29. William Michael Dickson (1998). Quantum Chance and Non-Locality: Probability and Non-Locality in the Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press.
    This book examines in detail two of the fundamental questions raised by quantum mechanics. First, is the world indeterministic? Second, are there connections between spatially separated objects? In the first part, the author examines several interpretations, focusing on how each proposes to solve the measurement problem and on how each treats probability. In the second part, the relationship between probability (specifically determinism and indeterminism) and non-locality is examined, and it is argued that there is a non-trivial relationship between probability and (...)
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  30. Dennis Dieks (2003). Book Review: Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, an Empiricist Approach. By Willem M. De Muynck. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 2002, Xxiv+680 Pp., $219.00 (Hardcover). ISBN 1-4020-0932-1. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (6):1003-1006.
  31. Philippe H. Eberhard & Philippe Rosselet (1995). Bell's Theorem Based on a Generalized EPR Criterion of Reality. Foundations of Physics 25 (1):91-111.
    First, the demonstration of Bell's theorem, i.e., of the nonlocal character of quantum theory, is spelled out using the EPR criterion of reality as premises and a gedankenexperiment involving two particles. Then, the EPR criterion is extended to include quantities predicted almostwith certainty, and Bell's theorem is demonstrated on these new premises. The same experiment is used but in conditions that become possible in real life, without the requirements of ideal efficiencies and zero background. Very high efficiencies and low background (...)
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  32. Thomas Filk (2011). Non-Classical Correlations in Bistable Perception? Axiomathes 21 (2):221-232.
    A violation of Bell’s inequalities is generally considered to be the Holy Grail of experimental proof that a specific natural phenomenon cannot be explained in a classical framework and is based on a non-boolean structure of predications. Generalized quantum theory allows for such non-boolean predications. We formulate temporal Bell’s inequalities for cognitive two-state systems and indicate how these inequalities can be tested. This will introduce the notion of temporally non-local measurements. The Necker-Zeno model for bistable perception predicts a violation of (...)
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  33. Arthur Fine (1991). Inequalities for Nonideal Correlation Experiments. Foundations of Physics 21 (3):365-378.
    This paper addresses the “inefficiency loophole” in the Bell theorem. We examine factorizable stochastic models for the Bell inequalities, where we allow the detection efficiency to depend both on the “hidden” state of the measured system and also its passage through an analyzer. We show that, nevertheless, if the efficiency functions are symmetric between the two wings of the experiment, one can dispense with supplementary assumptions and derive new inequalities that enable the models to be tested even for highly inefficient (...)
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  34. Arthur Fine (1989). Correlations and Efficiency: Testing the Bell Inequalities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 19 (5):453-478.
    This paper examines the efficiency problem involved in experimental tests of so-called “local” hidden variables. It separates the phenomenological locality at issue in the Bell case from Einstein's different conception of locality, and shows how phenomenological locality also differs from the factorizability needed to derive the Bell inequalities in the stochastic case. It then pursues the question of whether factorizable, local models (or, equivalently, deterministic ones) exist for the experiments designed to test the Bell inequalities, thus rendering the experimental argument (...)
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  35. Arthur Fine (1984). What is Einstein's Statistical Interpretation, or, is It Einstein for Whom Bell's Theorem Tolls? Topoi 3 (1):23-36.
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  36. Arthur Fine (1982). Some Local Models for Correlation Experiments. Synthese 50 (2):279 - 294.
    This paper constructs two classes of models for the quantum correlation experiments used to test the Bell-type inequalities, synchronization models and prism models. Both classes employ deterministic hidden variables, satisfy the causal requirements of physical locality, and yield precisely the quantum mechanical statistics. In the synchronization models, the joint probabilities, for each emission, do not factor in the manner of stochastic independence, showing that such factorizability is not required for locality. In the prism models the observables are not random variables (...)
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  37. Brandon Fogel (2007). Formalizing the Separability Condition in Bell's Theorem. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (4):920-937.
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  38. Malcolm Forster (1991). Preconditions of Predication: From Qualia to Quantum Mechanics. Topoi 10 (1):13-26.
    Although in every inductive inference, an act of invention is requisite, the act soon slips out of notice. Although we bind together facts by superinducing upon them a new Conception, this Conception, once introduced and applied, is looked upon as inseparably connected with the facts, and necessarily implied in them. Having once had the phenomena bound together in their minds in virtue of the Conception men can no longer easily restore them back to the detached and incoherent condition in which (...)
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  39. Bas C. Fraassen (1982). The Charybdis of Realism: Epistemological Implications of Bell's Inequality. Synthese 52 (1):25 - 38.
  40. Olival Freire (2006). Philosophy Enters the Optics Laboratory: Bell's Theorem and its First Experimental Tests (1965–1982). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 37 (4):577-616.
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  41. Steven French (1989). Individuality, Supervenience and Bell's Theorem. Philosophical Studies 55 (1):1 - 22.
    Some recent work in the philosophy of quantum mechanics has suggested that quantum systems can be thought of as non-separable and therefore non-individual, in some sense, in Bell and E.P.R. type situations. This suggestion is set in the context of previous work regarding the individuality of quantal particles and it is argued that such entities can be considered as individuals if their non-classical statistical correlations are understood in terms of non-supervenient relations holding between them. We conclude that such relations (...)
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  42. N. G. (1995). Examining the Compatibility of Special Relativity and Quantum Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 26 (3):325-331.
  43. Claudio Garola & Sandro Sozzo (2011). Generalized Observables, Bell's Inequalities and Mixtures in the ESR Model for QM. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):424-449.
    The extended semantic realism (ESR) model proposes a new theoretical perspective which embodies the mathematical formalism of standard (Hilbert space) quantum mechanics (QM) into a noncontextual framework, reinterpreting quantum probabilities as conditional instead of absolute. We provide in this review an overall view on the present status of our research on this topic. We attain in a new, shortened way a mathematical representation of the generalized observables introduced by the ESR model and a generalization of the projection postulate of elementary (...)
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  44. A. J. M. Garrett (1990). Bell's Theorem and Bayes' Theorem. Foundations of Physics 20 (12):1475-1512.
    Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian probabilistic inference. Assume that the result of a spin measurement on a spin-1/2 particle is governed by a variable internal to the particle (local, “hidden”), and examine pairs of particles having zero combined angular momentum so that their internal variables are correlated: knowing something about the internal variable of one tells us something about that of the other. By measuring the spin of one particle, we infer something about its internal variable; (...)
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  45. A. J. M. Garrett (1990). Bell's Theorem, Inference, and Quantum Transactions. Foundations of Physics 20 (4):381-402.
    Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian inference. Assuming the result of a spin measurement on a particle is governed by a causal variable internal (hidden, “local”) to the particle, one learns about it by making a spin measurement; thence about the internal variable of a second particle correlated with the first; and from there predicts the probabilistic result of spin measurements on the second particle. Such predictions are violated by experiment: locality/causality fails. The statistical nature of the (...)
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  46. Han Geurdes (2010). CHSH and Local Causlaity. Adv Studies Theoretical Physics 4 (20):945.
    Mathematics equivalent to Bell's derivation of the inequalities, also allows a local hidden variables explanation for the correlation between distant measurements.
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  47. GianCarlo Ghirardi & Raffaele Romano (2013). About Possible Extensions of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 43 (7):881-894.
    Recently it has been claimed that no extension of quantum theory can have improved predictive power, the statement following, according to the authors, from the assumptions of free will and of the correctness of quantum predictions concerning the correlations of measurement outcomes. Here we prove that the argument is basically flawed by an inappropriate use of the assumption of free will. In particular, among other implications, the claim, if correct, would imply that Bohmian Mechanics is incompatible with free will. This (...)
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  48. Nicolas Gisin (2012). Non-Realism: Deep Thought or a Soft Option? Foundations of Physics 42 (1):80-85.
    The claim that the observation of a violation of a Bell inequality leads to an alleged alternative between nonlocality and non-realism is annoying because of the vagueness of the second term.
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  49. G. Giuseppe, F. Martini & D. Boschi (1996). Test of the Violation of Local Realism in Quantum Mechanics with No Use of Bell's Inequalities. Erkenntnis 45 (2-3):367 - 377.
    A novel and versatile polarization-entanglement scheme is adopted to investigate the violation of the EPR local realism for a non-maximally entangled two-photon system according to the recent nonlocality proof by Lucien Hardy. In this context the adoption of a sophisticated detection method allows direct determination of any element of physical reality (viz., determined with probability equal to unity in the words of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen) for the pair system within complete measurements that are largely insensitive to the detector quantum-efficiencies (...)
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  50. Clark Glymour, 5. Markov Properties and Quantum Experiments.
    Few people have thought so hard about the nature of the quantum theory as has Jeff Bub,· and so it seems appropriate to offer in his honor some reflections on that theory. My topic is an old one, the consistency of our microscopic theories with our macroscopic theories, my example, the Aspect experiments (Aspect et al., 1981, 1982, 1982a; Clauser and Shimony, l978;_Duncan and Kleinpoppen, 199,8) is familiar, and my sirnplrcation of it is borrowed. All that is new here is (...)
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