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  1. Stefano Baratta & Flavio Ermini (eds.) (2005). I Nomi Comuni Dell'anima. Moretti & Vitali.
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  2. William Barrett (1986). Death of the Soul: From Descartes to the Computer. Anchor Press.
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  3. Andreas Bartels, Binocular Rivalry: A Time Dependence of Eye and Stimulus Contributions.
    Nikos K. Logothetis University of Manchester, Manchester, UK In binocular rivalry, the visual percept alternates stochastically between two dichoptically presented stimuli. It is established that both processes related to the eye of origin and binocular, stimulus-related processes account for these fluctuations in conscious perception. Here we studied how their relative contributions vary over time. We applied brief disruptions to rivalry displays, concurrent with an optional eye swap, at varying time intervals after one stimulus became visible (dominant). We found that early (...)
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  4. Robert Blackson (ed.) (2007). Soul. Reg Vardy Gallery in Partnership with Satellite Arts, Inc..
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  5. R. R. Blake (2001). A Primer on Binocular Rivalry, Including Current Controversies. Brain and Mind 2 (1):5-38.
    Among psychologists and vision scientists,binocular rivalry has enjoyed sustainedinterest for decades dating back to the 19thcentury. In recent years, however, rivalry''saudience has expanded to includeneuroscientists who envision rivalry as a tool for exploring the neural concomitants ofconscious visual awareness and perceptualorganization. For rivalry''s potential to berealized, workers using this tool need toknow details of this fascinating phenomenon,and providing those details is the purpose ofthis article. After placing rivalry in ahistorical context, I summarize major findingsconcerning the spatial characteristics and thetemporal dynamics (...)
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  6. W. H. Boore (1973). First Light. London,Search Press.
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  7. B. B. Breese (1909). Can Binocular Rivalry Be Suppressed by Practise? Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 6 (25):686-687.
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  8. Jagdish Chander & K. B. (1983). Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter, and God. Prajapati Brama Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa-Vidyalaya.
    pt. 1. [without special title] -- pt. 2. The eternal world drama.
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  9. Diego J. Cosmelli & Evan Thompson (2007). Mountains and Valleys: Binocular Rivalry and the Flow of Experience. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (3):623-641.
    Binocular rivalry provides a useful situation for studying the relation between the temporal flow of conscious experience and the temporal dynamics of neural activity. After proposing a phenomenological framework for understanding temporal aspects of consciousness, we review experimental research on multistable perception and binocular rivalry, singling out various methodological, theoretical, and empirical aspects of this research relevant to studying the flow of experience. We then review an experimental study from our group explicitly concerned with relating the temporal dynamics of rivalrous (...)
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  10. M. James C. Crabbe (ed.) (1999). From Soul to Self. Routledge.
    From Soul to Self takes us on a fascinating journey through philosophy, theology, religious studies and physiological sciences. The contributors explore the relationship between a variety of ideas that have arisen in philosophy, religion and science, each idea seeking to explain why we think we are somehow unique and distinct.
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  11. David J. Darling (1995). After Life: In Search of Cosmic Consciousness. Fourth Estate.
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  12. Sam M. Doesburg, Keiichi Kitajo & Lawrence M. Ward (2005). Increased Gamma-Band Synchrony Precedes Switching of Conscious Perceptual Objects in Binocular Rivalry. Neuroreport 16 (11):1139-1142.
  13. Andreas K. Engel, P. Fries, P. Kreiter Konig, M. Brecht & Wolf Singer (1999). Temporal Binding, Binocular Rivalry, and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):128-51.
    Cognitive functions like perception, memory, language, or consciousness are based on highly parallel and distributed information processing by the brain. One of the major unresolved questions is how information can be integrated and how coherent representational states can be established in the distributed neuronal systems subserving these functions. It has been suggested that this so-called ''binding problem'' may be solved in the temporal domain. The hypothesis is that synchronization of neuronal discharges can serve for the integration of distributed neurons into (...)
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  14. Antony Flew (2000). Merely Mortal?: Can You Survive Your Own Death? Prometheus Books.
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  15. Antony Flew (1987). The Logic of Mortality. Blackwell.
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  16. Tobias Bonhoeffer Frank Sengpiel, C. B. Freeman Tobe & Colin Blakemore (2001). On the Relationship Between Interocular Suppression in the Primary Visual Cortex and Binocular Rivalry. Brain and Mind 2 (1).
    Both classical psychophysical work and recentfunctional imaging studies have suggested acritical role for the primary visual cortex(V1) in resolving the perceptual ambiguitiesexperienced during binocular rivalry. Here weexamine, by means of single-cell recordings andoptical imaging of intrinsic signals, thespatial characteristics of suppression elicitedby rival stimuli in cat V1. We find that the interocular suppression field of V1 neuronsis centred on the same position in space and isslightly larger (by a factor of 1.3) than theminimum response field, measured through thesame eye. Suppression (...)
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  17. Stewart Goetz (2011). A Brief History of the Soul. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The soul in Greek thought -- The soul in medieval Christian thought -- The soul in continental thought -- Locke, Butler, reid, and Hume -- Soul-body causal interaction -- The soul and contemporary science -- Contemporary challenges to the soul -- Thoughts on the future of the soul.
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  18. John Gray (2011). The Immortalization Commission: Science and the Strange Quest to Cheat Death. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
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  19. John-Dylan Haynes & Geraint Rees (2005). Predicting the Stream of Consciousness From Activity in Human Visual Cortex. Current Biology 15 (14):1301-7.
  20. William Ernest Hocking (1937/1973). The Meaning of Immortality in Human Experience. Westport, Conn.,Greenwood Press.
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  21. Jakob Hohwy, Andreas Roepstorff & Karl Friston (2008). Predictive Coding Explains Binocular Rivalry: An Epistemological Review. Cognition 108 (3):687-701.
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  22. Maqsood Jafri (1974). Philosophy of Soul. S.N.].
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  23. Bruce Katz (2008). Fixing Functionalism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (3):87-118.
    Functionalism, which views consciousness as the product of the processing of stimuli by the brain, is perhaps the dominant view among researchers in the cognitive sciences and associated fields. However, as a workable scientific model of consciousness, it has been marred by a singular lack of tangible success, except at the broadest levels of explanation. This paper argues that this is not an accident, and that in its standard construal it is simply too unwieldy to assume the burden of full-fledged (...)
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  24. Anthony Kenny (1973). The Anatomy of the Soul. [Oxford]Basil Blackwell.
    Mental health in Plato's Republic.--The practical syllogism and incontinence.--Aristotle on happiness.--Intellect and imagination in Aquinas.--Descartes on the will.--Cartesian privacy.--Appendix: The history of intention in ethics.--Bibliography (p. [147]).
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  25. T. Kobayashi & K. Kato (2002). Reactivity of Human Cortical Oscillations Reflecting Conscious Perception in Binocular Rivalry. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind. John Benjamins. 33--261.
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  26. Arthur Kornhaber (1988/1990). Spirit: Mind, Body, and the Will to Existence. Warner Books.
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  27. Ilona Kovacs, Thomas Papathomas, Ming Yang & Akos Feher (1997). When the Brain Changes its Mind: Interocular Grouping During Binocular Rivalry. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 38 (4):2249-2249.
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  28. M. Moskopp Kurthen (1999). Conscious Behavior Explained. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):155-158.
    Current neurobiological research on temporal binding in binocular rivalry settings contributes to a better understanding of the neural correlate of perceptual consciousness. This research can easily be integrated into a theory of conscious behavior, but if it is meant to promote a naturalistic theory of perceptual consciousness itself, it is confronted with the notorious explanatory gap argument according to which any statement of psychophysical correlations (and their interpretation) leaves the phenomenal character of, e.g., states of perceptual consciousness open. It is (...)
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  29. Joe Landwehr (2007). Tracking the Soul: With an Astrology of Consciousness. Ancient Tower Press.
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  30. David A. Leopold & Nikos K. Logothetis (1999). Multistable Phenomena: Changing Views in Perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (7):254-264.
    Traditional explanations of multistable visual phenomena (e.g. ambiguous figures, perceptual rivalry) suggest that the basis for spontaneous reversals in perception lies in antagonistic connectivity within the visual system. In this review, we suggest an alternative, albeit speculative, explanation for visual multistability – that spontaneous alternations reflect responses to active, programmed events initiated by brain areas that integrate sensory and non-sensory information to coordinate a diversity of behaviors. Much evidence suggests that perceptual reversals are themselves more closely related to the expression (...)
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  31. David A. Leopold & Nikos K. Logothetis (1996). Activity Changes in Early Visual Cortex Reflect Monkeys' Percepts During Binocular Rivalry. Nature 379 (6565):549-553.
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  32. David A. Leopold, Alexander Maier & Nikos K. Logothetis (2003). Measuring Subjective Visual Perception in the Nonhuman Primate. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):115-130.
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  33. John Leslie (2007). Immortality Defended. Blackwell Pub..
    Might we be parts of a divine mind? Could anything like an afterlife make sense? Starting with a Platonic answer to why the world exists, Immortality Defended suggests we could well be immortal in all of three separate ways. Tackles the fundamental questions posed by our very existence, among them ‘why does the cosmos exist?’, ‘is there a divine mind or God?’ and ‘in what sense might we have afterlives?’ Defends a belief in immortality, without the need for a religious (...)
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  34. Hywel David Lewis (1978). Persons and Life After Death: Essays. Barnes & Noble.
    Realism and metaphysics.--Ultimates and a way of looking.--Religion and the paranormal.--Quinton, A., Lewis, H. D., Williams, B. Life after death.--Lewis, H. D., Flew, A. Survival.--Shoemaker, S., Lewis, H. D. Immortality and dualism.--The belief in life after death.--The person of Christ.
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  35. P. Livet (2007). Comment on “Mountains and Valleys: Binocular Rivalry and the Flow of Experience”☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (3):642-644.
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  36. Nikos K. Logothetis (1999). Binocular Rivalry: A Window Onto Consciousness. Scientific American.
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  37. Nikos K. Logothetis & David A. Leopold (1998). Single-Neuron Activity and Visual Perception. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press. 2--309.
  38. Nikos K. Logothetis, David A. Leopold & D. L. Sheinberg (1996). What is Rivalling During Binocular Rivalry? Nature 30 (6575):621-624.
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  39. Nikos K. Logothetis & Jeffrey D. Schall (1989). Neuronal Correlates of Subjective Visual Perception. Science 245:761-63.
  40. E. D. Lumer (2000). Binocular Rivalry and Human Visual Awareness. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.
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  41. E. D. Lumer, K. J. Friston & Geraint Rees (1998). Neural Correlates of Perceptual Rivalry in the Human Brain. Science 280 (5371):1930-1934.
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  42. Stephen L. Macknik & Susana Martinez-Conde (2004). Dichoptic Visual Masking Reveals That Early Binocular Neurons Exhibit Weak Interocular Suppression: Implications for Binocular Vision and Visual Awareness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 (6):1049-1059.
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  43. John J. McGraw (2004). Brain & Belief: An Exploration of the Human Soul. Aegis Press.
    In this intriguing book, the concept of the soul is thoroughly investigated.
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  44. John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart (1916/1985). Human Immortality and Pre-Existence. Kraus Reprint.
    HUMAN IMMORTALITY AND PRE-EXISTENCE PART I HUMAN IMMORTALITY I do not propose to offer here any arguments in support of the positive assertion that men are ...
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  45. Thomas Metzinger (2000). Neural Correlates of Consciousness: Empirical and Conceptual Questions. MIT Press.
  46. S. M. Miller (2001). Binocular Rivalry and the Cerebral Hemispheres, with a Note on the Correlates and Constitution of Visual Consciousness. Brain and Mind 2 (1):119-49.
    In addressing thescientific study of consciousness, Crick and Koch state, It is probable that at any moment some active neuronal processes in your head correlate with consciousness, while others do not: what is the difference between them? (1998, p. 97). Evidence from electrophysiological and brain-imaging studies of binocular rivalry supports the premise of this statement and answers to some extent, the question posed. I discuss these recent developments and outline the rationale and experimental evidence for the interhemispheric switch hypothesis of (...)
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  47. K. Moutoussis, G. A. Keliris, Z. Kourtzi & N. K. Logothetis (2005). A Binocular Rivalry Study of Motion Perception in the Human Brain. Vision Research 45 (17):2231-43.
    The relationship between brain activity and conscious visual experience is central to our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying perception. Binocular rivalry, where monocular stimuli compete for perceptual dominance, has been previously used to dissociate the constant stimulus from the varying percept. We report here fMRI results from humans experiencing binocular rivalry under a dichoptic stimulation paradigm that consisted of two drifting random dot patterns with different motion coherence. Each pattern had also a different color, which both enhanced rivalry and (...)
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  48. Nancey C. Murphy (2006). Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies? Cambridge University Press.
    Are humans composed of a body and a nonmaterial mind or soul, or are we purely physical beings? Opinion is sharply divided over this issue. In this clear and concise book, Nancey Murphy argues for a physicalist account, but one that does not diminish traditional views of humans as rational, moral, and capable of relating to God. This position is motivated not only by developments in science and philosophy, but also by biblical studies and Christian theology. The reader is invited (...)
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  49. J. B. Newman & A. A. Grace (1999). Binding Across Time: The Selective Gating of Frontal and Hippocampal Systems Modulating Working Memory and Attentional States. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):196-212.
    Temporal binding via 40-Hz synchronization of neuronal discharges in sensory cortices has been hypothesized to be a necessary condition for the rapid selection of perceptually relevant information for further processing in working memory. Binocular rivalry experiments have shown that late stage visual processing associated with the recognition of a stimulus object is highly correlated with discharge rates in inferotemporal cortex. The hippocampus is the primary recipient of inferotemporal outputs and is known to be the substrate for the consolidation of working (...)
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  50. Robert P. O'Shea & Paul M. Corballis (2001). Binocular Rivalry Between Complex Stimuli in Split-Brain Observers. Brain and Mind 2 (1):151-160.
    We investigated binocular rivalry in the twocerebral hemispheres of callosotomized(split-brain) observers. We found that rivalryoccurs for complex stimuli in split-brainobservers, and that it is similar in the twohemispheres. This poses difficulties for twotheories of rivalry: (1) that rivalry occursbecause of switching of activity between thetwo hemispheres, and (2) that rivalry iscontrolled by a structure in the rightfrontoparietal cortex. Instead, similar rivalryfrom the two hemispheres is consistent with atheory that its mechanism is low in the visualsystem, at which each hemisphere conducts (...)
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