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  1. Garland Allen & Jeffrey Baker (2002). Biology: Scientific Process and Social Issues. Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):622-623.
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  2. James Mark Baldwin (1909/1980). Darwin and the Humanities. Ams Press.
  3. Guido Barbujani & Massimo Pigliucci (2013). Human Races. Current Biology 23:185-187.
    What is a race? Ernst Mayr (1904–2005) distinguishes between species in which biological change is continuous in space, and species in which groups of populations with different character combinations are separated by borders. In the latter species, the entities separated by borders are geographic races or subspecies. Many anthropology textbooks describe human races as discrete (or nearly discrete) clusters of individuals, geographically localized, each of which shares a set of ancestors, and hence can be distinguished from other races by their (...)
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  4. Andrew B. Barron, Malin Ah‐King & Marie E. Herberstein (2011). Plenty of Sex, but No Sexuality in Biology Undergraduate Curricula. Bioessays 33 (12):899-902.
    Research over the last decades has stimulated a paradigm shift in biology from assuming fixed and dichotomous male and female sexual strategies to an appreciation of significant variation in sex and sexual behaviour both within and between species. This has resulted in the development of a broader biological understanding of sexual strategies, sexuality and variation in sexual behaviour. However, current introductory biological textbooks have not yet incorporated these new research findings. Our analysis of the content of current biology texts suggests (...)
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  5. Tomislav Bracanovic (2012). Mating Intelligence, Moral Virtues, and Methodological Vices. In Henk W. de Regt (ed.), Epsa Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer 13--22.
    According to the ‘mating intelligence’ theory by evolutionary psychologist Geoffrey Miller, human morality is a system of sexually selected traits which serve as costly signals to the other sex about one’s fitness and readiness to take care for possible offspring. Starting from the standard prediction of evolutionary psychology that sexual selection produces psychological sex differences in human mating strategies, ‘mating intelligence’ theory is analyzed for its compatibility with several psychological theories about sex differences in moral traits like moral reasoning, judgment (...)
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  6. Tamsin L. Braisher, Matthew R. E. Symonds & Neil J. Gemmell (2005). Publication Success in Nature and Science is Not Gender Dependent. Bioessays 27 (8):858-859.
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  7. Geoffrey Brennan (2011). Keeping Company with Seabright. Biological Theory 6 (2):106-112.
    -/- According to Paul Seabright, “the unplanned but sophisticated coordination of modern economies is a remarkable fact that needs an explanation.” In this paper, I explore what is remarkable about modern economies and investigate what Seabright identifies as the aspect “that needs an explanation.” Essentially, Seabright is interested in the fact that modern economies require a great deal in the way of trustworthy behavior (and trust) in order to function well—and these trust relations must operate specifically among “strangers”! The puzzle (...)
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  8. Grzegorz Bugajak (2011). Fears of Science. Nature and Human Actions. In Adam Świeżyński (ed.), Knowledge and Values, Wyd. UKSW, Warszawa. 157–170.
    The paper points to quite a surprising change of the attitude among general public towards science and scientific progress that seems to have happened at the turn of the 20th century, and, to an extent, stays on: from holding scientific enterprise in high esteem to treating scientists and fortune˗tellers on a par, from hopes that science will eventually resolve our problems, both theoretical and practical, to anxiety and fear of what scientific experiments can bring about in nature and human life. (...)
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  9. Will D. Carpenter (1985). Science and Society: The Regulation of Biotechnology. Bioessays 2 (6):281-281.
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  10. Erwin Chargaff (1985). Science and Society: Frozen Delight. Bioessays 2 (2):84-86.
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  11. Aubrey de Grey (2003). Fear of Misrepresentation Cannot Justify Silence About Foreseeable Life-Extension Biotechnology. Bioessays 25 (1):94-95.
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  12. Alfredo Dinis (2010). Darwin's Impact on Science, Society and Culture. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 66 (3):509 - 522.
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  13. Lars Ernster (1984). The Scientific Unions. This is ICSU. Bioessays 1 (2):85-86.
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  14. G. H. Fairtlough (1984). Biotechnology: The OTA Report: A U.K. Perspective. Bioessays 1 (2):81-82.
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  15. Christian Feichtinger (2011). The Darwinian Distinction or the Price for Biologism? The Image of Charles Darwin as Natural Scientific Hero and Saint. Disputatio Philosophica 12 (1):67-75.
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  16. Bernard Feltz (2009). Darwin entre science et société. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 107 (3):385-386.
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  17. Kathryn Paxton George (1992). Moral and Nonmoral Innate Constraints. Biology and Philosophy 7 (2):189-202.
    Charles J. Lumsden and E.O. Wilson, in their writings together and individually, have proposed that human behaviors, whether moral or nonmoral, are governed by innate constraints (which they have termed epigenetic rules). I propose that if a genetic component of moral behavior is to be discovered, some sorting out of specifically moral from nonmoral innate constraints will be necessary. That some specifically moral innate constraits exist is evidenced by virtuous behaviors exhibited in nonhuman mammals, whose behavior is usually granted to (...)
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  18. Philipp Gerhardt (1986). The State of the Union in 1986. Bioessays 5 (4):147-148.
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  19. Matt Gers (2008). The Case for Memes. Biological Theory 3 (4):305-315.
    The significant theoretical objections that have been raised against memetics have not received adequate defense, even though there is ongoing empirical research in this field. In this paper I identify the key objections to memetics as a viable explanatory tool in studies of cultural evolution. I attempt to defuse these objections by arguing that they fail to show the absence of replication, high-fidelity copying, or lineages in the cultural domain. I further respond to meme critics by arguing that, despite competing (...)
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  20. S. W. Glover (1986). Third World Microbiology – Educational Needs. Bioessays 4 (2):51-52.
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  21. Peter Godfrey-Smith & Manolo Martínez (2013). Communication and Common Interest. PLOS Computational Biology 9 (11).
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  22. John C. Greene (1977). Darwin as a Social Evolutionist. Journal of the History of Biology 10 (1):1 - 27.
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  23. Enrique Guerra-Pujol (2014). The Evolutionary Path of the Law. [REVIEW] Indonesian Journal of International and Comparative Law 1 (3):878-890.
    What lessons can legal scholars learn from the life and work of W. D. "Bill" Hamilton, a lifelong student of nature? From my small corner of the legal Academia, three aspects of Bill Hamilton’s work in evolutionary biology stand out in particular: (i) Hamilton’s simple and beautiful model of social behavior in terms of costs and benefits; (ii) his fruitful collaboration with the political theorist Robert Axelrod and their unexpected yet elegant solution of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, an important game or (...)
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  24. Donna Haraway (1988). Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective. Feminist Studies 14 (3):575-599.
  25. Garrett Hardin (1977). Sociobiology—Aesop with Teeth. Social Theory and Practice 4 (3):303-313.
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  26. Harmon R. Holcomb Iii & Douglas Allchin (1997). Sociobiology Sex and Science. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (3):423.
    This book examines sociobiology’s validity and significance, using the sociobiological theory of the evolution of mating and parenting as an example. It identifies and discusses the array of factors that determine sociobiology’s effort to become a science, providing a rare, balanced account—more critical than that of its advocates and more constructive than that of its critics. It sees a role for sociobiology in changing the way we understand the goals of evolutionary biology, the proper way to evaluate emerging sciences, and (...)
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  27. I. I. I. Holcomb (1988). The Modern Synthesis and Lewontin's Critique of Sociobiology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 10 (2):315 - 341.
    Ernst Mayr (1980) provided an influential picture of the nature of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis and of the debate and changes occurring prior to its completion. Mayr intended his account to be applicable to comparable cases. Sociobiology should be evaluated both as a comparable case, an attempt to produce a synthesis which undergoes development of the sort Mayr described, and as an extension of the Modern Synthesis itself. Examination of what the explanatory goals and development of the New Sociobiological Synthesis (...)
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  28. Wen‐Ru Hou, Ming Li & Deng‐Ke Niu (2011). Counting Citations in Texts Rather Than Reference Lists to Improve the Accuracy of Assessing Scientific Contribution. Bioessays 33 (10):724-727.
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  29. Sui Huang (2013). When Peers Are Not Peers and Don't Know It: The Dunning‐Kruger Effect and Self‐Fulfilling Prophecy in Peer‐Review. Bioessays 35 (5):414-416.
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  30. Mavaddat Javid, Social Darwinism, Eugenics, And Natural Selection.
    The eugenics movement was not the anomaly of just one country. In its day, it enamoured industrialized nations throughout the Western world. In the end, the eugenics movement ultimately did not recover from the stigma it sustained as a result of the Second World War. However, with the advancement of genetic engineering and the researches into embryonic stem cells, discussions about eugenics are becoming relevant once more, and it will be the responsibility of the informed (and not merely reactionary) to (...)
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  31. Ben Jeffares (2003). The Scope and Limits of Biological Explanations in Archaeology. Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington
    I show how archaeologists have two problems. The construction of scenarios accounting for the raw data of Archaeology, the material remains of the past, and the explanation of pre-history. Within Archaeology, there has been an ongoing debate about how to constrain speculation within both of these archaeological projects, and archaeologists have consistently looked to biological mechanisms for constraints. I demonstrate the problems of using biology, either as an analogy for cultural processes or through direct application of biological principles to material (...)
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  32. M. Jeuken (1983). Thinking About Mind and Matter From Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 32 (2):79-92.
    In biology, man is an object of research; therefore the question might be asked whether inspirations can go from biological data to the reflections on the mind-matter relation in man. The social aspect of man, as treated by sociobiology, is left out of consideration. The knowledge that man is mind, or has a mind, is no result of biological research. It is a datum from philosophy. The biologist, however, is living in a culture which knows about the mental character of (...)
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  33. Li Jianhui & Hong Fan (2003). Science as Ideology: The Rejection and Reception of Sociobiology in China. Journal of the History of Biology 36 (3):567-578.
    The spread of sociobiology in China is not simply an internal event in the development of science. From the day it was introduced to China, its destiny was closely bound up with the development and change of Chinese society. Although it did not create as great a disturbance as in America, it did have a significant impact in academic circles. However, scholars have paid little attention to these historical events. Today, sociobiology seems outdated and Wilson's grand agenda seems to (...)
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  34. Paul Johnson (2009). Paul Johnson Wonders Whether Darwin Would Have Put Atheist Slogans on Buses. The Chesterton Review 35 (1-2):284-288.
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  35. Neil Jumonville (2002). The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate. Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):569 - 593.
    The sociobiology debate, in the final quarter of the twentieth century, featured many of the same issues disputed in the culture war in the humanities during this same time period. This is evident from a study of the writings of Edward O. Wilson, the best known of the sociobiologists, and from an examination of both the minutes of the meetings of the Sociobiology Study Group (SSG) and the writings of Stephen Jay Gould, the SSG's most prominent member. Many critics of (...)
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  36. Jonathan Kaplan (2006). Misinformation, Misrepresentation, and Misuse of Human Behavioral Genetics Research. Law and Contemporary Problems 69 (1-2):47-80.
  37. Evelyn Fox Keller (1988). Demarcating Public From Private Values in Evolutionary Discourse. Journal of the History of Biology 21 (2):195-211.
    What I suggest we can see in this brief overview of the literature is an extensive interpenetration on both sides of these debates between scientific, political, and social values. Important shifts in political and social values were of course occurring over the same period, some of them in parallel with, and perhaps even contributing to, these transitions I have been speaking of in evolutionary discourse. The developments that I think of as at least suggestive of possible parallels include the progressive (...)
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  38. R. D. Keynes (1986). The ICSU/UNESCO International Biosciences Networks. Bioessays 4 (5):195-196.
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  39. Sylvain Lavelle & Richard D'ari (1996). The New Scientific Spirit. Bioessays 18 (7):603-606.
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  40. Susanne Lettow (2008). The Cultural Embodiment of Biology. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 44:53-61.
    Biology, established around 1800 as the “science of life,” has developed as not only a specific scientific discipline but it has also continually served as a kind of social knowledge. Biological knowledge supported the modern order of the sexes and the two-sex model that it was structured along, as well as modern racism and multiple forms of social inequality articulated by dichotomizing the normal and abnormal. However, the fledgling discipline of biology alone was not capable of developing the epistemological as (...)
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  41. M. Loi (2013). You Cannot Have Your Normal Functioning Cake and Eat It Too. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (12):748-751.
    Does biomedical enhancement challenge justice in health care? This paper argues that health care justice based on the concept of normal functioning is inadequate if enhancements are widespread. Two different interpretations of normal functioning are distinguished: the “species typical” vs. the “normal cooperator” account, showing that each version of the theory fails to account for certain egalitarian intuitions about help and assistance owed to people with health needs, where enhancements are widespread.
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  42. David Loye (2000). Darwin's Lost Theory and its Implications for the 21st Century. World Futures 55 (3):201-226.
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  43. David Ludwig (2013). Mediating Objects. Scientific and Public Functions of Models in Nineteenth-Century Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (2).
    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- andthree-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. Iargue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions inthe light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverseroles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory.Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiencesthat included specialized (...)
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  44. Jane Maienschein (1994). Cutting Edges Cut Both Ways. Biology and Philosophy 9 (1):1-24.
    Emphasis on cutting edge science is common today. This paper shows that the concept, which selects some science at any given time as epistemically preferable and therefore better, actually gained acceptance by the turn of this century in biology and began immediately to have consequences for what biological research was done. The result, that some research is cut out while other work is privileged, can have pernicious results. Some of what is designated as not cutting edge may, in a different (...)
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  45. Jane Maienschein (1993). Why Collaborate? Journal of the History of Biology 26 (2):167 - 183.
    The recent escalation of concern about scientific integrity has provoked a larger discussion of many questions about why we do science the way we do, as well as about how we should do it. One of these questions concerns collaboration: who should count as a collaborator? This, in turn, raises the question why collaborators collaborate, and whether and when they should. Here, history offers insights that can illuminate the current debate.
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  46. Johannes Martens (2011). Social Evolution and Strategic Thinking. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):697-715.
    Thinking about organisms as if they were rational agents which could choose their own phenotypic traits according to their fitness values is a common heuristic in the field of evolutionary theory. In a 1998 paper, however, Elliott Sober has emphasized several alleged shortcomings of this kind of analogical reasoning when applied to the analysis of social behaviors. According to him, the main flaw of this heuristic is that it proves to be a misleading tool when it is used for (...)
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  47. Magoroh Maruyama (1977). Heterogenistics: An Epistemological Restructuring of Biological and Social Sciences. Acta Biotheoretica 26 (2):120-136.
    The epistemology which sees intra-specific and intra-group heterogenization, symbiotization, interactive pattern-generating and change as basic principles produces types of theories and research strategies different from the epistemology based on the notions of intra-specific and intra-group uniformity, competition and stabilization. In the uniformistic view, individual variations have been reduced mainly either to statistical deviations from the mean or to dominance relationship. On the other hand in the heterogenistic view, mutual beneficial interactions between qualitatively heterogeneous individuals within a group is regarded as (...)
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  48. Marie‐Christine Maurel & Giuseppe Zaccai (2001). Why Biologists Should Support the Exploration of Mars. Bioessays 23 (10):977-978.
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  49. Nicholas Maxwell (1984). The Generalized Darwinian Research Programme. In From Knowledge to Wisdom. Blackwell 269-275.
    The generalized Darwinian research programme accepts physicalism, but holds that all life is purposive in character. It seeks to understand how and why all purposiveness has evolved in the universe – especially purposiveness associated with what we value most in human life, such as sentience, consciousness, person-to-person understanding, science, art, free¬dom, love. As evolution proceeds, the mechanisms of evolution themselves evolve to take into account the increasingly important role that purposive action can play - especially when quasi-Lamarckian evolution by cultural (...)
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  50. Francesca Merlin, Daniel J. Nicholson, Christian Reiss, Aleksandra Sojic & Joeri Witteveen (2008). Emergent Philosophy of Biology in Europe. Biological Theory 3 (4):391-392.
    In recent years, Europe has become a home to a thriving philosophy of biology research community. As part of the ongoing endeavor to raise the profile of the field on the Old Continent, five research institutions from across Europe § EGenIS, IHPST, KLI, MPIWG, and SEMM - gathered together in the small italian village of Gorino Sullam (Po Delta) in september 2008 to hold the first European Graduate Meeting in the Philosophy of the Life Sciences (EGMPLS-1).
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