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  1. Elisa Aaltola (2013). Skepticism, Empathy, and Animal Suffering. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):457-467.
    The suffering of nonhuman animals has become a noted factor in deciding public policy and legislative change. Yet, despite this growing concern, skepticism toward such suffering is still surprisingly common. This paper analyzes the merits of the skeptical approach, both in its moderate and extreme forms. In the first part it is claimed that the type of criterion for verification concerning the mental states of other animals posed by skepticism is overly (and, in the case of extreme skepticism, illogically) demanding. (...)
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  2. Derrick E. Aarons (1999). Medicine and Its Alternatives: Health Care Priorities in the Caribbean. Hastings Center Report 29 (4):23-27.
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  3. Khalil Abdur-Rashid, Steven Woodward Furber & Taha Abdul-Basser (2013). Lifting the Veil: A Typological Survey of the Methodological Features of Islamic Ethical Reasoning on Biomedical Issues. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (2):81-93.
    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa—i.e., (...)
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  4. Tineke A. Abma & Guy Am Widdershoven (2006). Moral Deliberation in Psychiatric Nursing Practice. Nursing Ethics 13 (5):546-557.
    Moral deliberation has been receiving more attention in nursing ethics. Several ethical conversation models have been developed. This article explores the feasibility of the so-called CARE (Considerations, Actions, Reasons, Experiences) model as a framework for moral deliberation in psychiatric nursing practice. This model was used in combination with narrative and dialogical approaches to foster discourse between various stakeholders about coercion in a closed admission clinic in a mental hospital in the Netherlands. The findings demonstrate that the CARE model provides a (...)
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  5. A. Abou-Zeid, H. Silverman, M. Shehata, M. Shams, M. Elshabrawy, T. Hifnawy, S. A. Rahman, B. Galal, H. Sleem, N. Mikhail & N. Moharram (2010). Collection, Storage and Use of Blood Samples for Future Research: Views of Egyptian Patients Expressed in a Cross-Sectional Survey. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (9):539-547.
    Objective To determine the attitudes of Egyptian patients regarding their participation in research and with the collection, storage and future use of blood samples for research purposes. Design Cross-sectional survey. Study population Adult Egyptian patients (n=600) at rural and urban hospitals and clinics. Results Less than half of the study population (44.3%) felt that informed consent forms should provide research participants the option to have their blood samples stored for future research. Of these participants, 39.9% thought that consent forms should (...)
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  6. Jaworska Agnieszka & Tannenbaum Julie (forthcoming). Who Has the Capacity to Participate as a Rearee in a Person-Rearing Relationship. Ethics.
    We discuss applications of our account of moral status grounded in person-rearing relationships: which individuals have higher moral status or not, and why? We cover three classes of cases: (1) cases involving incomplete realization of the capacity to care, including whether infants or fetuses have this incomplete capacity; (2) cases in which higher moral status rests in part on what is required for the being to flourish; (3) hypothetical cases in which cognitive enhancements could, e.g., help dogs achieve human-like cognitive (...)
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  7. Darrel W. Amundsen (1996). Medicine, Society, and Faith in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    In Medicine, Society, and Faith in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds Darrel Amundsen explores the disputed boundaries of medicine and Christianity by focusing on the principle of the sanctity of human life, including the duty to treat or attempt to sustain the life of the ill. As he examines his themes and moves from text to context, Amundsen clarifies a number of Christian principles in relation to bioethical issues that are hotly debated today. In his examination of the moral stance (...)
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  8. Judith Andre (1998). A Larger Space for Moral Reflection. Ethical Currents (53):6-8.
    Margaret Urban Walker argues that hospital ethics committees should think of their task as "keeping moral space open." I develop her suggestion with analogies: Enlarge the windows (i.e., expand what counts as an ethical issue); add rooms and doors (i.e., choose particular issues to engage). Examples include confidentiality defined as information flow, and moral distress in the healthcare workplace.
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  9. Vuko Andrić & Joachim Wündisch (2015). Is It Bad to Be Disabled? Adjudicating Between the Mere-Difference and the Bad-Difference Views of Disability. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 9 (3):1–16.
    This paper examines the impact of disability on wellbeing and presents arguments against the mere-difference view of disability. According to the mere-difference view, disability does not by itself make disabled people worse off on balance. Rather, if disability has a negative impact on wellbeing overall, this is only so because society is not treating disabled people the way it ought to treat them. In objection to the mere-difference view, it has been argued, roughly, that the view licenses the permissibility of (...)
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  10. George J. Annas (2010). Worst Case Bioethics: Death, Disaster, and Public Health. Oxford University Press.
    American healthcare -- Bioterror and bioart -- State of emergency -- Licensed to torture -- Hunger strikes -- War -- Cancer -- Drug dealing -- Toxic tinkering -- Abortion -- Culture of death -- Patient safety -- Global health -- Statue of security -- Pandemic fear -- Bioidentifiers -- Genetic genocide.
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  11. Jonny Anomaly (2014). What is an Epidemic? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 42 (3):389-391.
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  12. Jonny Anomaly (2011). Public Health and Public Goods. Public Health Ethics 4 (3):251-259.
    It has become increasingly difficult to distinguish public health from tangentially related fields like social work. I argue that we should reclaim the more traditional conception of public health as the provision of health-related public goods. The public goods account has the advantage of establishing a relatively clear and distinctive mission for public health. It also allows a consensus of people with different comprehensive moral and political commitments to endorse public health measures, even if they disagree about precisely why they (...)
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  13. Jonny Anomaly (2010). Combating Resistance: The Case for a Global Antibiotics Treaty. Public Health Ethics 3 (1):13-22.
    The use of antibiotics by one person can profoundly affect the welfare of other people. I will argue that efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance generate a global collective action problem that only a well-designed international treaty can overcome. I begin by describing the problem of resistance and outlining some market-friendly policy tools that participants in a global treaty could use to control the problem. I then defend the claim that these policies can achieve their aim while protecting individual liberty and (...)
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  14. Y. S. J. Aquino & N. Steinkamp (2016). Borrowed Beauty? Understanding Identity in Asian Facial Cosmetic Surgery. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-11.
    This review aims to identify (1) sources of knowledge and (2) important themes of the ethical debate related to surgical alteration of facial features in East Asians. This article integrates narrative and systematic review methods. In March 2014, we searched databases including PubMed, Philosopher’s Index, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and Communication Abstracts using key terms “cosmetic surgery,” “ethnic*,” “ethics,” “Asia*,” and “Western*.” The study included all types of papers written in English that discuss the debate on rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty (...)
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  15. Elvio Baccarini, Questions of Life and Death.
    The research started with a definition of the general ethical background to be applied in bioethical discussions, particularly regarding aspects of morality that have to be enforced by the community. Only those moral beliefs that can be accepted by consensus in a free discussion can be enforced. It follows that the basic principle of a well ordered society is the equality (and possible upwards extension) of the basic liberties. Therefore, whenever it is possible to respect the principle of autonomy in (...)
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  16. Rebecca Bamford & Mark D. Tschaepe (2011). Biophysical Models of Human Behavior: Is There a Place for Logic. American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (3):70-72.
    We present a two-pronged criticism of Ramos's argument. Our main contention is that the logic of the author’s argument is flawed. As we demonstrate, the author conflates probability with necessity, in addition to conflating free will having causal efficacy with the merely illusory conscious experience of free will; such conflations undermine the claim that individual free will should be both exhibited on a social scale and necessarily cause a particular organized pattern to emerge. In addition, we will show that the (...)
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  17. Elizabeth Barnes (2016). The Minority Body: A Theory of Disability. Oxford University Press.
    Disability is primarily a social phenomenon -- a way of being a minority, a way of facing social oppression, but not a way of being inherently or intrinsically worse off. This is how disability is understood in the Disability Rights and Disability Pride movements; but there is a massive disconnect with the way disability is typically viewed within analytic philosophy. The idea that disability is not inherently bad or sub-optimal is one that many philosophers treat with open skepticism, and sometimes (...)
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  18. Robert Laurence Barry (2002). The Sanctity of Human Life and its Protection. University Press of America.
    This work examines the various implications of the Roman Catholic doctrine of the sanctity of life.
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  19. Robert Bass (2012). Lives in the Balance: Utilitarianism and Animal Research. In Jeremy Garrett (ed.), The Ethics of Animal Research: Exploring the Controversy. MIT Press
    In the long history of moral theory, non-human animals—hereafter, just animals—have often been neglected entirely or have been relegated to some secondary status. Since its emergence in the early 19th century, utilitarianism has made a difference in that respect by focusing upon happiness or well-being (and their contraries) rather than upon the beings who suffer or enjoy. Inevitably, that has meant that human relations to and use of other animals have appeared in a different light. Some cases have seemed easy: (...)
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  20. Tom L. Beauchamp (1987). Medical Ethics in the Age of Technology. In Hans Mark & W. Lawson Taitte (eds.), Traditional Moral Values in the Age of Technology. Distributed by the University of Texas Press
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  21. Daniel Beck (2015). Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross‐Cultural Bioethics. Developing World Bioethics 15 (3):162-171.
    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, (...)
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  22. Katja Becker, Eva-Maria Engelen & Milos Vec (eds.) (2003). Ethisierung - Ethikferne: Wie Viel Ethik Braucht Die Wissenschaft? De Gruyter.
    Wieviel Ethik braucht der Mensch, wieviel Ethik braucht die Wissenschaft? Vor dem aktuellen Hintergrund einer gewandelten Wissenschaftsgesellschaft von hoher Entwicklungsdynamik geht es darum, Anleitung zu ethischer Selbst- und Situationsreflexion zu geben. Denn die spektakulären Errungenschaften nicht nur im Bereich der Biomedizin haben jedenfalls vorübergehend Zonen von moralischer und ethischer Ratlosigkeit geschaffen. Sie eröffnen Spielräume, von denen nicht sicher ist, ob sie genutzt werden dürfen und sollten. Die Empfindlichkeit gegenüber den Nachteilen und Risiken der technisch-wissenschaftlichen Zivilisation ist jedenfalls dort, wo die (...)
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  23. John Beverley (2015). The Ties That Undermine. Bioethics 30 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Do biological relations ground responsibilities between biological fathers and their offspring? Few think biological relations ground either necessary or sufficient conditions for responsibility. Nevertheless, many think biological relations ground responsibility at least partially. Various scenarios, such as cases concerning the responsibilities of sperm donors, have been used to argue in favor of biological relations as partially grounding responsibilities. In this article, I seek to undermine the temptation to explain sperm donor scenarios via biological relations by appealing to an overlooked feature (...)
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  24. Deryck Beyleveld (2001). Human Dignity in Bioethics and Biolaw. Oxford University Press.
    The concept of human dignity is increasingly invoked in bioethical debate and, indeed, in international instruments concerned with biotechnology and biomedicine. While some commentators consider appeals to human dignity to be little more than rhetoric and not worthy of serious consideration, the authors of this groundbreaking new study give such appeals distinct and defensible meaning through an application of the moral theory of Alan Gewirth.
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  25. Blumenthal-Barby (2013). “Choosing Wisely” to Reduce Low-Value Care: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (5):559-580.
    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation has recently initiated a campaign called “Choosing Wisely,” which is aimed at reducing “low-value” care services. Lists of low-value care services are being developed and the ABIM Foundation is urging the American Medical Association and other organizations to get behind the lists, disseminate them, and implement them. Yet, there are many ethical questions that remain about the development, dissemination, and implementation of these low-value care lists. In this paper I argue for conceptual (...)
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  26. J. S. Blumenthal-Barby (2012). Seeking Better Health Care Outcomes: The Ethics of Using the “Nudge”. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (2):1-10.
    Policymakers, employers, insurance companies, researchers, and health care providers have developed an increasing interest in using principles from behavioral economics and psychology to persuade people to change their health-related behaviors, lifestyles, and habits. In this article, we examine how principles from behavioral economics and psychology are being used to nudge people (the public, patients, or health care providers) toward particular decisions or behaviors related to health or health care, and we identify the ethically relevant dimensions that should be considered for (...)
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  27. G. Bognar (2012). Human Enhancement, Edited by Julian Savulescu and Nick Bostrom. [REVIEW] Mind 121 (481):225-229.
  28. Janet Borgerson (2005). Addressing the 'Global Basic Structure' in the Ethics of International Health Research Involving Human Subjects. Journal of Philosophical Research 30:235-249.
    The context of international health research involving human subjects, and this should appear obvious, is the human community. As such, basic questions of how human beings should be treated by other human beings, particularly in situations of unequal power – e.g., in the form of control, choice, or opportunity – lay at the foundations of related ethical discourse when ethics are discussed at all. I trace a narrative that follows upon a recent revision process of international guidelines for biomedical research (...)
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  29. Judith A. Boss (2001). Analyzing Moral Issues. Mcgraw Hill.
    Moral theory -- Abortion -- Genetic engineering, cloning, and stem cell research -- Euthanasia and assisted suicide -- The death penalty -- Drug and alcohol use -- Sexual intimacy and marriage -- Feminism, motherhood, and the workplace -- Freedom of speech -- Racial discrimination and global justice.
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  30. Frederic Bretzner, Frederic Gilbert, Françoise Baylis & Robert M. Brownstone (2011). Target Populations for First-In-Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research in Spinal Cord Injury. Cell Stem Cell 8 (5):468-475.
    Geron recently announced that it had begun enrolling patients in the world's first-in-human clinical trial involving cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This trial raises important questions regarding the future of hESC-based therapies, especially in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. We address some safety and efficacy concerns with this research, as well as the ethics of fair subject selection. We consider other populations that might be better for this research: chronic complete SCI patients for a safety trial, subacute (...)
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  31. Mindaugas Broga, Goran Mijaljica, Marcin Waligora, Aime Keis & Ana Marusic (2013). Publication Ethics in Biomedical Journals From Countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Science and Engineering Ethics (1):1-11.
    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union.The (...)
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  32. Emma C. Bullock & Heather Widdows (2011). Reconsidering Consent and Biobanking. Biobanks and Tissue Research The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology 8:111-125.
    The acquisition of fully informed consent presents a central ethical problem for the procurement and storage of human tissue in biobanks. The tension lies between the apparent necessity of obtaining informed consent from potential research subjects and the projected future use of the tissue. Specifically, under the doctrine of informed consent medical researchers are required to inform their potential research subjects about the relevant risks and purposes of the proposed research (Declaration of Helsinki, 2008, “Section 24.” Accessed November 1, 2009. (...)
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  33. Sylvia Burrow (2012). On The Cutting Edge: Ethical Responsiveness to Cesarean Section Rates. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (7):44-52.
    Cesarean delivery rates have been steadily increasing worldwide. In response, many countries have introduced target goals to reduce rates. But a focus on target goals fails to address practices embedded in standards of care that encourage, rather than discourage, cesarean sections. Obstetrical standards of care normalize use of technology, creating an imperative to use technology during labor and birth. A technological imperative is implicated in rising cesarean rates if physicians or patients fear refusing use of technology. Reproductive autonomy is at (...)
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  34. Ruth F. Chadwick (ed.) (2007). The Bioethics Reader: Editors' Choice. Blackwell Pub..
    A collection celebrating some of the best essays from the Blackwell journals, Bioethics and Developing World Bioethics. Contributors include Helga Kuhse, Michael Selgelid and Baroness Mary Warnock, former Chair of the British Government’s Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilization and Embryology’s. Traces some of the most important concerns of the 1980s, such as the ethics of euthanasia, reproductive technologies, the allocation of scarce medical resources, surrogate motherhood, through to a range of new issues debated today, particularly in the field of (...)
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  35. Jean-Claude Chevrolet & Bara Ricou (2009). Hospital Clinical Ethics Committees. The Geneva Experience - Switzerland. Diametros 22:21-38.
    Hospital ethics committees were created in the United States of America in the 1970s. Their aims were the education of the hospital personnel in the field of ethics, the development of policies and the publication of guidelines concerning ethical issues, as well as consultations and case reviews of hospitalized patients when an ethical concern was present. During the last thirty years, these committees disseminated, particularly in Western Europe. In this manuscript, we describe the benefit, but also some difficulties with these (...)
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  36. James F. Childress (1982). Who Should Decide?: Paternalism in Health Care. Oxford University Press.
    "A very good book indeed: there is scarcely an issue anyone has thought to raise about the topic which Childress fails to treat with sensitivity and good judgement....Future discussions of paternalism in health care will have to come to terms with the contentions of this book, which must be reckoned the best existing treatment of its subject."--Ethics. "A clear, scholarly and balanced analysis....This is a book I can recommend to physicians, ethicists, students of both fields, and to those most affected--the (...)
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  37. Michael Cholbi (2015). Medically Enabled Suicides. In M. Cholbi J. Varelius (ed.), New Directions in the Ethics of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Springer 169-184.
    What I call medically enabled suicides have four distinctive features: 1. They are instigated by actions of a suicidal individual, actions she intends to result in a physiological condition that, absent lifesaving medical interventions, would be otherwise fatal to that individual. 2. These suicides are ‘completed’ due to medical personnel acting in accordance with recognized legal or ethical protocols requiring the withholding or withdrawal of care from patients (e.g., following an approved advance directive). 3. The suicidal individual acts purposefully to (...)
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  38. Ronald J. Christie (1986). Ethical Issues in Family Medicine. Oxford University Press.
    While ethicists have directed much attention to controversial biomedical issues--including euthanasia, abortion, and genetic engineering--they have largely ignored the less obvious, but more pervasive, everyday ethical problems faced by family physicians. Ethical Issues in Family Medicine addresses these problems, offering an ethics that reflects the distinctive features of family practice, and helping family physicians to appreciate the extent to which ethical issues influence their practice.
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  39. Steve Clarke (2013). The Neuroscience of Decision Making and Our Standards for Assessing Competence to Consent. Neuroethics 6 (1):189-196.
    Rapid advances in neuroscience may enable us to identify the neural correlates of ordinary decision making. Such knowledge opens up the possibility of acquiring highly accurate information about people’s competence to consent to medical procedures and to participate in medical research. Currently we are unable to determine competence to consent with accuracy and we make a number of unrealistic practical assumptions to deal with our ignorance. Here I argue that if we are able to detect competence to consent and if (...)
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  40. Silvia Colona & Irene Schipper, Post-Trial Access to Treatment: Corporate Best Practices. Pharmaceutical Industry.
    The paper Post-Trial Acces To Treatment (PTA) offers an insight into current corporate policies and corporate best practices relating to the provision of PTA in low and middle income countries based on company sources. In these countries there is a greater appeal for pharmaceutical companies to take responsibility for providing PTA. However, the practice of providing PTA is the exception rather than the rule.
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  41. Kelso Cratsley (2015). Nudges and Coercion: Conceptual, Empirical, and Normative Considerations. Monash Bioethics Review 33:210-218.
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  42. Kelso Cratsley (2015). Nudges and Coercion: Conceptual, Empirical, and Normative Considerations. Monash Bioethics Review 33:210-218.
    Given that the concept of coercion remains a central concern for bioethics, Quigley's (Monash Bioethics Rev 32:141–158, 2014) recent article provides a helpful analysis of its frequent misapplication in debates over the use of ‘nudges’. In this commentary I present a generally sympathetic response to Quigley’s argument while also raising several issues that are important for the larger debates about nudges and coercion. I focus on several closely related topics, including the definition of coercion, the role of empirical research, and (...)
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  43. Kelso Cratsley (2014). Review of "Applied Ethics in Mental Health Care: An Interdisciplinary Reader". [REVIEW] Metapsychology 18 (36).
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  44. John Danaher (2016). Human Enhancement, Social Solidarity and the Distribution of Responsibility. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (2):359-378.
    This paper tries to clarify, strengthen and respond to two prominent objections to the development and use of human enhancement technologies. Both objections express concerns about the link between enhancement and the drive for hyperagency. The first derives from the work of Sandel and Hauskeller—and is concerned with the negative impact of hyperagency on social solidarity. In responding to their objection, I argue that although social solidarity is valuable, there is a danger in overestimating its value and in (...)
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  45. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2009). Assisted Reproductive Technology in Spain: Considering Women's Interests. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (3):228.
    It might come as a surprise to many that Spain, a country with a strong Catholic tradition that officially banned contraceptive technologies until 1978, has some of the most liberal regulations in assisted reproduction in the world. Law No. 35/1988 was one of the first and most detailed acts of legislation undertaken on the subject of assisted-conception procedures. Indeed, not only did the law permit research on nonviable embryos, it made assisted reproductive technologies available to any woman, whether married or (...)
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  46. Inmaculada de Melo-Martin (2008). A Duty to Participate in Research: Does Social Context Matter? American Journal of Bioethics 8 (10):28-36.
    Because of the important benefits that biomedical research offers to humans, some have argued that people have a general moral obligation to participate in research. Although the defense of such a putative moral duty has raised controversy, few scholars, on either side of the debate, have attended to the social context in which research takes place and where such an obligation will be discharged. By reflecting on the social context in which a presumed duty to participate in research will obtain, (...)
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  47. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2006). Genetic Testing: The Appropriate Means for a Desired Goal? [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (3):167-177.
    Scientists, the medical profession, philosophers, social scientists, policy makers, and the public at large have been quick to embrace the accomplishments of genetic science. The enthusiasm for the new biotechnologies is not unrelated to their worthy goal. The belief that the new genetic technologies will help to decrease human suffering by improving the public’s health has been a significant influence in the acceptance of technologies such as genetic testing and screening. But accepting this end should not blind us to the (...)
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  48. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2002). On Cloning Human Beings. Bioethics 16 (3):246–265.
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  49. John William Devine (2013). Doping Is Bad In Sport Because Doping Is Bad For Sport. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 43:41-43.
  50. Ezio Di Nucci (2014). Contraception and Double Effect. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (7):42-43.
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