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  1. Nicholas Agar (2013). Truly Human Enhancement: A Philosophical Defense of Limits. Mit.
    Nicholas Agar offers a more nuanced view of the transformative potential of genetic and cybernetic technologies, making a case for moderate human enhancement—improvements to attributes and abilities that do not significantly exceed what ...
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  2. Nicholas Agar (2013). There Is a Legitimate Place for Human Genetic Enhancement. In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Bioethics. John Wiley & Sons. 25--343.
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  3. Nicholas Agar (2013). We Must Not Create Beings with Moral Standing Superior to Our Own. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):709-709.
    Ingmar Persson challenges1 an argument in my book Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement2 that harms predictably suffered by unenhanced humans justify banning radical enhancement. Here I understand radical enhancement as producing beings with mental and physical capacities that greatly exceed those of the most capable current human. I called these results of radical enhancement posthumans, though I think that Persson may be right that this is not the most felicitous name for them.The focus of my argument was (...)
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  4. Nicholas Agar (2010). Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement. A Bradford Book.
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  5. Nicholas Agar (2010). Thoughts About Our Species’ Future: Themes From Humanity’s End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement. Journal of Evolution and Technology 21 (2):23-31.
    This paper summarizes a couple of the main arguments from my new book, Humanity’s End. In the book I argue against radical enhancement – the adjustment of human attributes and abilities to levels that greatly exceed what is currently possible for human beings. I’m curious to see what reaction this elicits in a journal whose readership includes some of radical enhancement’s most imaginative and committed advocates.
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  6. Sylvie Allouche, Can Science Fiction Be Useful to Reflect Upon Human Enhancement Issues?
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  7. Mahesh Ananth & Mike Scheessele (2012). Exempting All Minimal-Risk Research From IRB Review: Pruning or Poisoning the Regulatory Tree? Irb 34 (2):9-14.
    In a recent commentary, Kim and colleagues argued that minimal-risk research should be deregulated so that such studies do not require review by an institutional review board. They claim that regulation of minimal-risk studies provides no adequate counterbalancing good and instead leads to a costly human subjects oversight system. We argue that the counterbalancing good of regulating minimal-risk studies is that oversight exists to ensure that respect for persons and justice requirements are satisfied when they otherwise might not be.
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  8. Jonny Anomaly (2012). Is Obesity a Public Health Problem? Public Health Ethics 5 (3):216-221.
    It is often claimed that there is an obesity epidemic in affluent countries, and that obesity is one of the most serious public health threats in the developed world. I will argue that obesity is not an 'epidemic' in any useful sense of the word, and that classifying it as a public health problem requires us to make fairly controversial moral and empirical assumptions. While evidence suggests that the prevalence of obesity is on the rise, and that obesity can lead (...)
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  9. Richard E. Ashcroft & Karen P. Gui (2005). Ethics and World Pictures in Kamm on Enhancement. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):19 – 20.
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  10. Richard Edmund Ashcroft (2008). Regulating Biomedical Enhancements in the Military. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (2):47 – 49.
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  11. Beth Baker (1999). A New Advisory Panel Will Help USDA Tackle the Thorny Issues Raised by Agricultural Biotechnology. BioScience 49 (6):438-438.
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  12. Simone Bateman, Jean Gayon, Sylvie Allouche, Jérôme Goffette & Michela Marzano, Human Enhancement: An Interdisciplinary Inquiry.
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  13. Piers Benn (1992). AIDS and Sexual Morality. Philosophy Now 4:5-8.
  14. Ferenc Biedermann (2010). Argumente für und wider das Cognitive Enhancement. Ethik in der Medizin 22 (4):317-329.
    Das Cognitive Enhancement, die Steigerung der geistigen Leistungsfähigkeit gesunder Menschen durch Psychopharmaka und andere Interventionen, ist in jüngster Zeit verstärkt in den Fokus sowohl der Ethik als auch der breiteren Öffentlichkeit geraten. In kontrafaktischer Abstrahierung vom gegenwärtig noch sehr bescheidenen Stand der Technik wird dabei unter anderem erörtert, was grundsätzlich für und was gegen den Einsatz von markant wirksamem Cognitive Enhancement sprechen würde. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die einschlägige Diskussion. Zunächst wird der recht uneinheitlich verwendete Begriff des (...)
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  15. Nick Bostrom & Rebecca Roache (2007). Ethical Issues in Human Enhancement. In J. Ryberg, T. Petersen & C. Wolf (eds.), New Waves in Applied Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan. 120--152.
    Human enhancement has emerged in recent years as a blossoming topic in applied ethics. With continuing advances in science and technology, people are beginning to realize that some of the basic parameters of the human condition might be changed in the future. One important way in which the human condition could be changed is through the enhancement of basic human capacities. If this becomes feasible within the lifespan of many people alive today, then it is important now to consider the (...)
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  16. Michael C. Brannigan (2012). Cultural Fault Lines in Healthcare: Reflections on Cultural Competency. Lexington Books.
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction -- Chapter One: When Worldviews Collide -- Chapter Two: From Fault Lines to Cultural Competency -- Chapter Three: Cultural Discourse and Its Hurdles -- Chapter Four: On the Path to Presence -- Chapter Five: Cultivating Presence When There Is Distrust.
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  17. Roger Brownsword (2012). Five Principles for the Regulation of Human Enhancement. Asian Bioethics Review 4 (4):344-354.
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  18. A. Buchanan (2009). Enhancement and Human Nature. Bioethics 23 (3):141 - 50.
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  19. Jeffrey Burkhardt (1988). Biotechnology, Ethics, and the Structure of Agriculture. Agriculture and Human Values 5 (3):53-60.
    The “new” agricultural biotechnologies are presently high-priority items on the national research agenda. The promise of increased efficiency and productivity resulting from products and processes derived from biotech is thought to justify the commitment to R&D. Nevertheless, critics challenge the environmental safety as well as political-economic consequences of particular products of biotech, notably, ice-nucleating bacteria and the bovine growth hormone. In this paper the critics' arguments are analyzed in explicitly ethical terms, and assessed as to their relative merits. In some (...)
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  20. Benjamin J. Capps, Gordon Stirrat & Lisbeth Witthøfft Nielson (2012). A Brief Critique of Two Claims About the Social Value of Biotechnological Enhancements. Asian Bioethics Review 4 (4):259-271.
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  21. Kanchan Chopra (2008). Sustainable Human Well-Being: An Interpretation of Capability Enhancement From a 'Stakeholders and Systems' Perspective. In Kaushik Basu & Ravi Kanbur (eds.), Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honor of Amartya Sen: Volume I: Ethics, Welfare, and Measurement and Volume Ii: Society, Institutions, and Development. Oup Oxford.
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  22. Laura Colleton (2008). The Elusive Line Between Enhancement and Therapy and its Effects on Health Care in the US. Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):70-78.
    Biotechnology now makes it possible to enhance human traits as well as treat illnesses and disorders. What it has neglected to establish, however, is a clear line between these two functions, a distinction between what counts as treatment or therapy and what counts as enhancement. The bulk of the literature on enhancements focuses on the ethics of enhancements, not on the criteria that qualify a procedure as an enhancement . While the ethical questions regarding the desirability of enhancements are certainly (...)
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  23. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann (2011). Feminist Resources for Biomedical Research: Lessons From the HPV Vaccines. Hypatia 26 (1):79-101.
    Several feminist philosophers of science have argued that social and political values are compatible with, and may even enhance, scientific objectivity. A variety of normative recommendations have emerged regarding how to identify, manage, and critically evaluate social values in science. In particular, several feminist theorists have argued that scientific communities ought to: 1) include researchers with diverse experiences, interests, and values, with equal opportunity and authority to scrutinize research; 2) investigate or “study up” scientific phenomena from the perspectives, interests, and (...)
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  24. D. DeGrazia (2012). Genetic Enhancement, Post-Persons, and Moral Status: Author Reply to Commentaries. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (3):145-147.
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  25. David Degrazia (2005). Enhancement Technologies and Human Identity. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (3):261 – 283.
    As the President's Council on Bioethics emphasized in a recent report, rapid growth of biotechnologies creates increasingly many possibilities for enhancing human traits. This article addresses the claim that enhancement via biotechnology is inherently problematic for reasons pertaining to our identity. After clarifying the concept of enhancement, and providing a framework for understanding human identity, I examine the relationship between enhancement and identity. Then I investigate two identity-related challenges to biotechnological enhancements: (1) the charge of inauthenticity and (2) the charge (...)
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  26. Andreas Dorschel (1994). Über moralische Bemühungen um Leben. Zeitschrift Für Didaktik der Philosophie Und Ethik 16 (4).
  27. Thomas Douglas (2013). Enhancement, Biomedical. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  28. Donald N. Duvick (1991). Our Vision for the Agricultural Sciences Needs to Include Biotechnology. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (2):200-206.
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  29. Brian D. Earp, Anders Sandberg, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu, When is Diminishment a Form of Enhancement? : Rethinking the Enhancement Debate in Biomedical Ethics.
    The enhancement debate in neuroscience and biomedical ethics tends to focus on the augmentation of certain capacities or functions: memory, learning, attention, and the like. Typically, the point of contention is whether these augmentative enhancements should be considered permissible for individuals with no particular “medical” disadvantage along any of the dimensions of interest. Less frequently addressed in the literature, however, is the fact that sometimes the diminishment of a capacity or function, under the right set of circumstances, could plausibly contribute (...)
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  30. Carl Elliott (2005). Adventure! Comedy! Tragedy! Robots! How Bioethicists Learned to Stop Worrying and Embrace Their Inner Cyborgs. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2 (1):18-23.
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  31. Christian Evensen, Thomas Hoban & Eric Woodrum (2000). Technology and Morality: Influences on Public Attitudes Toward Biotechnology. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 13 (1):43-57.
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  32. Colin Patrick Farrelly (2005). Justice in the Genetically Transformed Society. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (1):91-99.
    : This paper explores some of the challenges raised by human genetic interventions for debates about distributive justice, focusing on the challenges that face prioritarian theories of justice and their relation to the argument advanced by Ronald Lindsay elsewhere in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Also examined are the implications of germ-line genetic enhancements for intergenerational justice, and an argument is given against Fritz Allhoff's conclusion, found in this issue as well, that such enhancements are morally (...)
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  33. Danny Frederick, Why People Should Be Free to Sell Their Organs.
  34. Michael Hauskeller (2014). Better Humans?: Understanding the Enhancement Project. Routledge.
    Developments in medical science have afforded us the opportunity to improve and enhance the human species in ways unthinkable to previous generations. Whether it's making changes to mitochondrial DNA in a human egg, being prescribed Prozac, or having a facelift, our desire to live longer, feel better and look good has presented philosophers, medical practitioners and policy-makers with considerable ethical challenges. But what exactly constitutes human improvement? What do we mean when we talk of making "better" humans? In this book (...)
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  35. Michael Hauskeller (2011). Human Enhancement and the Giftedness of Life. Philosophical Papers 40 (1):55-79.
    Michael Sandel's opposition to the project of human enhancement is based on an argument that centres on the notion of giftedness. Sandel claims that by trying to ?make better people? we fall prey to, and encourage, an attitude of mastery and thus lose, or diminish, our appreciation of the giftedness of life. Sandel's position and the underlying argument have been much criticised. In this paper I will try to make sense of Sandel's reasoning and give an account of giftedness that (...)
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  36. Stephen Michael Holland, Human Enhancement.
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  37. Jonathan Hughes (2007). Justice and Third Party Risk: The Ethics of Xenotransplantation. Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):151–168.
    The question of when it is permissible to inflict risks on others without their consent is one that we all face in our everyday lives, but which is often brought to our attention in contexts of technological innovation and scientific uncertainty. Xenotransplantation, the transplantation of organs or tissues from animals to humans, has the potential to save or improve the lives of many patients but gives rise to the possibility of infectious agents being transferred from donor animals into the human (...)
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  38. Steve Hughes (forthcoming). The Patenting of Genes for Agricultural Biotechnology. Bioethics for Scientists:153--170.
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  39. Wes Jackson (1991). Our Vision for the Agricultural Sciences Need Not Include Biotechnology. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (2):207-215.
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  40. Matt James (2012). Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement. Nicholas Agar, MIT Press, 2010. 232 Pp. Hardback. ISBN 9780262014625. RRP: £22.95. [REVIEW] Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 17 (1):133-136.
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  41. Calestous Juma (2005). Biotechnology in a Globalizing World: The Coevolution of Technology and Social Institutions. BioScience 55 (3):265.
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  42. A. David Kline (1991). We Have Not yet Identified the Heart of the Moral Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (2):216-222.
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  43. J. Manuel Torres (1997). On the Limits of Enhancement in Human Gene Transfer: Drawing the Line. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (1):43-53.
    Enhancement-line human genetic engineering has recurrently been targeted for bioethical discussion and is usually (if not always) illustrated by examples alluding to a genetic technology that is far beyond our current possibilities. By discussing an ambitious project related to solid tumor cancers – multidrug resistance (MDR) – the present paper places the question on a more realistic plane and draws bioethical conclusions to serve as guidelines in the field. The paper also establishes the inadequacy of the prevalent concept of genetic (...)
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  44. Inmaculada de Melo-martín & Kristen Intemann (2011). Feminist Resources for Biomedical Research: Lessons From the HPV Vaccines. Hypatia 26 (1):79 - 101.
    Several feminist philosophers of science have argued that social and political values are compatible with, and may even enhance, scientific objectivity. A variety of normative recommendations have emerged regarding how to identify, manage, and critically evaluate social values in science. In particular, several feminist theorists have argued that scientific communities ought to: 1) include researchers with diverse experiences, interests, and values, with equal opportunity and authority to scrutinize research; 2) investigate or "study up" scientific phenomena from the perspectives, interests, and (...)
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  45. Donald Meltzer & Robert J. Hamm (1974). Conditioned Enhancement as a Function of Schedule of Reinforcement. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 3 (2):99-101.
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  46. R. N. MN (2007). Exploring the Use of Feminist Philosophy Within Nursing Research to Enhance Post-Positivist Methodologies in the Study of Cardiovascular Health. Nursing Philosophy 8 (4):278–290.
  47. Alfred Nordmann (2007). If and Then: A Critique of Speculative Nanoethics. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 1 (1):31-46.
    Most known technology serves to ingeniously adapt the world to the physical and mental limitations of human beings. Humankind has acquired awesome power with its rather limited means. Nanotechnological capabilities further this power. On some accounts, however, nanotechnological research will contribute to a rather different kind of technological development, namely one that changes human beings so as to remove or reduce their physical and mental limitations. The prospect of this technological development has inspired a fair amount of ethical debate. Here, (...)
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  48. Ingmar Persson & Julian Savulescu (2011). Unfit for the Future? Human Nature, Scientific Progress, and the Need for Moral Enhancement. In Guy Kahane, Julian Savulescu & Ruud Ter Meulen (eds.), Enhancing Human Capacities. 486--500.
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  49. R. Powell (2013). The Biomedical Enhancement of Moral Status. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (2):65-66.
    The biomedical enhancement of human capacities has emerged as one of the most philosophically invigorating areas of contemporary bioethical research. In exploring the ethical dimensions of emerging biotechnologies and human–machine interfaces, the literature on human enhancement has made significant contributions to traditional problems in moral philosophy. One such area concerns the enhancement of cognitive capacities that bear on moral status. Could biotechnological or other forms of neurocognitive intervention result in the creation of ‘postpersons’ who possess a moral status that is (...)
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  50. Jonathan Pugh, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu (2013). Cohen's Conservatism and Human Enhancement. Journal of Ethics 17 (4):331-354.
    In an intriguing essay, G. A. Cohen has defended a conservative bias in favour of existing value. In this paper, we consider whether Cohen’s conservatism raises a new challenge to the use of human enhancement technologies. We develop some of Cohen’s suggestive remarks into a new line of argument against human enhancement that, we believe, is in several ways superior to existing objections. However, we shall argue that on closer inspection, Cohen’s conservatism fails to offer grounds for a strong sweeping (...)
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