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  1. Ademola A. Adenle (2014). Stakeholders' Perceptions of GM Technology in West Africa: Assessing the Responses of Policymakers and Scientists in Ghana and Nigeria. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (2):241-263.
    The perception of two key stakeholders such as policymakers and scientists on genetic modification (GM) technology was examined in Ghana and Nigeria using semi-structured interviews. A total sample of 20 policymakers (16 at ministries and 4 at parliament/cabinet) and 58 scientists (43 at research institutes and 15 at universities) participated at the interviews. This study revealed respondents perspectives on potential benefits and risks of GM technology, status and development of biosafety regulatory frameworks, role of science and technology innovation in agricultural (...)
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  2. Emmanuel Agius (2013). Biotechnology and Human Dignity. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 17 (2):155 - 184.
    The precise meaning of “human dignity” is increasingly being questioned in ethics and law. Is human dignity an adequate guide to policymaking in today’s biotechnological era? This article is an attempt to answer this thorny issue. The emergence of the concept of human dignity as a key point of reference for the regulation of modern science and technology in the European Union is evaluated. The main contribution of this article is to prove that in EU Directives and Recommendations, human dignity (...)
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  3. Jaime Ahlberg & Harry Brighouse (2011). An Argument Against Cloning. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (4):539-566.
    It is technically possible to clone a human being. The result of the procedure would be a human being in its own right. Given the current level of cloning technology concerning other animals there is every reason to believe that early human clones will have shorter-than-average life-spans, and will be unusually prone to disease. In addition, they would be unusually at risk of genetic defects, though they would still, probably, have lives worth living. But with experimentation and experience, seriously unequal (...)
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  4. Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin & Jesse Steinberg (2011). Ethics of Human Enhancement: An Executive Summary. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):201-212.
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  5. Joseph S. Alper & Jon Beckwith (1998). Distinguishing Genetic From Nongenetic Medical Tests: Some Implications for Antidiscrimination Legislation. Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (2):141-150.
    Genetic discrimination is becoming an increasingly important problem in the United States. Information acquired from genetic tests has been used by insurance companies to reject applications for insurance policies and to refuse payment for the treatment of illnesses. Numerous states and the United States Congress have passed or are considering passage of laws that would forbid such use of genetic information by health insurance companies. Here we argue that much of this legislation is severely flawed because of the difficulty in (...)
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  6. Latifah Amin & Hasrizul Hashim (forthcoming). Factors Influencing Stakeholders Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Aedes Mosquito. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-27.
    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have (...)
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  7. Ian Angell (2008). As I See It: Enclosing Identity. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 1 (1):23-37.
    This article claims that an ‘enclosure of the commons’ is underway, which reaches far beyond intellectual property, to a point where, through profiling, ‘identity’ has itself become enclosed property that can be owned by another. With a detour through the natures of both money and innovation, this paper looks at the imperative driving ‘intellectual property rights.’ By introducing the notion of biopiracy, it shows how ‘invasion of privacy’ is justified, and ends with “a world of rapacious, state-aided ‘privatization’” of enclosed (...)
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  8. Jonny Anomaly (2012). Review of Allen Buchanan, Beyond Humanity? The Ethics of Biomedical Enhancement. [REVIEW] Bioethics 26 (7):391-392.
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  9. Richard Arneson, Is Moral Theory Perplexed by New Genetic Technology?
    Richard J. Arneson From Choice to Chance: Genes and the Just Society1 intelligently addresses difficult issues at the intersection of medical ethics and the theory of justice. The authors, Dan Brock, Allen Buchanan, Norman Daniels, and Daniel Wikler, repeatedly emphasize their opinion that advances in genetic technology force upon us entirely new ethical questions which previous moral theories lack the resources to resolve.2 The claims that new scientific discoveries render previous moral theories obsolete should be regarded with suspicion. The reader’s (...)
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  10. Andrew Askland (2003). Patenting Genes. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (2):267-275.
    Patents have been issued in the United States for genes and gene sequences since 1980. Patent protection has provided incentives to aggressively probe the genome of humans and non-humans alike in search of profitable applications. Yet it is not clear that patent protection should have been afforded to genes and gene sequences and it is increasingly clear that patent protection, as currently formulated, is not an appropriate means to realize the full benefits of genetic research. As we stand on the (...)
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  11. Christoph Asmuth, Benedetta Bisol & Patrick Grüneberg (2010). Modelle und Grenzen der Leistungssteigerung im Sport: Enhancement, Doping, Therapie aus philosophischer Sicht. Leipziger Sportwissenschaftliche Beiträge 51 (2):8-43.
    Enhancement is a basic principle of modern sport. Their increase of achievement is usually attributed to the sportsmen’s natural assessment, their health, their training methods and their employment. In contrast, increase in output by pharmacological means is outlawed. The modern medical techniques created a whole range, by which sportsmen are supported. Consequently, sometimes difficult decisions with concrete medications develop. It is not always clearly to be differentiated whether something is a pharmacological interference, which serves the therapy or leads however to (...)
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  12. Robin Attfield (2012). Synthetic Biology, Deontology and Synthetic Bioethics. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (1):29 - 32.
    Paul Thompson argues that current synthetic biology amounts to synthetic genomics, comprising a ?platform? technology, and that Christopher Preston's deontological objections based on its supposed rejection of the historical process of evolution miscarry. This makes it surprising that Thompson's normative ethic consists in a deontological appeal to Kantian duties of imperfect obligation. Construed as obligations subject to choice, such constraints risk being excessively malleable where the ethical objections to deployment of this technology concern land rights and/or exploitation. Thompson's advocacy of (...)
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  13. Wendy Baldwin (2002). Conflict of Interest and its Significance in Science and Medicine Warsaw, Poland, 5–6 April, 2002. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):469-475.
    This article summarizes the April 5–6, 2002 conference on Conflict of Interest and Its Significance in Science and Medicine. Several themes are identified and addressed, including the globalization of science, the widespread presence of conflicts, the increased interest and involvement in conflict of interest by a number of organizations, the difference between academic research and research conducted by industry, and the tension between science and medicine. At the heart of the matter lies objectivity in research and the need for transparency (...)
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  14. John Basl (2010). State Neutrality and the Ethics of Human Enhancement Technologies. AJOB 1 (2):41-48.
    Robust technological enhancement of core cognitive capacities is now a realistic possibility. From the perspective of neutralism, the view that justifications for public policy should be neutral between reasonable conceptions of the good, only members of a subset of the ethical concerns serve as legitimate justifications for public policy regarding robust technological enhancement. This paper provides a framework for the legitimate use of ethical concerns in justifying public policy decisions regarding these enhancement technologies by evaluating the ethical concerns that arise (...)
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  15. Tom L. Beauchamp (1987). Medical Ethics in the Age of Technology. In Hans Mark & W. Lawson Taitte (eds.), Traditional Moral Values in the Age of Technology. Distributed by the University of Texas Press.
  16. Volkert Beekman & Frans W. A. Brom (2007). Ethical Tools to Support Systematic Public Deliberations About the Ethical Aspects of Agricultural Biotechnologies. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (1):3-12.
    This special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics presents so-called ethical tools that are developed to support systematic public deliberations about the ethical aspects of agricultural biotechnologies. This paper firstly clarifies the intended connotations of the term “ethical tools” and argues that such tools can support liberal democracies to cope with the issues that are raised by the application of genetic modification and other modern biotechnologies in agriculture and food production. The paper secondly characterizes the societal discussion (...)
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  17. Frederick R. Bieber (2006). Turning Base Hits Into Earned Runs: Improving the Effectiveness of Forensic DNA Data Bank Programs. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (2):222-233.
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  18. Nick Bostrom (forthcoming). Smart Policy: Cognitive Enhancement and the Public Interest. In Julian Savulescu, Ruud ter Muelen & Guy Kahane (eds.), Enhancing Human Capabilities. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Cognitive enhancement may be defined as the amplification or extension of core capacities of the mind through improvement or augmentation of internal or external information processing systems. Cognition refers to the processes an organism uses to organize information. These include acquiring information (perception), selecting (attention), representing (understanding) and retaining (memory) information, and using it to guide behavior (reasoning and coordination of motor outputs). Interventions to improve cognitive function may be directed at any of these core faculties.
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  19. Frans W. A. Brom (2000). The Good Life of Creatures with Dignity Some Comments on the Swiss Expert Opinion. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (1):53-63.
    The notion of Dignity of Creatures has been voted into the Swiss Federal Constitution by a plebiscite. Philipp Balzer, Klaus-Peter Rippe, and Peter Schaber have given an expert opinion for the Swiss government to clarify the notion of Dignity of Creatures. According to them, by voting this notion into the Swiss constitution, the Swiss have chosen for a limited biocentric approach towards biotechnology. In such an approach genetic engineering of non-human beings is only allowed insofar that their own good is (...)
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  20. Jeffrey Burkhardt (2001). Agricultural Biotechnology and the Future Benefits Argument. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (2):135-145.
    In the face of criticisms about the current generationof agricultural biotechnology products, some proponents ofagricultural biotechnology offer a ``future benefitsargument''''(FBA), which is a utilitarian ethical argument thatattempts to justify continued R&D. This paper analyzes severallogical implications of the FBA. Among these are that acceptanceof the FBA implies (1) acceptance of a precautionary approach torisk, (2) the need for a more proportional and equitabledistribution of the benefits of agricultural biotechnology, andmost important, (3) the need to reorient and restructurebiotechnology R&D institutions (and (...)
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  21. Jeanne L. Burton & Brian W. McBride (1989). Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (rbST): Is There a Limit for Biotechnology in Applied Animal Agriculture? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2 (2):129-159.
    The intent of this article is to outline, integrate, and interpret relevant scientific, economic, and social issues of rbST technology that have contributed to the acceptance dilemma for this product. The public is divided into social groups, each with its own set of criteria on which they base rbSTs acceptability. Criteria for the scientific community may best be described as physiological. However, for consumers, criteria may be more practical, or procedural, including human health, animal welfare, environmental concerns, and overproduction. Because (...)
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  22. Martin Calkins (2002). How Casuistry and Virtue Ethics Might Break the Ideological Stalemate Troubling Agricultural Biotechnology. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3):305-330.
    Abstract: This article begins by showing how recent controversies over the widespread promotion of artificially gene-altered foods are rooted in opposing ethical and ideological worldviews. It then explains how these contrasting worldviews have led to a practical, ethical, and ideological standoff and, finally, suggests the combined use of casuistry and virtue ethics as a way for both sides to move ahead on this pressing issue.
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  23. Margaret A. Clark (1999). This Little Piggy Went to Market: The Xenotransplantation and Xenozoonose Debate. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (2):137-152.
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  24. Benjamin M. Cole & Preeta M. Banerjee (2013). Morally Contentious Technology-Field Intersections: The Case of Biotechnology in the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):555-574.
    Technologies can be not only contentious—overthrowing existing ways of doing things—but also morally contentious—forcing deep reflection on personal values and societal norms. This article investigates that what may impede the acceptance of a technology and/or the development of the field that supports or exploits it, the lines between which often become blurred in the face of morally contentious content. Using a unique dataset with historically important timing—the United States Biotechnology Study fielded just 9 months after the public announcement of the (...)
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  25. Anthony Mark Cutter & Bert Gordijn (2007). Questions of Human Enhancement: An Editorial. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1).
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  26. Rafael Dal-Re, Xavier Carné & Diego Gracia (eds.) (2013). Luces y sombras en la investigación clínica. Triacastela, Fundació Víctor Grífols I Lucas.
    La investigación clínica, entendida como la búsqueda de soluciones para los problemas que acechan a la salud es, por su objetivo, una de las actividades de mayor trascendencia para el ser humano. Esta obra colectiva, como su propio título indica, explora no solo lo mucho que de positivo (las luces) tiene la investigación clínica, cómo se realiza, qué problemas encuentra y qué soluciones se plantean, sino también algunos aspectos negativos (las sombras) que la comunidad científica ha sido, hasta la fecha, (...)
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  27. Aubrey D. N. J. de Grey (2007). Life Span Extension Research and Public Debate: Societal Considerations. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1).
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  28. Adalberto de Hoyos, Rodrigo Nava-Diosdado, Jorge Mendez, Sergio Ricco, Ana Serrano, Carmen Flores Cisneros, Carlos Macías-Ojeda, Héctor Cisneros, David Bialostozky, Nelly Altamirano-Bustamante & Myriam Altamirano-Bustamante (2013). Cardiovascular Medicine at Face Value: A Qualitative Pilot Study on Clinical Axiology. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8 (1):3.
    Cardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which they (...)
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  29. Annette Dufner (2013). Potentiality Arguments and the Definition of “Human Organism”. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (1):33-34.
    Bettina Schöne-Seifert and Marco Stier present a host of detailed and intriguing arguments to the effect that potentiality arguments have to be viewed as outdated due to developments in stem cell research, in particular the possibility of re-setting the development potential of differentiated cells, such as skin cells. However, their argument leaves them without an explanation of the intuitive difference between skin cells and human beings, which seems to be based on the assumption that a skin cell is merely part (...)
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  30. Margaret L. Eaton (2004). Ethics and the Business of Bioscience. Stanford Business Books.
    Businesses that produce bioscience products—gene tests and therapies, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medical devices—are regularly confronted with ethical issues concerning these technologies. Conflicts exist between those who support advancements in bioscience and those who fear the consequences of unfettered scientific license. As the debate surrounding bioscience grows, it will be increasingly important for business managers to consider the larger consequences of their work. This groundbreaking book follows industry research, development, and marketing of medical and bioscience products across a variety of fields, (...)
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  31. Ron Epstein, Buddhism and Biotechnology.
    The topic of this panel is "Biotechnology: Boon or Bane for Spiritual Development." It has very often been said that we are on the threshold of the biotech century, and I am sure that all of you are very clearly aware that genetic engineering is going to totally reshape life on this planet in many ways: economically, politically, scientifically--particularly in terms of medicine, and also environmentally. Most important for all of us is what the relationship of this incredible technology will (...)
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  32. N. G. Evans (2013). Great Expectations—Ethics, Avian Flu and the Value of Progress. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):209-213.
    A recent controversy over the US National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity's recommendation to censor two publications on genetically modified H5N1 avian influenza has generated concern over the threat to scientific freedom such censorship presents. In this paper, I argue that in the case of these studies, appeals to scientific freedom are not sufficient to motivate a rejection of censorship. I then use this conclusion to draw broader concerns about the ethics of dual-use research.
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  33. Obidimma C. Ezezika, Jennifer Deadman & Abdallah S. Daar (2013). She Came, She Saw, She Sowed: Re-Negotiating Gender-Responsive Priorities for Effective Development of Agricultural Biotechnology in Sub-Saharan Africa. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (2):461-471.
    In this paper, we argue for the importance of incorporating a gendered perspective for the effective development of sustainable agricultural biotechnology systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Priority setting for agricultural policy and project development requires attention to gender issues specific to the demands of agricultural biotechnology. This is essential for successfully addressing food security and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There has been a great deal of debate and literature on the implications of gender in agricultural development and policy. However, (...)
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  34. Ruth Faden & Madison Powers (2013). Biotechnology, Justice and Health. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):49-61.
    New biotechnologies have the potential to both dramatically improve human well-being and dramatically widen inequalities in well-being. This paper addresses a question that lies squarely on the fault line of these two claims: When as a matter of justice are societies obligated to include a new biotechnology in a national healthcare system? This question is approached from the standpoint of a twin aim theory of justice, in which social structures, including nation-states, have double-barreled theoretical objectives with regard to human well-being. (...)
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  35. Federico L. G. Faroldi (2013). Review of "The Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics&Quot;. [REVIEW] Philosophical Inquiries 1.
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  36. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2009). The Case Against Perfection: Ethics in the Age of Genetic Engineering. [REVIEW] American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 83 (4):636-639.
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  37. Maria Paola Ferretti (2010). Risk and Distributive Justice: The Case of Regulating New Technologies. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (3): 501-515.
    There are certain kinds of risk for which governments, rather than individual actors, are increasingly held responsible. This article discusses how regulatory institutions can ensure an equitable distribution of risk between various groups such as rich and poor, and present and future generations. It focuses on cases of risk associated with technological and biotechnological innovation. After discussing various possibilities and difficulties of distribution, this article proposes a non-welfarist understanding of risk as a burden of cooperation.
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  38. Michael Fuchs (2012). Reshaping Human Intelligence: The Debate About Genetic Enhancement of Cognitive Functions. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (2):165-181.
    Given the technical feasibility, not only scientists but also moral philosophers approve of an intervention in the genetic basis of our intellectual dispositions. Among the features not related to illnesses, intelligence seems to be an especially promising candidate for genetic enhancement, for intelligence is valued in every culture. The paper presents some of the arguments for and against genetic enhancement of intelligence. The author analyses what kind of good increased intelligence is: an instrumental good for the wellbeing of mankind, a (...)
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  39. Daniel J. Goldstein (1989). A Biotechnological Agenda for the Third World. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2 (1):37-51.
    Third World countries should exploit the genetic information stored in their flora and fauna to develop independent and highly competitive biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. The necessary condition for this policy to succeed is the reshaping of their universities and hospitals—to turn them into high-caliber research institutions dedicated to the creation of original knowledge and biomedical invention. Part of the service of the Third World foreign debt should be co-invested with the lending banks in high technology enterprises. This should be complemented (...)
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  40. Henry T. Greely, Mildred K. Cho, Linda F. Hogle & Debra M. Satz (2007). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on "Thinking About the Human Neuron Mouse". American Journal of Bioethics 7 (5):W4 – W6.
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  41. Henry T. Greely, Mildred K. Cho, Linda F. Hogle & Debra M. Satz (2007). Thinking About the Human Neuron Mouse. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (5):27 – 40.
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  42. Patrick Grüneberg (2012). From Therapy and Enhancement to Assistive Technologies: An Attempt to Clarify the Role of the Sports Physician. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 6 (4):480-491.
    Sports physicians are continuously confronted with new biotechnological innovations. This applies not only to doping in sports, but to all kinds of so-called enhancement methods. One fundamental problem regarding the sports physician's self-image consists in a blurred distinction between therapeutic treatment and non-therapeutic performance enhancement. After a brief inventory of the sports physician's work environment I reject as insufficient the attempts to resolve the conflict of the sports physician by making it a classificatory problem. Followed by a critical assessment of (...)
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  43. Benjamin Hale (2007). Gavagai Goulash: Growing Organs for Food. Think 17 (15):61-70.
    Recent advancements in stem-cell research have given scientists hope that new technologies will soon enable them to grow a variety of organs for transplantation into humans. Though such developments are still in their early stages, romantic prognosticators are hopeful that scientists will be capable of growing fully functioning and complex organs, such as hearts, kidneys, muscles, and livers. This raises the question of whether such profound medical developments might have other potentially fruitful applications. In the spirit of innovation, this paper (...)
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  44. Sven Ove Hansson & Karin Joelsson (2013). Crop Biotechnology for the Environment? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (4):759-770.
    In public debates, agricultural biotechnology is almost invariably discussed as a potential threat to the environment and to human health. Without downplaying the risks associated with this technology we emphasize that if properly regulated, it can be a forceful tool to solve environmental problems and promote human health. Agricultural biotechnology can reduce environmental problems in at least three ways: it can diminish the need for environmentally damaging agricultural practices such as pesticides, fertilizers, tillage, and irrigation. It can reduce the land (...)
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  45. Ori J. Herstein (2013). Why 'Nonexistent People' Do Not Have Zero Wellbeing but No Wellbeing at All. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (2):136-145.
    Some believe that the harm or benefit of existence is assessed by comparing a person's actual state of wellbeing with the level of wellbeing they would have had had they never existed. This approach relies on ascribing a state or level of wellbeing to ‘nonexistent people’, which seems a peculiar practice: how can we attribute wellbeing to a ‘nonexistent person'? To explain away this oddity, some have argued that because no properties of wellbeing can be attributed to ‘nonexistent people’ such (...)
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  46. Daniel Holbrook, Biomedical Ethics Spring 2007.
    Topic Read 01. Jan 09 Introduction/Pretest/Critical Thinking 02. Jan 11 Ethical Theory Homepage 03. Jan 16 More about Ethical Theory 04. Jan 18 Euthanasia CC-2 05. Jan 23 More about Euthanasia CC-4 06. Jan 25 Birth Defects CC-9 07. Jan 30 Euthanasia/Birth Defects Symposium 08. Feb 01 Animals as Research Subjects CC-10 09. Feb 06 More about Animals as Research Subjects 10. Feb 08 Humans as Research Subjects CC-11 11. Feb 13 Organ/Tissue Donation & Xenografts CC-13/14 12. Feb 15 Research (...)
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  47. David Hunter (2013). How to Object to Radically New Technologies on the Basis of Justice: The Case of Synthetic Biology. Bioethics 27 (8):426-434.
    A recurring objection to the exploration, development and deployment of radical new technologies is based on their implications with regards to social justice. In this article, using synthetic biology as an example, I explore this line of objection and how we ought to think about justice in the context of the development and introduction of radically new technologies. I argue that contrary to popular opinion, justice rarely provides a reason not to investigate, develop and introduce radical new technologies, although it (...)
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  48. Michiel Korthals & Cristian Timmermann (2012). Reflections on the International Networking Conference “Ethical and Social Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights – Agrifood and Health” Brussels, September 2011. Synesis 3 (1):G66-73.
    Public goods, as well as commercial commodities, are affected by exclusive arrangements secured by intellectual property (IP) rights. These rights serve as an incentive to invest human and material capital in research and development. Particularly in the life sciences, IP rights regulate objects such as food and medicines that are key to securing human rights, especially the right to adequate food and the right to health. Consequently, IP serves private (economic) and public interests. Part of this charge claims that the (...)
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  49. William R. LaFleur (2008). Enhancement and Desire: Japanese Qualms About Where Biotechnology is Taking Us. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (1):65-72.
  50. Max J. Latona (2004). New Technologies, Old Distinctions. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 78:277-288.
    This essay presents an argument against human cloning. The thrust of the argument is that cloning is morally impermissible inasmuch as it violates thedignity of the clone who, as a person, is as yet an end in himself or herself. This violation of human dignity is made possible by a confusion between what Aristotledescribes as things that are “by nature” and things that are “by art.” By attempting to “make” a person, the technique of cloning superimposes the logic of artupon (...)
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