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Black feminist philosophy is a version of feminism whose primary focus concerns, at least to some degree, Black women from within African diasporic contexts. It has the aim of understanding problems facing Black women along with identifying and/or uncovering liberation strategies. It also includes work that seeks to highlight the ways Black women's thought illuminates broader philosophical questions and issues. Least one think that Black feminist philosophy only concerns oppression, it also concerns celebrations of the lives and work of Black women across African diasporic contexts. These investigative paths lead to particular social ontologies, epistemologies, and pragmatic orientations, for example. 

Key works Intersectionality: A conceptual tool that demands identification of multiple social relationships for the purpose of rendering visible experiences that have been theoretically erased by prevailing, relevant practices of knowledge production. Crenshaw 1989, Crenshaw 1991 Double Jeopardy: A metaphor developed to gesture to the need to consider multiple vectors of oppression when attempting to understand ranges of vulnerability for any given group. (Beale 1969) Interstices: A metaphor developed to signal to gaps within contexts of signification that signals empowerment and disempowerment. (Spillers 1984) Unknowability: A form of active ignorance that is created by utilizing socio-epistemic orientations that render complex positions in our social landscapes difficult to detect. (Williams 1905)
Introductions Crenshaw 1989, Collins 1991/2008
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  1. Amy Allen (2007). Scholar's Symposium: The Work of Angela Y. Davis. [REVIEW] Human Studies 30 (4):311-321.
  2. Anita Allen, Anika Maaza Mann, Donna-Dale L. Marcano, Michele Moody-Adams & Jacqueline Scott (2008). Situated Black Women's Voices in/on the Profession of Philosophy. Hypatia 23 (2):160-189.
  3. Susan E. Babbitt (1994). Identity, Knowledge, and Toni Morrison's "Beloved": Questions About Understanding Racism. Hypatia 9 (3):1 - 18.
    In discussing Drucilla Cornell's remarks about Toni Morrison's Beloved, I consider epistemological questions raised by the acquiring of understanding of racism, particularly the deep-rooted racism embodied in social norms and values. I suggest that questions about understanding racism are, in part, questions about personal and political identities and that questions about personal and political identities are often, importantly, epistemological questions.
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  4. Cathryn Bailey (2009). Anna Julia Cooper, Visionary Black Feminist: A Critical Introduction. By VIVIAN M. MAY. Hypatia 24 (1):185-188.
  5. Cathryn Bailey (2004). Anna Julia Cooper: "Dedicated in the Name of My Slave Mother to the Education of Colored Working People". Hypatia 19 (2):56-73.
    : The achievements of Anna Julia Cooper are extraordinary given her life circumstances. Driven by a desire Cooper called "a thumping within," she became a prominent educator, earned her Ph.D., and influenced the thought of W.E.B. DuBois and others. Cooper fought for her educational philosophy, but despite her contributions, her apparent elitism has shaped contemporary assessments of her work. I argue that her views must be considered in social and historical context.
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  6. Cynthia Burack (2004). Healing Identities: Black Feminist Thought and the Politics of Groups. Cornell University Press.
    Psychoanalysis, race, and racism -- From psychoanalysis to political theory -- Reparative group leadership -- Conflict and authenticity -- Bonding and solidarity -- Coalitions and reparative politics.
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  7. Anna Carastathis (2014). The Concept of Intersectionality in Feminist Theory. Philosophy Compass 9 (5):304-314.
    In feminist theory, intersectionality has become the predominant way of conceptualizing the relation between systems of oppression which construct our multiple identities and our social locations in hierarchies of power and privilege. The aim of this essay is to clarify the origins of intersectionality as a metaphor, and its theorization as a provisional concept in Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw’s work, followed by its uptake and mainstreaming as a paradigm by feminist theorists in a period marked by its widespread and rather unquestioned--if, (...)
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  8. Anna Carastathis (2013). Basements and Intersections. Hypatia 28 (4):698-715.
    In this paper, I revisit Kimberlé Crenshaw's argument in “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex” (1989) to recover a companion metaphor that has been largely forgotten in the “mainstreaming” of intersectionality in (white-dominated) feminist theory. In addition to the now-famous intersection metaphor, Crenshaw offers the basement metaphor to show how—by privileging monistic, mutually exclusive, and analogically constituted categories of “race” and “sex” tethered, respectively, to masculinity and whiteness—antidiscrimination law functions to reproduce social hierarchy, rather than to remedy it, denying (...)
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  9. Romand Coles (2001). Traditio: Feminists of Color and the Torn Virtues of Democratic Engagement. Political Theory 29 (4):488-516.
  10. Patricia Hill Collins (2005). Book Review: Cynthia Burack. Healing Identities: Black Feminist Thought and the Politics of Groups. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2004. [REVIEW] Hypatia 20 (4):227-230.
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  11. Patricia Hill Collins (2005). Healing Identities: Black Feminist Thought and the Politics of Groups (Review). Hypatia 20 (4):227-230.
  12. Patricia Hill Collins (2003). Some Group Matters: Intersectionality, Situated Standpoints, and Black Feminist Thought. In Tommy Lee Lott & John P. Pittman (eds.), A Companion to African-American Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
  13. Patricia Hill Collins (1998). It's All in the Family: Intersections of Gender, Race, and Nation. Hypatia 13 (3):62 - 82.
    Intersectionality has attracted substantial scholarly attention in the 1990s. Rather than examining gender, race, class, and nation as distinctive social hierarchies, intersectionality examines how they mutually construct one another. I explore how the traditional family ideal functions as a privileged exemplar of intersectionality in the United States. Each of its six dimensions demonstrates specific connections between family as a gendered system of social organization, racial ideas and practices, and constructions of U.S. national identity.
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  14. Patricia Hill Collins (1992). Transforming the Inner Circle: Dorothy Smith's Challenge to Sociological Theory. Sociological Theory 10 (1):73-80.
  15. Blanche Radford Curry (2004). Whiteness and Feminism: Déjà Vu Discourses, What's Next? In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
  16. Tommy J. Curry (2013). The Fortune of Wells: Ida B. Wells-Barnett's Use of T. Thomas Fortune's Philosophy of Social Agitation as a Prolegomenon to Militant Civil Rights Activism. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (4):456-482.
    Jesus Christ may be regarded as the chief spirit of agitation and innovation. He himself declared, “I come not to bring peace, but a sword.” One cannot delve seriously into the centuries of activism and scholarship against racism, Jim Crowism, and the terrorism of lynching without encountering the legacies of Timothy Thomas Fortune and Ida B. Wells-Barnett. Black scholars from the 19th century to the present have been inspired by the sociological and economic works of Fortune and Wells. Scholars of (...)
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  17. Maria del Guadalupe Davidson, Kathryn T. Gines & Donna-Dale L. Marcano (eds.) (2010). Convergences: Black Feminism and Continental Philosophy. SUNY Press.
    A range of themes—race and gender, sexuality, otherness, sisterhood, and agency—run throughout this collection, and the chapters constitute a collective discourse at the intersection of Black feminist thought and continental philosophy, converging on a similar set of questions and concerns. These convergences are not random or forced, but are in many ways natural and necessary: the same issues of agency, identity, alienation, and power inevitably are addressed by both camps. Never before has a group of scholars worked together to examine (...)
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  18. Maria Del Guadalupe Davidson, Kathryn T. Gines & Donna-Dale L. Marcano (eds.) (2010). Convergences: Black Feminism and Continental Philosophy.
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  19. Angela Davis (1993). Black Feminist Thought. Teaching Philosophy 16 (4):351-353.
  20. Angela Y. Davis (2003). Racialized Punishment and Prison Abolition. In Tommy Lee Lott & John P. Pittman (eds.), A Companion to African-American Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
  21. Angela Y. Davis, Joy Ann James & Richard Curtis (1998). Dialogue on Radicalism and the Left: Radicalism Today. Radical Philosophy Review 1 (1):1-16.
  22. Kristie Dotson (2014). “Thinking Familiar with the Interstitial”: An Introduction. Hypatia 29 (1):1-17.
    It's not that we haven't always been here, since there was a here. It is that the letters of our names have been scrambled when they were not totally erased, and our fingertips upon the handles of history have been called the random brushings of birds. (Lorde , ix) Because… [racialized peoples'] dehumanization has not been successful, conceiving of self and others and their exercise of themselves both against dehumanization and toward liberatory possibilities has meant living double lives backed up (...)
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  23. Kristie Dotson (2011). Concrete Flowers: Contemplating the Profession of Philosophy. Hypatia 26 (2):403-409.
  24. Kristie Dotson (2008). In Search of Tanzania: Are Effective Epistemic Practices Sufficient for Just Epistemic Practices? Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):52-64.
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  25. Michele Dumont (2003). Book Review: Traci C. West. Wounds of the Spirit: Black Women, Violence, and Resistance Ethics. New York: New York University Press, 1999. [REVIEW] Hypatia 18 (3):229-232.
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  26. Mary Ellen Curtin (2004). Barbara Jordan: The Politics of Insertion and Accommodation. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 7 (4):279-303.
    Barbara Jordan (1936?1996), a formidable politician, won election to the Texas Senate (1966) and to the US Congress (1972). She became one of the most celebrated African?American politicians of the twentieth century, acclaimed both by white and black. Jordan was a voluntarist, viewing individuals as able to change the world through their own actions. She was committed to the American dream of inclusion, and also to the importance of positive ties to elites; to coping with the ?world as it is?, (...)
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  27. Black Feminism (1995). A Black Feminist Statement. In Beverly Guy-Sheftal (ed.), Words of Fire: An Anthology of African American Feminist Thought. The New Press.
  28. Make Fitts (2011). Theorizing Transformative Revolutionary Action. Clr James Journal 17 (1):112-132.
    bell hooks is one of the seminal feminist theoreticians whose body of work not only provides discursive understandings of intersectional modes of oppression, but also a conceptual roadmap for creating the material conditions that lead to social transformation. In this essay, I posit the formulation of a theory of transformative revolutionary action that comes out of hoolis' ruminations on the following concepts: marginality as a position and place of resistance, killing rage, revolutionary interdependency and the politics of sisterhood, and the (...)
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  29. Namulundah Florence (1998). Bell Hooks' Engaged Pedagogy: A Transgressive Education for Critical Consciousness. Bergin & Garvey.
  30. Kathryn T. Gines (2011). Being a Black Woman Philosopher: Reflections on Founding the Collegium of Black Women Philosophers. Hypatia 26 (2):429-437.
    Although the American Philosophical Association has more than 11,000 members, there are still fewer than 125 Black philosophers in the United States, including fewer than thirty Black women holding a PhD in philosophy and working in a philosophy department in the academy.1The following is a “musing” about how I became one of them and how I have sought to create a positive philosophical space for all of us.
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  31. Ruth Ginzberg (1992). Audre Lorde's (Nonessentialist) Lesbian Eros. Hypatia 7 (4):73 - 90.
    Audre Lorde reopened the question of the position of the erotic with respect to both knowledge and power in her 1983 essay "Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power." This is not a new question in the philosophical literature; it is a very old one. What is different about Audre Lorde's examination of Eros is that she starts with a decidedly lesbian conception of Eros, in marked contrast to other Western philosophers' work.
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  32. Namita Goswami (2008). Philosophy, Postcolonialism, African-American Feminism, and the Race for Theory. Angelaki 13 (2):73 – 91.
  33. Anthony Graybosch (1998). Blues Legacies and Black Feminism. Newsletter of the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy 26 (81):12-14.
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  34. Anthony Graybosch (1998). Blues Legacies and Black Feminism. Newsletter of the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy 26 (81):12-14.
  35. Emily Grosholz (2007). Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism by Patricia Hill Collins. Hypatia 22 (4):209-212.
  36. Emily Grosholz (2007). Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism (Review). Hypatia 22 (4):209-212.
  37. Lisa Guenther (2012). The Most Dangerous Place: Pro-Life Politics and the Rhetoric of Slavery. Postmodern Culture 22 (2).
    In recent years, comparisons between abortion and slavery have become increasingly common in American pro-life politics. Some have compared the struggle to extinguish abortion rights to the struggle to end slavery. Others have claimed that Roe v Wade is the Dred Scott of our time. Still others have argued that abortion is worse than slavery; it is a form of genocide. This paper tracks the abortion = slavery meme from Ronald Reagan to the current personhood movement, drawing on work by (...)
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  38. Lisa Guenther (2011). The Ethics and Politics of Otherness: Negotiating Alterity and Racial Difference. Philosophia 1 (2):195-214.
    "In her essay "Choosing the Margin," bell hooks draws attention to the way uncritical celebrations of difference and otherness often act as an alibi for progressive politics. The recent proliferation of discourses on alterity, particularly with the growth of Levinas studies, makes hooks's critique all the more relevant for ethical and political theory today. To what extent has this emphasis on alterity affected the dynamics of philosophical and political life? Does it fall into the trap that hooks identifies here as (...)
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  39. Cheryl Hall (2000). Feminism's Essential Eros. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2000:11-20.
    This essay examines the feminist literature on ‘eros’ inspired primarily by Audre Lorde’s essay, “Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power.” The central argument of this literature is that “our erotic knowledge empowers us” by guiding and inspiring us to pursue what we truly value in life. This literature is useful in emphasizing a human quality that is often overlooked, even by other feminists. Yet it is plagued by the prevailing assumption that our deepest passions and desires will necessarily (...)
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  40. Kim Q. Hall (2003). Book Review: Bell Hooks. Where We Stand: Class Matters. New York and London: Routledge 2000. [REVIEW] Hypatia 18 (2):233-236.
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  41. Brady Thomas Heiner (unknown). “From the Prison of Slavery to the Slavery of Prison”: Angela Y. Davis's Abolition Democracy. :219-227.
    One of the most radical dimensions of Davis’s critique of American democracy is her exposure of the vestiges of slavery that remain in the contemporary criminal justice system. I discuss this aspect of her critical project, its roots in Du Bois’s critique of Black Reconstruction, and the way that it informs her prison abolitionism and her two-pronged program for the formation of a genuine “abolition democracy.” I conclude by reflecting upon Davis’s reticence about abolition as a constructive enterprise and assessing (...)
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  42. Paget Henry (2011). Gender and Africana Phenomenology. Clr James Journal 17 (1):153-183.
    This paper examines the long dialogue between Africana phenomenology and Africana feminism. In particular, it examines the exchanges between WEB Du Bois, Frantz Fanon, Lewis Gordon and Sylvia Wynter on the one hand, and a number of black feminists on the other, including bell hooks, Natasha Barnes, Farrah Griffin, and Joy James. The primary outcome of the survey of these exchanges is that the pro-feminist spaces created by black male phenomenologists have all been insufficient for the full representation of the (...)
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  43. Renea Henry (1998). “Mama's Got a Brand-New Bag”: Angela Davis's Blues Legacies. Radical Philosophy Review 1 (2):146-149.
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  44. Bell Hooks (2010). The Oppositional Gaze : Black Female Spectators. In Marc Furstenau (ed.), The Film Theory Reader: Debates and Arguments. Routledge.
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  45. Clenora Hudson-Weems (1994). Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves. Bedford Publishers.
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  46. Joy James (2004). The Academic Addict: Mainlining (& Kicking) White Supremacy (Ws). In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
  47. Joy A. James (2003). Radicalizing Feminisms From "the Movement Era". In Tommy Lee Lott & John P. Pittman (eds.), A Companion to African-American Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
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  48. Robin James (2010). From Receptivity to Transformation: On the Intersection of Race, Gender, and the Aesthetic in Contemporary Continental Philosophy. In Kathryn Gines, Donna-Dale Marcano & Maria Davidson (eds.), Convergences: Black Feminism and Continental Philosophy.
  49. Stanlie M. James & Abena P. A. Busia (eds.) (1993). Theorizing Black Feminisms: The Visionary Pragmatism of Black Women. Routledge.
    Theorizing Black Feminisms outlines some of the crucial debates going on among Black feminists today. In doing so it brings together a collection of some of the most exciting work by Black women scholars. The book encompasses a wide range of diverse subjects and refuses to be limited by notions of disciplinary boundaries or divisions between theory and practice. Theorizing Black Feminisms combines essays on literature, sociology, history, political science, anthropology, and art. As such it will be vital reading for (...)
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  50. Douglas Kellner (2007). On Angela Davis and Abolition Democracy. Radical Philosophy Review 10 (2):149-156.
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