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  1. Iona Alexander & Alan Cowey (2010). Edges, Colour and Awareness in Blindsight. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):520-533.
    It remains unclear what is being processed in blindsight in response to faces, colours, shapes, and patterns. This was investigated in two hemianopes with chromatic and achromatic stimuli with sharp or shallow luminance or chromatic contrast boundaries or temporal onsets. Performance was excellent only when stimuli had sharp spatial boundaries. When discrimination between isoluminant coloured Gaussians was good it declined to chance levels if stimulus onset was slow. The ability to discriminate between instantaneously presented colours in the hemianopic field depended (...)
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  2. Sean Allen-Hermanson (2010). Blindsight in Monkeys: Lost and (Perhaps) Found. Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (1-2): 47-71.
    Stoerig and Cowey’s work is widely regarded as showing that monkeys with lesions in the primary visual cortex have blindsight. However, Mole and Kelly persuasively argue that the experimental results are compatible with an alternative hypothesis positing only a deficit in attention and perceptual working memory. I describe a revised procedure which can distinguish these hypotheses, and offer reasons for thinking that the blindsight hypothesis provides a superior explanation. The study of blindsight might contribute towards a general investigation into animal (...)
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  3. Sean Allen-Hermanson (2008). Insects and the Problem of Simple Minds: Are Bees Natural Zombies? Journal of Philosophy 105 (8): 389-415.
    This paper explores the idea that many “simple minded” invertebrates are “natural zombies” in that they utilize their senses in intelligent ways, but without phenomenal awareness. The discussion considers how “first-order” representationalist theories of consciousness meet the explanatory challenge posed by blindsight. It would be an advantage of first-order representationalism, over higher-order versions, if it does not rule out consciousness in most non-human animals. However, it is argued that a first-order representationalism which adequately accounts for blindsight also implies that most (...)
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  4. Silke Anders, Niels Birbaumer, Bettina Sadowski, Michael Erb, Irina Mader, Wolfgang Grodd & Martin Lotze (2004). Parietal Somatosensory Association Cortex Mediates Affective Blindsight. Nature Neuroscience 7 (4):339-340.
  5. Paul Azzopardi & Alan Cowey (2001). Why is Blindsight Blind? In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press. 3-19.
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  6. Paul Azzopardi & Alan Cowey (1998). Blindsight and Visual Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):292-311.
    Some patients with damaged striate cortex have blindsight-the ability to discriminate unseen stimuli in their clinically blind visual field defects when forced-choice procedures are used. Blindsight implies a sharp dissociation between visual performance and visual awareness, but signal detection theory indicates that it might be indistinguishable from the behavior of normal subjects near the lower limit of conscious vision, where the dissociations could arise trivially from using different response criteria during clinical and forced-choice tests. We tested the latter possibility with (...)
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  7. Paul Azzopardi & Alan Cowey (1997). Is Blindsight Like Normal, Near-Threshold Vision? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Usa 94 (25):14190-14194.
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  8. W. B. (1981). Kingdoms of the Blind. Review of Metaphysics 34 (4):803-804.
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  9. Tarryn Balsdon & Paul Azzopardi (forthcoming). Absolute and Relative Blindsight. Consciousness and Cognition.
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  10. J. L. Barbur, J. D. G. Watson, R. D. G. Frackowiak & Semir Zeki (1993). Conscious Visual Perception Without V. Brain 116:1293-1302.
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  11. O. Braddick, J. Atkinson, B. Hood & W. Harkness (1992). Possible Blindsight in Infants Lacking One Cerebral Hemisphere. Nature 360:461-463.
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  12. Berit Brogaard (2012). Non-Visual Consciousness and Visual Images in Blindsight. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):595-596.
    In a recent response paper to Brogaard (2011a), Morten Overgaard and Thor Grünbaum argue that my case for the claim that blindsight subjects are not visually conscious of the stimuli they correctly identify rests on a mistaken necessary criterion for determining whether a conscious experience is visual or non-visual. Here I elaborate on the earlier argu- ment while conceding that the question of whether blindsight subjects are visually con- scious of the visual stimuli they correctly identify largely is an empirical (...)
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  13. Berit Brogaard (2011). Are There Unconscious Perceptual Processes? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):449-63.
    Blindsight and vision for action seem to be exemplars of unconscious visual processes. However, researchers have recently argued that blindsight is not really a kind of uncon- scious vision but is rather severely degraded conscious vision. Morten Overgaard and col- leagues have recently developed new methods for measuring the visibility of visual stimuli. Studies using these methods show that reported clarity of visual stimuli correlates with accuracy in both normal individuals and blindsight patients. Vision for action has also come under (...)
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  14. Berit Brogaard, Kristian Marlow & Kevin Rice (2014). Unconscious Influences on Decision Making in Blindsight. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):22-23.
  15. Jared Butler (2010). What Blindsight Can See. Lyceum 11.
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  16. J. Campion, R. Latto & Y. Smith (1983). Is Blindsight an Effect of Scattered Light, Spared Cortex, and Near-Threshold Vision? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):423-86.
    Blindsight is the term commonly used to describe visually guided behaviour elicited by a stimulus falling within the scotoma (blind area) caused by a lesion of the striate cortex. Such is normally held to be unconscious and to be mediated by subcortical pathways involving the superior colliculus. Blindsight is of considerable theoretical importance since it suggests that destriate man is more like destriate monkey than had been previously believed and also because it supports the classical notion of two visual systems. (...)
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  17. D. P. Carey, Melvyn A. Goodale & E. G. Sprowl (1990). Blindsight in Rodents: The Use of a "High-Level" Distance Cue in Gerbils with Lesions of Primary Visual Cortex. Behavioural Brain Research 38:283-289.
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  18. Peter Carruthers (2001). Who is Blind to Blindsight? Psyche 7 (4).
    This paper uses the explanation of blindsight generated by a two-systems theory of vision in order to set Siewert a dilemma. Either his blindsight examples are modelled on actual blindsight, in which case certain reductive theories of phenomenal consciousness will have no difficulty in accommodating them. Or they are intended to be purely imaginary, in which case they will have no force against a reductive naturalist.
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  19. A. Cowey, P. Stoerig & C. Le Mare (1998). Effects of Unseen Stimuli on Reaction Times to Seen Stimuli in Monkeys with Blindsight. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):312-323.
    In three macaque monkeys with unilateral removal of primary visual cortex and in one unoperated monkey, we measured reaction times to a visual target that was presented at a lateral eccentricity of 20o in the normal, left, visual hemifield. When an additional stimulus was presented at the corresponding position in the right hemifield (hemianopic in three of the monkeys), it significantly slowed the reaction time to the left target if it preceded it by delays from 100-500 msec. The most effective (...)
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  20. Alan Cowey (2004). The 30th Sir Frederick Bartlett Lecture: Fact, Artefact, and Myth About Blindsight. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 57 (4):577-609.
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  21. Alan Cowey (1995). Blindsight in Monkeys. Nature 373:247-9.
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  22. Alan Cowey (1995). Blindsight in Real Sight. Nature 377:290-1.
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  23. Alan Cowey & Paul Azzopardi (2001). Is Blindsight Motion Blind? In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press. 87-103.
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  24. Alan Cowey & Petra Stoerig (1997). Visual Detection in Monkeys with Blindsight. Neuopsychologia 35:929-39.
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  25. Alan Cowey & Petra Stoerig (1992). Reflections on Blindsight. In A. David Milner & M. D. Rugg (eds.), The Neuropsychology of Consciousness. Academic Press.
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  26. Alan Cowey & Petra Stoerig (1991). The Neurobiology of Blindsight. Trends in Neurosciences 14:140-5.
  27. James Danckert & Melvyn A. Goodale (2000). Blindsight: A Conscious Route to Unconscious Vision. Current Biology 10 (1):31-43.
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  28. James Danckert, Patrice Revol, Laure Pisella, Pierre Krolak-Salmon, Alain Vighetto, Melvyn A. Goodale & Yves Rosetti (2003). Measuring Unconscious Actions in Action-Blindsight: Exploring the Kinematics of Pointing Movements to Targets in the Blind Field of Two Patients with Cortical Hemianopia. Neuropsychologia 41 (8):1068-1081.
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  29. James Danckert & Yves Rossetti (2005). Blindsight in Action: What Can the Different Sub-Types of Blindsight Tell Us About the Control of Visually Guided Actions? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29 (7):1035-1046.
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  30. Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.) (2001). Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press.
  31. Beatrice de Gelder, Gilles Pourtois, Monique van Raamsdonk, Jean Vroomen & Lawrence Weiskrantz (2001). Unseen Stimuli Modulate Conscious Visual Experience: Evidence From Interhemispheric Summation. Neuroreport 12 (2):385-391.
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  32. Beatrice De Gelder, Jean Vroomen & Gilles Pourtois (2001). Covert Affective Cognition and Affective Blindsight. In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press. 205-221.
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  33. Beatrice de Gelder, Jean Vroomen, Gilles Pourtois & Lawrence Weiskrantz (2000). Affective Blindsight: Are We Blindly Led by Emotions? Response to Heywood and Kentridge (2000). Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (4):126-127.
  34. Almut Engelien, W. Huber, D. Silbersweig, E. Stern, Christopher D. Frith, W. Doring, A. Thron & R. S. J. Frachowiak (2000). The Neural Correlates of 'Deaf-Hearing' in Man. Conscious Sensory Awareness Enabled by Attentional Modulation. Brain 123 (3):532-545.
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  35. Michael S. Gazzaniga, R. Fendrich & C. M. Wessinger (1994). Blindsight Reconsidered. Current Directions in Psychological Science 3:93-96.
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  36. Rainer Goebel, Lars Muckli, Friedhelm E. Zanella, Wolf Singer & Petra Stoerig (2001). Sustained Extrastriate Cortical Activation Without Visual Awareness Revealed by fMRI Studies in Hemianopic Patients. Vision Research 41 (10):1459-1474.
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  37. R. E. Graves & B. S. Jones (1992). Conscious Visual Perceptual Awareness Vs Non-Conscious Visual Spatial Localisation Examined with Normal Subjects Using Possible Analogues of Blindsight and Neglect. Cognitive Neuropsychology 9:487-508.
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  38. B. Gulyas, D. Ottoson & P. Rol (eds.) (1993). Functional Organization of the Human Visual Cortex. Pergamon Press.
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  39. Guven Guzeldere, Owen J. Flanagan & Valerie Gray Hardcastle (2000). The Nature and Function of Consciousness: Lessons From Blindsight. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences: 2nd Edition. Mit Press.
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  40. Alfons O. Hamm, Almut I. Weike, Harald T. Schupp, Thomas Treig, Alexander Dressel & Christof Kessler (2003). Affective Blindsight: Intact Fear Conditioning to a Visual Cue in a Cortically Blind Patient. Brain 126 (2):267-275.
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  41. Justin A. Harris, Lisa Karlov & Colin W. G. Clifford (2006). Localization of Tactile Stimuli Depends on Conscious Detection. Journal of Neuroscience 26 (3):948-952.
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  42. Charles A. Heywood, Alan Cowey & F. Newcombe (1991). Chromatic Discrimination in a Cortically Colour-Blind Observer. European Journal of Neuroscience 3:802-12.
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  43. Charles A. Heywood & Robert W. Kentridge (2000). Affective Blindsight? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (4):125-126.
  44. Charles A. Heywood, Robert W. Kentridge & Alan Cowey (1998). Cortical Color Blindness is Not ''Blindsight for Color''. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):410-423.
    Cortical color blindness, or cerebral achromatopsia, has been likened by some authors to ''blindsight'' for color or an instance of ''covert'' processing of color. Recently, it has been shown that, although such patients are unable to identify or discriminate hue differences, they nevertheless show a striking ability to process wavelength differences, which can result in preserved sensitivity to chromatic contrast and motion in equiluminant displays. Moreover, visually evoked cortical potentials can still be elicited in response to chromatic stimuli. We suggest (...)
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  45. John W. Hill (1971). Processing of Tactual and Visual Point Stimuli Sequentially Presented at High Rates. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (3):340.
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  46. Jason Holt (2003). Blindsight and the Nature of Consciousness. Broadview Press.
    Ever since its discovery nearly thirty years ago, the phenomenon of blindsight — vision without visual consciousness — has been the source of great controversy in the philosophy of mind, psychology, and the neurosciences. Despite the fact that blindsight is widely acknowledged to be a critical test-case for theories of mind, Blindsight and the Nature of Consciousness is the first extended treatment of the phenomenon from a philosophical perspective. Holt argues, against much received wisdom, for a thorough-going materialism — the (...)
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  47. Jason Holt (1999). Blindsight: An Essay in the Philosophy of Psychology and Mind. Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    Although philosophers acknowledge the significance of blindsight for theories of mind---indeed, some try to trade on it---they have not given the phenomenon the extended treatment it deserves. In helping to fill this gap, I argue that despite attempts to use it in undermining qualia , blindsight supports realism about qualia, and an identity theoretic account of them. ;In Chapter 1 I argue against attempts by Dennett and the Churchlands to use blindsight in undermining qualia. I complement this by criticizing their (...)
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  48. Jason Holt (1999). Blindsight in Debates About Qualia. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (5):54-71.
    Blindsight is a hot topic in philosophy, especially in discussions of consciousness. Here I critically examine various attempts to bring blindsight to bear on debates about qualia -- the raw constituents of consciousness. I argue that blindsight does not unequivocally support any particular theory of qualia. It does, however, vindicate the view that there are qualia, despite arguments -- most notably by Daniel Dennett -- to the contrary.
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  49. Christopher Hookway (ed.) (1993). Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
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  50. Nicholas Humphrey (1974). Vision in a Monkey Without Striate Cortex: A Case Study. Perception 3 (3):241-55.
    Abstract. A rhesus monkey, Helen, from whom the striate cortex was almost totally removed, was studied intensively over a period of 8 years. During this time she regained an effective, though limited, degree of visually guided behaviour. The evidence suggests that while Helen suffered a permanent loss of `focal vision she retained (initially unexpressed) the capacity for `ambient vision.
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