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  1. Iona Alexander & Alan Cowey (2010). Edges, Colour and Awareness in Blindsight. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):520-533.
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  2. Sean Allen-Hermanson (2010). Blindsight in Monkeys: Lost and (Perhaps) Found. Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (1-2): 47-71.
    Stoerig and Cowey’s work is widely regarded as showing that monkeys with lesions in the primary visual cortex have blindsight. However, Mole and Kelly persuasively argue that the experimental results are compatible with an alternative hypothesis positing only a deficit in attention and perceptual working memory. I describe a revised procedure which can distinguish these hypotheses, and offer reasons for thinking that the blindsight hypothesis provides a superior explanation. The study of blindsight might contribute towards a general investigation into animal (...)
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  3. Sean Allen-Hermanson (2008). Insects and the Problem of Simple Minds: Are Bees Natural Zombies? Journal of Philosophy 105 (8): 389-415.
    This paper explores the idea that many “simple minded” invertebrates are “natural zombies” in that they utilize their senses in intelligent ways, but without phenomenal awareness. The discussion considers how “first-order” representationalist theories of consciousness meet the explanatory challenge posed by blindsight. It would be an advantage of first-order representationalism, over higher-order versions, if it does not rule out consciousness in most non-human animals. However, it is argued that a first-order representationalism which adequately accounts for blindsight also implies that most (...)
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  4. Silke Anders, Niels Birbaumer, Bettina Sadowski, Michael Erb, Irina Mader, Wolfgang Grodd & Martin Lotze (2004). Parietal Somatosensory Association Cortex Mediates Affective Blindsight. Nature Neuroscience 7 (4):339-340.
  5. Paul Azzopardi & Alan Cowey (2001). Why is Blindsight Blind? In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press. 3-19.
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  6. Paul Azzopardi & Alan Cowey (1998). Blindsight and Visual Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):292-311.
    Some patients with damaged striate cortex have blindsight-the ability to discriminate unseen stimuli in their clinically blind visual field defects when forced-choice procedures are used. Blindsight implies a sharp dissociation between visual performance and visual awareness, but signal detection theory indicates that it might be indistinguishable from the behavior of normal subjects near the lower limit of conscious vision, where the dissociations could arise trivially from using different response criteria during clinical and forced-choice tests. We tested the latter possibility with (...)
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  7. Paul Azzopardi & Alan Cowey (1997). Is Blindsight Like Normal, Near-Threshold Vision? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Usa 94 (25):14190-14194.
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  8. J. L. Barbur, J. D. G. Watson, R. D. G. Frackowiak & Semir Zeki (1993). Conscious Visual Perception Without V. Brain 116:1293-1302.
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  9. O. Braddick, J. Atkinson, B. Hood & W. Harkness (1992). Possible Blindsight in Infants Lacking One Cerebral Hemisphere. Nature 360:461-463.
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  10. Berit Brogaard (2012). Non-Visual Consciousness and Visual Images in Blindsight. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):595-596.
    In a recent response paper to Brogaard (2011a), Morten Overgaard and Thor Grünbaum argue that my case for the claim that blindsight subjects are not visually conscious of the stimuli they correctly identify rests on a mistaken necessary criterion for determining whether a conscious experience is visual or non-visual. Here I elaborate on the earlier argu- ment while conceding that the question of whether blindsight subjects are visually con- scious of the visual stimuli they correctly identify largely is an empirical (...)
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  11. Berit Brogaard (2011). Are There Unconscious Perceptual Processes? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):449-63.
    Blindsight and vision for action seem to be exemplars of unconscious visual processes. However, researchers have recently argued that blindsight is not really a kind of uncon- scious vision but is rather severely degraded conscious vision. Morten Overgaard and col- leagues have recently developed new methods for measuring the visibility of visual stimuli. Studies using these methods show that reported clarity of visual stimuli correlates with accuracy in both normal individuals and blindsight patients. Vision for action has also come under (...)
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  12. Berit Brogaard, Kristian Marlow & Kevin Rice (forthcoming). Unconscious Influences on Decision Making in Blindsight. Behavioral and Brain Sciences:22-23.
    Newell and Shanks (2012) argue that an explanation for blindsight need not appeal to unconscious brain processes, citing research indicating that the condition merely reflects degraded visual experience. We reply that other evidence suggests that blindsighters’ predictive behavior under forced choice reflects cognitive access to low-level visual information that does not correlate with visual consciousness. Thus, while we grant that visual consciousness may be required for full visual experience, we argue that it may not be needed for decision making and (...)
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  13. J. Campion, R. Latto & Y. Smith (1983). Is Blindsight an Effect of Scattered Light, Spared Cortex, and Near-Threshold Vision? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):423-86.
    Blindsight is the term commonly used to describe visually guided behaviour elicited by a stimulus falling within the scotoma (blind area) caused by a lesion of the striate cortex. Such is normally held to be unconscious and to be mediated by subcortical pathways involving the superior colliculus. Blindsight is of considerable theoretical importance since it suggests that destriate man is more like destriate monkey than had been previously believed and also because it supports the classical notion of two visual systems. (...)
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  14. D. P. Carey, Melvyn A. Goodale & E. G. Sprowl (1990). Blindsight in Rodents: The Use of a "High-Level" Distance Cue in Gerbils with Lesions of Primary Visual Cortex. Behavioural Brain Research 38:283-289.
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  15. Peter Carruthers (2001). Who is Blind to Blindsight? Psyche 7 (4).
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  16. Mole Christopher & Dorrance Kelly Sean (2006). On the Demonstration of Blindsight in Monkeys. Mind Language 21 (4):475-483.
    : The work of Alan Cowey and Petra Stoerig is often taken to have shown that, following lesions analogous to those that cause blindsight in humans, there is blindsight in monkeys. The present paper reveals a problem in Cowey and Stoerig ’ s case for blindsight in monkeys. The problem is that Cowey and Stoerig ’ s results would only provide good evidence for blindsight if there is no difference between their two experimental paradigms with regard to the sorts of (...)
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  17. A. Cowey, P. Stoerig & C. Le Mare (1998). Effects of Unseen Stimuli on Reaction Times to Seen Stimuli in Monkeys with Blindsight. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):312-323.
    In three macaque monkeys with unilateral removal of primary visual cortex and in one unoperated monkey, we measured reaction times to a visual target that was presented at a lateral eccentricity of 20o in the normal, left, visual hemifield. When an additional stimulus was presented at the corresponding position in the right hemifield (hemianopic in three of the monkeys), it significantly slowed the reaction time to the left target if it preceded it by delays from 100-500 msec. The most effective (...)
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  18. Alan Cowey (2004). The 30th Sir Frederick Bartlett Lecture: Fact, Artefact, and Myth About Blindsight. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 57 (4):577-609.
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  19. Alan Cowey (1995). Blindsight in Monkeys. Nature 373:247-9.
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  20. Alan Cowey (1995). Blindsight in Real Sight. Nature 377:290-1.
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  21. Alan Cowey & Paul Azzopardi (2001). Is Blindsight Motion Blind? In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press. 87-103.
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  22. Alan Cowey & Petra Stoerig (1997). Visual Detection in Monkeys with Blindsight. Neuopsychologia 35:929-39.
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  23. Alan Cowey & Petra Stoerig (1992). Reflections on Blindsight. In A. David Milner & M. D. Rugg (eds.), The Neuropsychology of Consciousness. Academic Press.
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  24. Alan Cowey & Petra Stoerig (1991). The Neurobiology of Blindsight. Trends in Neurosciences 14:140-5.
  25. James Danckert & Melvyn A. Goodale (2000). Blindsight: A Conscious Route to Unconscious Vision. Current Biology 10 (1):31-43.
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  26. James Danckert, Patrice Revol, Laure Pisella, Pierre Krolak-Salmon, Alain Vighetto, Melvyn A. Goodale & Yves Rosetti (2003). Measuring Unconscious Actions in Action-Blindsight: Exploring the Kinematics of Pointing Movements to Targets in the Blind Field of Two Patients with Cortical Hemianopia. Neuropsychologia 41 (8):1068-1081.
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  27. James Danckert & Yves Rossetti (2005). Blindsight in Action: What Can the Different Sub-Types of Blindsight Tell Us About the Control of Visually Guided Actions? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29 (7):1035-1046.
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  28. Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.) (2001). Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press.
  29. Beatrice de Gelder, Gilles Pourtois, Monique van Raamsdonk, Jean Vroomen & Lawrence Weiskrantz (2001). Unseen Stimuli Modulate Conscious Visual Experience: Evidence From Interhemispheric Summation. Neuroreport 12 (2):385-391.
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  30. Beatrice De Gelder, Jean Vroomen & Gilles Pourtois (2001). Covert Affective Cognition and Affective Blindsight. In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press. 205-221.
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  31. Beatrice de Gelder, Jean Vroomen, Gilles Pourtois & Lawrence Weiskrantz (2000). Affective Blindsight: Are We Blindly Led by Emotions? Response to Heywood and Kentridge (2000). Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (4):126-127.
  32. Almut Engelien, W. Huber, D. Silbersweig, E. Stern, Christopher D. Frith, W. Doring, A. Thron & R. S. J. Frachowiak (2000). The Neural Correlates of 'Deaf-Hearing' in Man. Conscious Sensory Awareness Enabled by Attentional Modulation. Brain 123 (3):532-545.
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  33. Michael S. Gazzaniga, R. Fendrich & C. M. Wessinger (1994). Blindsight Reconsidered. Current Directions in Psychological Science 3:93-96.
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  34. Rainer Goebel, Lars Muckli, Friedhelm E. Zanella, Wolf Singer & Petra Stoerig (2001). Sustained Extrastriate Cortical Activation Without Visual Awareness Revealed by fMRI Studies in Hemianopic Patients. Vision Research 41 (10):1459-1474.
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  35. R. E. Graves & B. S. Jones (1992). Conscious Visual Perceptual Awareness Vs Non-Conscious Visual Spatial Localisation Examined with Normal Subjects Using Possible Analogues of Blindsight and Neglect. Cognitive Neuropsychology 9:487-508.
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  36. B. Gulyas, D. Ottoson & P. Rol (eds.) (1993). Functional Organization of the Human Visual Cortex. Pergamon Press.
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  37. Guven Guzeldere, Owen J. Flanagan & Valerie Gray Hardcastle (2000). The Nature and Function of Consciousness: Lessons From Blindsight. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences: 2nd Edition. Mit Press.
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  38. Alfons O. Hamm, Almut I. Weike, Harald T. Schupp, Thomas Treig, Alexander Dressel & Christof Kessler (2003). Affective Blindsight: Intact Fear Conditioning to a Visual Cue in a Cortically Blind Patient. Brain 126 (2):267-275.
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  39. Justin A. Harris, Lisa Karlov & Colin W. G. Clifford (2006). Localization of Tactile Stimuli Depends on Conscious Detection. Journal of Neuroscience 26 (3):948-952.
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  40. Charles A. Heywood, Alan Cowey & F. Newcombe (1991). Chromatic Discrimination in a Cortically Colour-Blind Observer. European Journal of Neuroscience 3:802-12.
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  41. Charles A. Heywood & Robert W. Kentridge (2000). Affective Blindsight? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (4):125-126.
  42. Charles A. Heywood, Robert W. Kentridge & Alan Cowey (1998). Cortical Color Blindness is Not ''Blindsight for Color''. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):410-423.
    Cortical color blindness, or cerebral achromatopsia, has been likened by some authors to ''blindsight'' for color or an instance of ''covert'' processing of color. Recently, it has been shown that, although such patients are unable to identify or discriminate hue differences, they nevertheless show a striking ability to process wavelength differences, which can result in preserved sensitivity to chromatic contrast and motion in equiluminant displays. Moreover, visually evoked cortical potentials can still be elicited in response to chromatic stimuli. We suggest (...)
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  43. Jason Holt (1999). Blindsight in Debates About Qualia. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (5):54-71.
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  44. Christopher Hookway (ed.) (1993). Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
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  45. Nicholas Humphrey (1974). Vision in a Monkey Without Striate Cortex: A Case Study. Perception 3 (3):241-55.
    Abstract. A rhesus monkey, Helen, from whom the striate cortex was almost totally removed, was studied intensively over a period of 8 years. During this time she regained an effective, though limited, degree of visually guided behaviour. The evidence suggests that while Helen suffered a permanent loss of `focal vision she retained (initially unexpressed) the capacity for `ambient vision.
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  46. Stephen Jackson (2000). Perception, Awareness and Action: Insights From Blindsight. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.
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  47. R. W. Kentridge (1999). When is Information Represented Explicitly in Blindsight and Cerebral Achromatopsia? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):156-157.
    Discrimination of forms defined solely by color and discrimination of hue are dissociated in cerebral achromatopsia. Both must be based on potentially explicit information derived from differentially color-sensitive photoreceptors, yet only one gives rise to phenomenal experience of color. By analogy, visual information may be used to form explicit representations for action without giving rise to any phenomenal experience other than that of making the action.
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  48. Robert W. Kentridge (2001). Why Do Stationary Visual Transients Apparently Fail to Elicit Phenomenal Vision After Unilateral Destruction of Primary Visual Cortex? Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):588-590.
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  49. Robert W. Kentridge & Charles A. Heywood (2001). Attention and Alerting: Cognitive Processes Spared in Blindsight. In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press. 163-181.
  50. Robert W. Kentridge & Charles A. Heywood (1999). The Status of Blindsight: Near-Threshold Vision, Islands of Cortex and the Riddoch Phenomenon. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (5):3-11.
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