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  1. G. J. Agich & R. P. Jones (1985). The Logical Status of Brain Death Criteria. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (4):387-396.
    This article is an attempt to clarify a confusion in the brain death literature between logical sufficiency/necessity and natural sufficiency/necessity. We focus on arguments that draw conclusions regarding empirical matters of fact from conceptual or ontological definitions. Specifically, we critically analyze arguments by Tom Tomlinson and Michael B. Green and Daniel Wikler. which, respectively, confuse logical and natural sufficiency and logical and natural necessity. Our own conclusion is that it is especially important in discussing the brain death issue to observe (...)
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  2. George J. Agich & Royce P. Jones (1986). Personal Identity and Brain Death: A Critical Response. Philosophy and Public Affairs 15 (3):267-274.
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  3. Can There Be Agreement (2013). Human Death? In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Bioethics. John Wiley & Sons. 369.
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  4. Janice A. Anderson, Lawrence W. Vernaglia & Shirley P. Morrigan (2007). Refusal of Brain Death Diagnosis. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 9 (3):90-92.
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  5. Atsushi Asai, Yasuhiro Kadooka & Kuniko Aizawa (2010). Arguments Against Promoting Organ Transplants From Brain-Dead Donors, and Views of Contemporary Japanese on Life and Death. Bioethics 26 (4):215-223.
    As of 2009, the number of donors in Japan is the lowest among developed countries. On July 13, 2009, Japan's Organ Transplant Law was revised for the first time in 12 years. The revised and old laws differ greatly on four primary points: the definition of death, age requirements for donors, requirements for brain-death determination and organ extraction, and the appropriateness of priority transplants for relatives.In the four months of deliberations in the National Diet before the new law was established, (...)
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  6. Stephen Ashwal (1989). Anencephalic Infants as Organ Donors and the Brain Death Standard. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):79-87.
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  7. Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco (2009). In Defense of the Loss of Bodily Integrity as a Criterion for Death: A Response to the Radical Capacity Argument. The Thomist 73 (4):647-659.
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  8. Alireza Bagheri (2003). Criticism of "Brain Death" Policy in Japan. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):359-372.
    : The 1997 Japanese organ transplantation law is the fruit of a long debate on "brain death" and organ transplantation, which involved the general public and experts in the relevant fields. The aim of this paper is to trace the history of the implementation of the law and to critique the law in terms of its consistency and fairness. The paper argues that the legislation adopts a double standard regarding the role of the family. On the one hand, the legislation (...)
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  9. Rosangela Barcaro (2014). Il dibattito bioetico italiano. Laici vs. cattolici. In Francesco Paolo de Ceglia (ed.), Storia della definizione di morte. FrancoAngeli. 415-431.
    La cosiddetta “morte cerebrale totale”, o più correttamente “morte encefalica” (whole brain death), è un criterio fisiologico riferito alla cessazione irreversibile e permanente di tutte le funzioni dell’encefalo (emisferi e tronco encefalico), ed è correlato alla cessazione del funzionamento integrato dell’organismo. L’applicazione del criterio neurologico, e degli esami che lo accompagnano, è finalizzato ad una diagnosi clinica e strumentale per individuare una condizione causata da lesioni neurologiche diffuse e responsabili di coma, assenza di coscienza, di respirazione spontanea, di risposte agli (...)
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  10. Rosangela Barcaro (2010). La morte dell’essere umano. Scienza o filosofia nell’accertamento del decesso? In Lorenzo Chieffi & Pasquale Giustiniani (eds.), Percorsi tra bioetica e diritto. Alla ricerca di un bilanciamento. Giappichelli. 111-129.
    Nel quarantesimo anniversario della pubblicazione del rapporto di Harvard, ricordato da un editoriale di Lucetta Scaraffia sull’ “Osservatore Romano” il 3 settembre 2008, la riflessione sui criteri neurologici per accertare il decesso è sembrata giungere finalmente all’attenzione del pubblico italiano, dopo i dibattiti avviati nello scorso decennio in Gran Bretagna, Germania, Giappone e negli Stati Uniti. Per alcuni giorni sulle pagine dei quotidiani nazionali si sono alternate repliche, più o meno indignate, a quell’articolo e prese di posizione; poi, come è (...)
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  11. Rosangela Barcaro (2009). Quando muore l’uomo. La morte cerebrale nel recente dibattito internazionale. Museopolis Press.
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  12. Rosangela Barcaro (2008). P. Becchi, Morte Cerebrale E Trapianto Degli Organi. Una Questione di Etica Giuridica. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (3):368-369.
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  13. Rosangela Barcaro (2007). Ai confini della vita. Riflessione critica sulla nozione di morte cerebrale. Humana.Mente 3:19-37.
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  14. Rosangela Barcaro (2005). La morte cerebrale totale è la morte dell'organismo? Appunti per una riflessione critica. Materiali Per Una Storia Della Cultura Giuridica 35 (2):479-500.
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  15. Terry R. Bard (2007). Refusal of Brain Death Diagnosis. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 9 (3):92-94.
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  16. Robert L. Barry (1987). Ethics and Brain Death. New Scholasticism 61 (1):82-98.
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  17. H. Charlton Bastian (1881). The Brain as an Organ of Mind. Mind 6 (21):120-131.
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  18. Kurt Bayertz (1992). Techno-Thanatology: Moral Consequences of Introducing Brain Criteria for Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (4):407-417.
    This paper is based on the hypothesis that the effort to establish new criteria for diagnosing human death, which has been taking place over the past twenty years or more, can be viewed as a paradigm case for the impact of scientific and technological progress on morality. This impact takes the form of three tendencies within the change in morality, which may be characterized as ‘denaturalization’, ‘functionalization’ and ‘homogenization’. The paper concludes with the view that these tendencies do not indicate (...)
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  19. James L. Bernat (2014). Whither Brain Death? American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):3-8.
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  20. James L. Bernat (2013). Constitutes Human Death. In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Bioethics. John Wiley & Sons. 25--377.
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  21. James L. Bernat (2006). The Whole-Brain Concept of Death Remains Optimum Public Policy. Journal of Law, Medicine Andlt;Html_ent Glyph= 34 (1):35-43.
    “Brain death,” the determination of human death by showing the irreversible loss of all clinical functions of the brain, has become a worldwide practice. A biophilosophical account of brain death requires four sequential tasks: agreeing on the paradigm of death, a set of preconditions that frame the discussion; determining the definition of death by making explicit the consensual concept of death; determining the criterion of death that proves the definition has been fulfilled by being both necessary and sufficient for death; (...)
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  22. James L. Bernat (2006). The Concept and Practice of Brain Death. In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  23. James L. Bernat (2004). On Irreversibility as a Prerequisite for Brain Death Determination. In C. Machado & D. E. Shewmon (eds.), Brain Death and Disorders of Consciousness. Plenum. 161--167.
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  24. James L. Bernat (2002). The Biophilosophical Basis of Whole-Brain Death. Soc Philos Policy 19 (2):324-42.
    Notwithstanding these wise pronouncements, my project here is to characterize the biological phenomenon of death of the higher animal species, such as vertebrates. My claim is that the formulation of “whole-brain death” provides the most congruent map for our correct understanding of the concept of death. This essay builds upon the foundation my colleagues and I have laid since 1981 to characterize the concept of death and refine when this event occurs. Although our society's well-accepted program of multiple organ procurement (...)
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  25. James L. Bernat (1992). How Much of the Brain Must Die in Brain Death? Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (1):21.
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  26. Mary Jiang Bresnahan & Kevin Mahler (2010). Ethical Debate Over Organ Donation in the Context of Brain Death. Bioethics 24 (2):54-60.
    This study investigated what information about brain death was available from Google searches for five major religions. A substantial body of supporting research examining online behaviors shows that information seekers use Google as their preferred search engine and usually limit their search to entries on the first page. For each of the five religions in this study, Google listings reveal ethical controversy about organ donation in the context of brain death. These results suggest that family members who go online to (...)
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  27. Howard Brody (1983). Brain Death and Personal Existence: A Reply to Green and Wikler. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):187-196.
    It has been argued that neither the biological or the moral justifications commonly given for adoption of brain-death criteria are adequate; and that the only argument that succeeds is an ontological justification based on the fact that one's personal identity terminates with the death of one's brain. But a more satisfactory ontological approach analyzes brain death in terms of the existence of a person in connection with a body, not personal identity. The personal-existence justification does not supplant the usual biological (...)
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  28. A. Browne (1983). Whole-Brain Death Reconsidered. Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (1):28-44.
    The author, a philosopher, suggests that the concept of death should be left as it is 'in its present indeterminate state', and that we ought to reject attempts to define death in terms of whole-brain death or any other type of brain death, including cerebral death and 'irreversible coma'. Instead of 'fiddling with the definition of death' clear rules should be established specifying 'what can be appropriately done to whom when'.
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  29. E. C. Brugger (2013). D. Alan Shewmon and the PCBE's White Paper on Brain Death: Are Brain-Dead Patients Dead? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (2):205-218.
    The December 2008 White Paper (WP) on “Brain Death” published by the President’s Council on Bioethics (PCBE) reaffirmed its support for the traditional neurological criteria for human death. It spends considerable time explaining and critiquing what it takes to be the most challenging recent argument opposing the neurological criteria formulated by D. Alan Shewmon, a leading critic of the “whole brain death” standard. The purpose of this essay is to evaluate and critique the PCBE’s argument. The essay begins with a (...)
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  30. Russell Burck, Lisa Anderson-Shaw, Mark Sheldon & Erin A. Egan (2006). The Clinical Response to Brain Death. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 8 (2):53-59.
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  31. E. Byrne (forthcoming). The Medical Determination of Brain Death. Proceedings of the 1984 Conference on Bioethics, Melbourne.
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  32. Courtney S. Campbell (2004). Harvesting the Living?: Separating Brain Death and Organ Transplantation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):301-318.
    : The chronic shortage of transplantable organs has reached critical proportions. In the wake of this crisis, some bioethicists have argued there is sufficient public support to expand organ recovery through use of neocortical criteria of death or even pre-mortem organ retrieval. I present a typology of ways in which data gathered from the public can be misread or selectively used by bioethicists in service of an ideological or policy agenda, resulting in bad policy and bad ethics. Such risks should (...)
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  33. Courtney S. Campbell (2001). A No-Brainer: Criticisms of Brain-Based Standards of Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (5):539 – 551.
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  34. Alexander Morgan Capron (forthcoming). Death, Definition and Determination Of: II. Legal Issues in Pronouncing Death. Encyclopedia of Bioethics.
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  35. W. C. Cenkner (1969). S. G. F. Brandon, "The Judgment of the Dead: The Idea of Life After Death in the Major Religions". [REVIEW] The Thomist 33 (3):591.
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  36. Hastings Center (2009). Brain Death: Can It Be Resuccitated? Asian Bioethics Review 1 (1).
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  37. Frank A. Chervenak & Laurence B. McCullough (1993). Clinical Management of Brain Death During Pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Ethics 4 (4):349.
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  38. Winston Chiong (2005). Brain Death Without Definitions. Hastings Center Report 35 (6):20-30.
    : Most of the world now accepts the idea, first proposed four decades ago, that death means "brain death." But the idea has always been open to criticism because it doesn't square with all of our intuitions about death. In fact, none of the possible definitions of death quite works. Death, perhaps surprisingly, eludes definition, and "brain death" can be accepted only as a refinement of what is in fact a fuzzy concept.
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  39. Eun-Kyoung Choi, Valita Fredland, Carla Zachodni, J. Eugene Lammers, Patricia Bledsoe & Paul R. Helft (2008). Brain Death Revisited: The Case for a National Standard. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):824-836.
    The concept of brain death — first defined decades ago — still presents medical, ethical, and legal challenges despite its widespread acceptance in clinical practice and in law. This article reviews the medicine, law, and ethics of brain death, including the current inconsistencies in brain death determinations, which a lack of standardized federal policy promotes, and argues that a standard brain death policy to be used by all hospitals in all states should be created.
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  40. Michelle J. Clarke, Megan S. Remtema & Keith M. Swetz (2014). Beyond Transplantation: Considering Brain Death as a Hard Clinical Endpoint. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):43-45.
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  41. Patrick Coffey (1989). Death, Brain Death and Ethics. By David Lamb. Modern Schoolman 66 (4):315-316.
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  42. Mike Collins (2010). Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but (...)
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  43. Mike Collins (2009). Consent for Organ Retrieval Cannot Be Presumed. HEC Forum 21 (1):71-106.
  44. Irreversible Coma (1978). A Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death. In John E. Thomas (ed.), Matters of Life and Death: Crises in Bio-Medical Ethics. S. Stevens. 67.
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  45. R. J. Connelly (1982). Reform of Brain Death Legislation. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 56:154-161.
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  46. Ronald E. Cranford (1995). Criteria for Death. Encyclopedia of Bioethics 2:602-8.
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  47. Ronald E. Cranford & Barbara Killpatrick (1981). Tests in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: The Role of the Radioisotope Brain Scan. Bioethics Quarterly 3:67-72.
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  48. Ronald E. Cranford & Barbara K. Patrick (1981). Confirmatory Tests in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: The Role of the Radioisotope Brain Scan. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):67-72.
    In recent years physicians have used a variety of laboratory studies as confirmatory tests in the diagnosis of brain death. The most widely used test has been the EEG. However, with the development of newer technologies capable of measuring other parameters of brain functions, other laboratory studies are playing an increasingly important role in confirming brain death. In this article, we discuss the role of one of these newer tests, the radioactive brain scan, and compare its advantages and limitations with (...)
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  49. Megan Crowley-Matoka & Robert M. Arnold (2004). The Dead Donor Rule: How Much Does the Public Care ... And How Much Should. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):319-332.
    : In this brief commentary, we reflect on the recent study by Siminoff, Burant, and Youngner of public attitudes toward "brain death" and organ donation, focusing on the implications of their findings for the rules governing from whom organs can be obtained. Although the data suggest that many seem to view "brain death" as "as good as dead" rather than "dead" (calling the dead donor rule into question), we find that the study most clearly demonstrates that understanding an individual's definition (...)
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  50. T. Forcht Dagi (1992). Commentary on" How Much of the Brain Must Die in Brain Death. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (1):27.
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