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  1. George J. Agich & Royce P. Jones (1986). Personal Identity and Brain Death: A Critical Response. Philosophy and Public Affairs 15 (3):267-274.
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  2. Atsushi Asai, Yasuhiro Kadooka & Kuniko Aizawa (2010). Arguments Against Promoting Organ Transplants From Brain-Dead Donors, and Views of Contemporary Japanese on Life and Death. Bioethics 26 (4):215-223.
    As of 2009, the number of donors in Japan is the lowest among developed countries. On July 13, 2009, Japan's Organ Transplant Law was revised for the first time in 12 years. The revised and old laws differ greatly on four primary points: the definition of death, age requirements for donors, requirements for brain-death determination and organ extraction, and the appropriateness of priority transplants for relatives.In the four months of deliberations in the National Diet before the new law was established, (...)
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  3. Stephen Ashwal (1989). Anencephalic Infants as Organ Donors and the Brain Death Standard. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):79-87.
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  4. Alireza Bagheri (2003). Criticism of "Brain Death" Policy in Japan. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):359-372.
    : The 1997 Japanese organ transplantation law is the fruit of a long debate on "brain death" and organ transplantation, which involved the general public and experts in the relevant fields. The aim of this paper is to trace the history of the implementation of the law and to critique the law in terms of its consistency and fairness. The paper argues that the legislation adopts a double standard regarding the role of the family. On the one hand, the legislation (...)
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  5. Robert L. Barry (1987). Ethics and Brain Death. New Scholasticism 61 (1):82-98.
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  6. Kurt Bayertz (1992). Techno-Thanatology: Moral Consequences of Introducing Brain Criteria for Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (4):407-417.
    This paper is based on the hypothesis that the effort to establish new criteria for diagnosing human death, which has been taking place over the past twenty years or more, can be viewed as a paradigm case for the impact of scientific and technological progress on morality. This impact takes the form of three tendencies within the change in morality, which may be characterized as ‘denaturalization’, ‘functionalization’ and ‘homogenization’. The paper concludes with the view that these tendencies do not indicate (...)
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  7. James L. Bernat (2006). The Concept and Practice of Brain Death. In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  8. James L. Bernat (2002). The Biophilosophical Basis of Whole-Brain Death. Soc Philos Policy 19 (2):324-42.
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  9. Mary Jiang Bresnahan & Kevin Mahler (2010). Ethical Debate Over Organ Donation in the Context of Brain Death. Bioethics 24 (2):54-60.
    This study investigated what information about brain death was available from Google searches for five major religions. A substantial body of supporting research examining online behaviors shows that information seekers use Google as their preferred search engine and usually limit their search to entries on the first page. For each of the five religions in this study, Google listings reveal ethical controversy about organ donation in the context of brain death. These results suggest that family members who go online to (...)
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  10. Howard Brody (1983). Brain Death and Personal Existence: A Reply to Green and Wikler. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):187-196.
    It has been argued that neither the biological or the moral justifications commonly given for adoption of brain-death criteria are adequate; and that the only argument that succeeds is an ontological justification based on the fact that one's personal identity terminates with the death of one's brain. But a more satisfactory ontological approach analyzes brain death in terms of the existence of a person in connection with a body, not personal identity. The personal-existence justification does not supplant the usual biological (...)
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  11. A. Browne (1983). Whole-Brain Death Reconsidered. Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (1):28-44.
    The author, a philosopher, suggests that the concept of death should be left as it is 'in its present indeterminate state', and that we ought to reject attempts to define death in terms of whole-brain death or any other type of brain death, including cerebral death and 'irreversible coma'. Instead of 'fiddling with the definition of death' clear rules should be established specifying 'what can be appropriately done to whom when'.
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  12. E. C. Brugger (2013). D. Alan Shewmon and the PCBE's White Paper on Brain Death: Are Brain-Dead Patients Dead? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (2):205-218.
    The December 2008 White Paper (WP) on “Brain Death” published by the President’s Council on Bioethics (PCBE) reaffirmed its support for the traditional neurological criteria for human death. It spends considerable time explaining and critiquing what it takes to be the most challenging recent argument opposing the neurological criteria formulated by D. Alan Shewmon, a leading critic of the “whole brain death” standard. The purpose of this essay is to evaluate and critique the PCBE’s argument. The essay begins with a (...)
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  13. Courtney S. Campbell (2004). Harvesting the Living?: Separating Brain Death and Organ Transplantation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):301-318.
    : The chronic shortage of transplantable organs has reached critical proportions. In the wake of this crisis, some bioethicists have argued there is sufficient public support to expand organ recovery through use of neocortical criteria of death or even pre-mortem organ retrieval. I present a typology of ways in which data gathered from the public can be misread or selectively used by bioethicists in service of an ideological or policy agenda, resulting in bad policy and bad ethics. Such risks should (...)
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  14. Courtney S. Campbell (2001). A No-Brainer: Criticisms of Brain-Based Standards of Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (5):539 – 551.
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  15. Winston Chiong (2005). Brain Death Without Definitions. Hastings Center Report 35 (6):20-30.
    : Most of the world now accepts the idea, first proposed four decades ago, that death means "brain death." But the idea has always been open to criticism because it doesn't square with all of our intuitions about death. In fact, none of the possible definitions of death quite works. Death, perhaps surprisingly, eludes definition, and "brain death" can be accepted only as a refinement of what is in fact a fuzzy concept.
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  16. Eun-Kyoung Choi, Valita Fredland, Carla Zachodni, J. Eugene Lammers, Patricia Bledsoe & Paul R. Helft (2008). Brain Death Revisited: The Case for a National Standard. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):824-836.
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  17. Mike Collins (2010). Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but (...)
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  18. Mike Collins (2009). Consent for Organ Retrieval Cannot Be Presumed. HEC Forum 21 (1):71-106.
  19. Ronald E. Cranford & Barbara Killpatrick (1981). Tests in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: The Role of the Radioisotope Brain Scan. Bioethics Quarterly 3:67-72.
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  20. Ronald E. Cranford & Barbara K. Patrick (1981). Confirmatory Tests in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: The Role of the Radioisotope Brain Scan. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):67-72.
    In recent years physicians have used a variety of laboratory studies as confirmatory tests in the diagnosis of brain death. The most widely used test has been the EEG. However, with the development of newer technologies capable of measuring other parameters of brain functions, other laboratory studies are playing an increasingly important role in confirming brain death. In this article, we discuss the role of one of these newer tests, the radioactive brain scan, and compare its advantages and limitations with (...)
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  21. Megan Crowley-Matoka & Robert M. Arnold (2004). The Dead Donor Rule: How Much Does the Public Care ... And How Much Should. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):319-332.
    : In this brief commentary, we reflect on the recent study by Siminoff, Burant, and Youngner of public attitudes toward "brain death" and organ donation, focusing on the implications of their findings for the rules governing from whom organs can be obtained. Although the data suggest that many seem to view "brain death" as "as good as dead" rather than "dead" (calling the dead donor rule into question), we find that the study most clearly demonstrates that understanding an individual's definition (...)
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  22. T. Forcht Dagi & Rebecca Kaufman (2001). Clarifying the Discussion on Brain Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (5):503 – 525.
    Definitions of death are based on subjective standards, priorities, and social conventions rather than on objective facts about the state of human physiology. It is the meaning assigned to the facts that determines whensomeone may be deemed to have died, not the facts themselves. Even though subjective standards for the diagnosis of death show remarkable consistency across communities, they are extrinsic. They are driven, implicitly or explicitly, by ideas about what benefits the community rather than what benefits the indidvidual. The (...)
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  23. Raymond J. Devettere (1990). Neocortical Death and Human Death. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 18 (1-2):96-104.
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  24. Jocelyn Downie (1990). Brain Death and Brain Life: Rethinking the Connection. Bioethics 4 (3):216–226.
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  25. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (1989). Brain Life, Brain Death, Fetal Parts. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):1-3.
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  26. Norman Fost (2004). Reconsidering the Dead Donor Rule: Is It Important That Organ Donors Be Dead? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):249-260.
    : The "dead donor rule" is increasingly under attack for several reasons. First, there has long been disagreement about whether there is a correct or coherent definition of "death." Second, it has long been clear that the concept and ascertainment of "brain death" is medically flawed. Third, the requirement stands in the way of improving organ supply by prohibiting organ removal from patients who have little to lose—e.g., infants with anencephaly—and from patients who ardently want to donate while still alive—e.g., (...)
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  27. Michael B. Green & Daniel Wikler (2009). Brain Death and Personal Identity. In John P. Lizza (ed.), Defining the Beginning and End of Life: Readings on Personal Identity and Bioethics. Johns Hopkins University Press. 105 - 133.
  28. Amir Halevy (2001). Beyond Brain Death? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (5):493 – 501.
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  29. Omar Sultan Haque (2008). Brain Death and its Entanglements. Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (1):13-36.
    The Islamic philosophical, mystical, and theological sub-traditions have each made characteristic assumptions about the human person, including an incorporation of substance dualism in distinctive manners. Advances in the brain sciences of the last half century, which include a widespread acceptance of death as the end of essential brain function, require the abandonment of dualistic notions of the human person that assert an immaterial and incorporeal soul separate from a body. In this article, I trace classical Islamic notions of death and (...)
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  30. Helen Hardacre (1994). Response of Buddhism and Shintō to the Issue of Brain Death and Organ Transplant. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (04):585-.
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  31. Stephen Holland (2010). On the Ordinary Concept of Death. Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (2):109-122.
    What is death? The question is of wide-ranging practical importance because we need to be able to distinguish the living from the dead in order to treat both appropriately; specifically, the permissibility of retrieving vital organs for transplantation depends upon the potential donor's ontological status. There is a well-established and influential biological definition of death as irreversible breakdown in the functioning of the organism as a whole, but it continues to elicit disquiet and rejoinders. The central claims of this paper (...)
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  32. Kazumasa Hoshino (1993). Legal Status of Brain Death in Japan: Why Many Japanese Do Not Accept "Brain Death" as a Definition of Death. Bioethics 7 (2-3):234-238.
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  33. Peter Jeffery (1992). Brain Death: A Survey of the Debate and the Position in 1991. Heythrop Journal 33 (3):307–323.
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  34. B. Jennett (2002). Brain Death: Philosophical Concepts and Problems: T Russell. Ashgate, 2000, Pound40.00, Pp 183. ISBN 0 7546 1210. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (2):130-130.
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  35. B. Jennett (1977). The Diagnosis of Brain Death. Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (1):4-5.
    No apologies are needed for returning to the subject of brain death and its definition. There has been so much public discussion that it is important for public confidence that the issues should be clarified. In the following two contributions - one from a professor of neurosurgery and the other from a lawyer - an attempt is made to convince doctors (if that is needed) and lay people alike that what appears to be a new bogy is not one at (...)
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  36. Ari Joffe (2010). Are Recent Defences of the Brain Death Concept Adequate? Bioethics 24 (2):47-53.
    Brain death is accepted in most countries as death. The rationales to explain why brain death is death are surprisingly problematic. The standard rationale that in brain death there has been loss of integrative unity of the organism has been shown to be false, and a better rationale has not been clearly articulated. Recent expert defences of the brain death concept are examined in this paper, and are suggested to be inadequate. I argue that, ironically, these defences demonstrate the lack (...)
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  37. D. G. Jones (1998). The Problematic Symmetry Between Brain Birth and Brain Death. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (4):237-242.
    The possible symmetry between the concepts of brain death and brain birth (life) is explored. Since the symmetry argument has tended to overlook the most appropriate definition of brain death, the fundamental concepts of whole brain death and higher brain death are assessed. In this way, a context is provided for a discussion of brain birth. Different writers have placed brain birth at numerous points: 25-40 days, eight weeks, 22-24 weeks, and 32-36 weeks gestation. For others, the concept itself is (...)
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  38. Royce P. Jones (1985). The Logical Status of Brain Death Criteria. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (4):387-396.
    This article is an attempt to clarify a confusion in the brain death literature between logical sufficiency/necessity and natural sufficiency/necessity. We focus on arguments that draw conclusions regarding empirical matters of fact from conceptual or ontological definitions. Specifically, we critically analyze arguments by Tom Tomlinson and Michael B. Green and Daniel Wikler. which, respectively, confuse logical and natural sufficiency and logical and natural necessity. Our own conclusion is that it is especially important in discussing the brain death issue to observe (...)
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  39. Susan Frances Jones & Anthony S. Kessel (2001). The 'Redefinition of Death' Debate: Western Concepts and Western Bioethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):63-75.
    Biomedicine is a global enterprise constructed upon the belief in the universality of scientific truths. However, despite huge scientific advances over recent decades it has not been able to formulate a specific and universal definition of death: In fact, in its attempt to redefine death, the concept of death appears to have become immersed in ever increasing vagueness and ambiguity. Even more worrisome is that bioethics, in the form of principlism, is also endeavouring to become a global enterprise by claiming (...)
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  40. F. M. Kamm (2001). Brain Death and Spontaneous Breathing. Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 (3):297–320.
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  41. George Khushf (2006). Owning Up to Our Agendas: On the Role and Limits of Science in Debates About Embryos and Brain Death. Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 34 (1):58-76.
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  42. Eike-Henner W. Kluge (1984). Cerebral Death. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (2).
    The notion of cerebral death is examined in relation to those of cardiopulmonary and whole-brain death. It is argued that rather than being a new concept of death, it is merely a new criterion that leaves the old concept — death as loss of personhood — intact. The argument begins on a theoretical level with the distinction between criteria and concepts, places both into context with the notion of a conceptual framework in its relation to empirical reality, and then particularizes (...)
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  43. Birgit Krawietz (2003). Brain Death and Islamic Traditions. In Jonathan E. Brockopp (ed.), Islamic Ethics of Life: Abortion, War, and Euthanasia. University of South Carolina Press. 194--213.
  44. D. Lamb (1990). Danish Ethics Council Rejects Brain Death as the Criterion of Death -- Commentary 1: Wanting It Both Ways. Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (1):8-9.
    In this commentary on the recommendations of the Danish Council of Ethics (DCE) concerning criteria for death it is argued that whilst the DCE is correct in stressing the cultural aspects of death, its adoption of cardiac-oriented criteria raises several problems. There are problems with its notion of a 'death process', which purportedly begins with brain death and ends with cessation of cardiac function, and there are serious problems regarding its commitment to a cardiac-oriented definition whilst permitting transplantation when the (...)
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  45. John Lizza (2011). Brain Death. In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier. 16--453.
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  46. John P. Lizza (2005). Potentiality, Irreversibility, and Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (1):45 – 64.
    There has been growing concern about whether individuals who satisfy neurological criteria for death or who become non-heart-beating organ donors are really dead. This concern has focused on the issue of the potential for recovery that these individuals may still have and whether their conditions are irreversible. In this article I examine the concepts of potentiality and irreversibility that have been invoked in the discussions of the definition of death and non-heart-beating organ donation. I initially focus on the recent challenge (...)
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  47. Steven Luper (2009). The Philosophy of Death. Cambridge University Press.
    Introduction -- Life -- Death -- Challenges -- Mortal harm -- The timing puzzle -- Killing -- Suicide and euthanasia -- Abortion.
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  48. B. Andrew Lustig (2001). Theoretical and Clinical Concerns About Brain Death: The Debate Continues. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (5):447 – 455.
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  49. C. Machado, J. Kerein, Y. Ferrer, L. Portela, M. de La C. Garcia & J. M. Manero (2007). The Concept of Brain Death Did Not Evolve to Benefit Organ Transplants. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (4):197-200.
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  50. C. Machado & D. E. Shewmon (eds.) (2004). Brain Death and Disorders of Consciousness. Plenum.
    The main goal of Brain Death and Disorders of Consciousness is to provide a suitable scientific platform to discuss all topics related to human death and coma.
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