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  1. Robert P. Abelson & Mansur Lalljee (1988). Knowledge Structures and Causal Explanation. In Denis J. Hilton (ed.), Contemporary Science and Natural Explanation: Commonsense Conceptions of Causality. New York University Press.
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  2. K. Abt (1987). Probability Models in the Life Sciences: What Do They Really Stand For? Erkenntnis 26 (3):423 - 427.
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  3. Peter Achinstein (1994). Explanation V. Prediction: Which Carries More Weight? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:156 - 164.
    Do predictions of novel facts provide stronger evidence for a theory than explanations of old ones? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. Which obtains has nothing to do with whether the evidence is predicted or explained, but only with the selection procedure used to generate the evidence. This is demonstrated by reference to a series of hypothetical drug cases and to Heinrich Hertz's 1883 cathode ray experiments.
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  4. Peter Achinstein (1993). Explanation and "Old Evidence. Philosophica 51 (1):125-137.
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  5. Peter Achinstein (1992). Waves and Scientific Method. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:193 - 204.
    Laudan and Cantor maintain that there exists a methodological gulf between 19th century wave theorists of light, who employed a method of hypothesis, and 18th and 19th century particle theorists, who were inductivists. This paper examines how in fact wave theorists typically argued for their theory, in order to see to what extent their reasoning corresponds to the method of hypothesis or to inductivism in sophisticated versions of these doctrines offered by Whewell and Mill. It also examines how, given the (...)
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  6. Ernest W. Adams & Roger D. Rosenkrantz (1980). Applying the Jeffrey Decision Model to Rational Betting and Information Acquisition. Theory and Decision 12 (1):1-20.
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  7. F. Michael Akeroyd (2002). Philosophy of Science and History3 of Science: A Non Troubling Interaction. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 33 (1):159-162.
    Cassandra Pinnick and George Gale (Journal for General Phisophy of Science 31, 109–125) examined the post-Lakatos period of historical cum philosophical case studies and concluded that a new methodology is required. Lakatos' proposed ‘history2’ (the theory- and value-laden reconstruction of history1, the set of historical events) was criticised. Recently a group of scholars have been pursuing a methodology which could be described as history 3, a history1 account of the interaction between the significant scientific papers published during the time period (...)
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  8. Max Albert (1992). Die Falsifikation Statistischer Hypothesen. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 23 (1):1 - 32.
    The Falsification of Statistical Hypotheses. It is widely held that falsification of statistical hypotheses is impossible. This view is supported by an analysis of the most important theories of statistical testing: these theories are not compatible with falsificationism. On the other hand, falsificationism yields a basically viable solution to the problems of explanation, prediction and theory testing in a deterministic context. The present paper shows how to introduce the falsificationist solution into the realm of statistics. This is done mainly by (...)
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  9. Max Albert (1992). Die Falsifikation Statistischer HypothesenThe Falsification of Statistical Hypotheses. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 23 (1):1-32.
    It is widely held that falsification of statistical hypotheses is impossible. This view is supported by an analysis of the most important theories of statistical testing: these theories are not compatible with falsificationism. On the other hand, falsificationism yields a basically viable solution to the problems of explanation, prediction and theory testing in a deterministic context. The present paper shows how to introduce the falsificationist solution into the realm of statistics. This is done mainly by applying the concept of empirical (...)
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  10. Carlos E. Alchourrón & David Makinson (1986). Maps Between Some Different Kinds of Contraction Function: The Finite Case. Studia Logica 45 (2):187 - 198.
    In some recent papers, the authors and Peter Gärdenfors have defined and studied two different kinds of formal operation, conceived as possible representations of the intuitive process of contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition. These are partial meet contraction (including as limiting cases full meet contraction and maxichoice contraction) and safe contraction. It is known, via the representation theorem for the former, that every safe contraction operation over a theory is a partial meet contraction over that theory. The purpose (...)
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  11. S. Alexander (1921). Some Explanations. Mind 30 (120):409-428.
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  12. Robert F. Almeder (1973). Science and Idealism. Philosophy of Science 40 (2):242-254.
    In this essay it is argued that (1) if the process of scientific inquiry were to continue foreever, then science would ultimately terminate in the acceptance of a single theoretical framework better than all conceivable others, and (2) there is some evidence in favor of the view that science will continue unto eternity but no evidence in favor of the contrary view. In arguing for claim (1) it is claimed that if we are to understand the sense in which science (...)
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  13. F. J. Anscombe (1951). Mr. Kneale on Probability and Induction. Mind 60 (239):299-309.
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  14. F. J. Anscombe (1951). Mr. Kneale on Probability and Induction I. Mind 60 (239):299-309.
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  15. Horacio Arló-Costa (2006). Rationally Choosing Beliefs: Some Open Questions. Análisis Filosófico 26 (1):93-114.
    Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson published in 1985 a seminal article on belief change in the Journal of Symbolic Logic . Researchers from various disciplines, from computer science to mathematical economics to philosophical logic, have continued the work first presented in this seminal paper during the last two decades. This paper explores some salient foundational trends that interpret the act of changing view as a decision. We will argue that some of these foundational trends are already present, although (...)
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  16. Horacio Arlo-Costa, Qualitative and Probabilistic Models of Full Belief.
    Let L be a language containing the modal operator B - for full belief. An information model is a set E of stable L-theories. A sentence is valid if it is accepted in all theories of every model.
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  17. Horacio Arló-Costa & Isaac Levi (2006). Contraction: On the Decision-Theoretical Origins of Minimal Change and Entrenchment. Synthese 152 (1):129 - 154.
    We present a decision-theoretically motivated notion of contraction which, we claim, encodes the principles of minimal change and entrenchment. Contraction is seen as an operation whose goal is to minimize loses of informational value. The operation is also compatible with the principle that in contracting A one should preserve the sentences better entrenched than A (when the belief set contains A). Even when the principle of minimal change and the latter motivation for entrenchment figure prominently among the basic intuitions in (...)
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  18. Horacio Arló-Costa & Richmond H. Thomason (2001). Iterative Probability Kinematics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (5):479-524.
    Following the pioneer work of Bruno De Finetti [12], conditional probability spaces (allowing for conditioning with events of measure zero) have been studied since (at least) the 1950's. Perhaps the most salient axiomatizations are Karl Popper's in [31], and Alfred Renyi's in [33]. Nonstandard probability spaces [34] are a well know alternative to this approach. Vann McGee proposed in [30] a result relating both approaches by showing that the standard values of infinitesimal probability functions are representable as Popper functions, and (...)
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  19. David Malet Armstrong (1991). What Makes Induction Rational? Dialogue 30 (04):503-11.
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  20. Review author[S.]: D. M. Armstrong (1993). The Identification Problem and the Inference Problem. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (2):421-422.
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  21. Henri Arzeliès (1966). Relativistic Kinematics. New York, Pergamon Press.
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  22. Dana Ashkenazi & Zvi Lotker (2014). The Quasicrystals Discovery as a Resonance of the Non-Euclidean Geometry Revolution: Historical and Philosophical Perspective. Philosophia 42 (1):25-40.
    In this paper, we review the history of quasicrystals from their sensational discovery in 1982, initially “forbidden” by the rules of classical crystallography, to 2011 when Dan Shechtman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. We then discuss the discovery of quasicrystals in philosophical terms of anomalies behavior that led to a paradigm shift as offered by philosopher and historian of science Thomas Kuhn in ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolutions’. This discovery, which found expression in the redefinition of the concept (...)
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  23. David Atkinson & Jeanne Peijnenburg (2013). Transitivity and Partial Screening Off. Theoria 79 (4):294-308.
    The notion of probabilistic support is beset by well-known problems. In this paper we add a new one to the list: the problem of transitivity. Tomoji Shogenji has shown that positive probabilistic support, or confirmation, is transitive under the condition of screening off. However, under that same condition negative probabilistic support, or disconfirmation, is intransitive. Since there are many situations in which disconfirmation is transitive, this illustrates, but now in a different way, that the screening-off condition is too restrictive. We (...)
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  24. Richard C. Atkinson (1956). An Analysis of the Effect of Nonreinforced Trials in Terms of Statistical Learning Theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (1):28.
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  25. Archie Bahm (1978). Metaphysics: An Inductive Science. Southwest Philosophical Studies 3.
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  26. D. Baird (2004). The End of Pure Science: Science Policy From Bayh-Dole to the NNI. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios. 217.
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  27. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay (1995). Constructive Empiricism: From a Theory of Empirical Adequacy to a Theory of Acceptance. Dissertation, The University of Rochester
    I begin chapter I by discussing two key distinctions that constitute the core of van Fraassen's constructive empiricism: a distinction between observables and unobservables and a distinction between acceptance and belief with regard to a theory. To support constructive empiricism, van Fraassen also deploys two epistemological principles: only actual observations are to be taken as evidence and possible evidence is all that can be rationally inferred from the actual evidence. I reject both principle and van Fraassen's construal of observation. As (...)
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  28. Maya Bar-Hillel, David Budescu & Yigal Attali (2005). Scoring and Keying Multiple Choice Tests: A Case Study in Irrationality. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 4 (1):3-12.
    We offer a case-study in irrationality, showing that even in a high stakes context, intelligent and well trained professionals may adopt dominated practices. In multiple-choice tests one cannot distinguish lucky guesses from answers based on knowledge. Test-makers have dealt with this problem by lowering the incentive to guess, through penalizing errors (called formula scoring), and by eliminating various cues for outperforming random guessing (e.g., a preponderance of correct answers in middle positions), through key balancing. These policies, though widespread and intuitively (...)
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  29. Stephen Barker (1988). Hume's Causal Explanation of Causal Thinking. Southwest Philosophical Studies 10 (3):21-28.
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  30. Stephen J. Barker (1998). Predetermination and Tense Probabilism. Analysis 58 (4):290–296.
  31. G. A. Barnard (1972). Two Points in the Theory of Statistical Inference. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (4):329-331.
  32. Eric Barnes (1995). Truthlikeness, Translation, and Approximate Causal Explanation. Philosophy of Science 62 (2):215-226.
    D. Miller's demonstrations of the language dependence of truthlikeness raise a profound problem for the claim that scientific progress is objective. In two recent papers (Barnes 1990, 1991) I argue that the objectivity of progress may be grounded on the claim that the aim of science is not merely truth but knowledge; progress thus construed is objective in an epistemic sense. In this paper I construct a new solution to Miller's problem grounded on the notion of "approximate causal explanation" which (...)
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  33. Eric Barnes (1990). The Language Dependence of Accuracy. Synthese 84 (1):59 - 95.
    David Miller has demonstrated to the satisfaction of a variety of philosophers that the accuracy of false quantitative theories is language dependent (cf. Miller 1975). This demonstration renders the accuracy-based mode of comparison for such theories obsolete. The purpose of this essay is to supply an alternate basis for theory comparison which in this paper is deemed the knowledge-based mode of quantitative theory comparison. It is argued that the status of a quantitative theory as knowledge depends primarily on the soundness (...)
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  34. Eric Christian Barnes (1998). Probabilities and Epistemic Pluralism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):31-47.
    A pluralistic scientific method is one that incorporates a variety of points of view in scientific inquiry. This paper investigates one example of pluralistic method: the use of weighted averaging in probability estimation. I consider two methods of weight determination, one based on disjoint evidence possession and the other on track record. I argue that weighted averaging provides a rational procedure for probability estimation under certain conditions. I consider a strategy for calculating ‘mixed weights’ which incorporate mixed information about agent (...)
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  35. Giovanni Barosi, Lorenzo Magnani & Mario Stefanelli (1993). Medical Diagnostic Reasoning: Epistemological Modeling as a Strategy for Design of Computer-Based Consultation Programs. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 14 (1).
    The complexity of cognitive emulation of human diagnostic reasoning is the major challenge in the implementation of computer-based programs for diagnostic advice in medicine. We here present an epistemological model of diagnosis with the ultimate goal of defining a high-level language for cognitive and computational primitives. The diagnostic task proceeds through three different phases: hypotheses generation, hypotheses testing and hypotheses closure. Hypotheses generation has the inferential form of abduction (from findings to hypotheses) constrained under the criterion of plausibility. Hypotheses testing (...)
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  36. Eduardo Salles O. Barra (2010). Valores epistêmicos no naturalismo normativos de Philip Kitcher. Principia 4 (1):1-26.
    This paper aims at analyzing Philip Kitcher's naturalistic epistemology, particularly its normative features, which are viewed as a sort of response to negative assessments made by radical naturalists on the plurality of epistemic values. According to them such values are ineffective for normative ends, e.g. theory choice. Differently from that quite excessive evaluation, Kitcher argues rather for explanatory unity as the most important and universal epistemic value. Even though Kitcher's arguments are sound, there remains some serious gaps as regards his (...)
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  37. Jon Barwise & Yiannis N. Moschovakis (1978). Global Inductive Definability. Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (3):521-534.
    We show that several theorems on ordinal bounds in different parts of logic are simple consequences of a basic result in the theory of global inductive definitions.
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  38. Peter Baumann (2005). Three Doors, Two Players, and Single-Case Probabilities. American Philosophical Quarterly 42 (1):71 - 79.
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  39. Ulrike Baureithel (1991). Neuerscheinungen: Sandra Harding: Feministische Wissenschaftstheorie. Zum Verhältnis von Wissenschaft Und Sozialem Geschlecht. Die Philosophin 2 (4):68-72.
  40. Lee R. Beach (1968). Probability Magnitudes and Conservative Revision of Subjective Probabilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (1):57.
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  41. Lee R. Beach & James A. Wise (1969). Subjective Probability and Decision Strategy. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (1p1):133.
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  42. Tom L. Beauchamp (1972). Explanation and Understanding. International Philosophical Quarterly 12 (4):626-629.
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  43. William Bechtel (2010). The Downs and Ups of Mechanistic Research: Circadian Rhythm Research as an Exemplar. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 73 (3):313 - 328.
    In the context of mechanistic explanation, reductionistic research pursues a decomposition of complex systems into their component parts and operations. Using research on the mechanisms responsible for circadian rhythms, I consider both the gains that have been made by discovering genes and proteins that figure in these intracellular oscillators and also highlight the increasingly recognized need to understand higher-level integration, both between cells in the central oscillator and between the central and peripheral oscillators. This history illustrates a common need to (...)
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  44. William Bechtel & Adele Abrahamsen (2009). Decomposing, Recomposing, and Situating Circadian Mechanisms: Three Tasks in Developing Mechanistic Explanations. In H. Leitgeb & A. Hieke (eds.), Reduction: Between the Mind and the Brain. Ontos. 12--177.
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  45. Lewis White Beck (1943). The Principle of Parsimony in Empirical Science. Journal of Philosophy 40 (23):617-633.
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  46. Jonathan Bennett (1957). Some Aspects of Probability and Induction (II). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 7 (28):316-322.
  47. Jonathan Bennett (1956). Some Aspects of Probability and Induction (I). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 7 (27):220-230.
  48. Johan Van Benthem (1993). Modelling the Kinematics of Meaning. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 93:105 - 122.
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  49. F. Bergadano (1993). Machine Learning and the Foundations of Inductive Inference. Minds and Machines 3 (1):31-51.
    The problem of valid induction could be stated as follows: are we justified in accepting a given hypothesis on the basis of observations that frequently confirm it? The present paper argues that this question is relevant for the understanding of Machine Learning, but insufficient. Recent research in inductive reasoning has prompted another, more fundamental question: there is not just one given rule to be tested, there are a large number of possible rules, and many of these are somehow confirmed by (...)
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  50. Alan Berger (1989). A Theory of Reference Transmission and Reference Change. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 14 (1):180-198.
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