About this topic
Summary

Change blindness is the experimentally demonstrated phenomenon in which a subject fails to notice a distinguishing feature or change when consecutively presented with two slightly different stimuli (e.g., words, illustrations or photographs). Change blindness occurs when stimuli are changed during saccadic eye movements, when changes are introduced to a stimulus display that flickers on and off, or when the stimulus is interrupted by a 'mask', for example a blank display or a 'mudsplash', consisting of small, high-contrast shapes temporarily 'splattered' over the image. Inattentional blindness is a related experimentally demonstrated phenomenon in which subjects fail to notice stimuli in their visual field because they are engaged in a task that requires attention to a different stimulus. For example, some subjects fail to notice a stimulus presented close to fixation because they are attending to a cross at fixation to discern which of its lines is longer. Inattentional blindness also occurs with complex and dynamic stimuli. In a popular experiment subjects fail to notice a man in a gorilla suit who walks through the action in the video they are watching. Similar effects can be produced in "real-world" situations, situations in which subjects interact directly with other people and not merely with video images. These results have been taken to show that there is no explicit conscious awareness of an item without attention, and that if it seems to us that we experience many items in our visual field simultaneously or in detail we are subject to an illusion. Both of these conclusions are contested.

Key works Key works on change blindness include: Rensink et al 1997O'Regan et al 1999, and Rensink et al 2000. Key works on inattentional blindness include: Mack & Rock 1998Mack & Rock 2003Simons & Chabris 1999Most et al 2000 Key works on the grand illusion include: Noë 2002 and Mack 2002.
Introductions Good introductory works include: Mack & Rock 1998Mack & Rock 2003. For a popular introduction see Chabris and Simons (2010), The Invisible Gorilla. 
  Show all references
Related categories
Siblings:See also:
117 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 117
  1. Kathleen Akins (ed.) (1996). Perception. Oxford University Press.
  2. Joseph Anderson & Barbara Anderson (1993). The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited. Journal of Film and Video 45:3--12.
  3. Bonnie L. Angelone, Daniel T. Levin & Daniel J. Simons (2003). The Relationship Between Change Detection and Recognition of Centrally Attended Objects in Motion Pictures. Perception 32 (8):947-962.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Diane Beck, Geraint Rees, Christopher D. Frith & Nilli Lavie (2001). Change Blindness and Change Awareness. Nature Neuroscience 4.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Diane Beck, Geraint Rees, Christopher D. Frith & Nilli Lavie (2001). Neural Correlates of Change Detection and Change Blindness. Nature Neuroscience 4 (6):645-650.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. M. Beck, B. Angelone, D. Levin, M. Peterson & D. Varakin (2008). Implicit Learning for Probable Changes in a Visual Change Detection Task. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1192-1208.
  7. Melissa R. Beck, Daniel T. Levin & Bonnie L. Angelone (2007). Change Blindness Blindness: Beliefs About the Roles of Intention and Scene Complexity in Change Detection. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):31-51.
  8. Melissa R. Beck, Daniel T. Levin & Bonnie L. Angelone (2007). Metacognitive Errors in Change Detection: Lab and Life Converge. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):58-62.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Susan J. Blackmore (2002). The Grand Illusion: Why Consciousness Exists Only When You Look for It. New Scientist 174 (2348):26-29.
    Like most people, I used to think of my conscious life as like a stream of experiences, passing through my mind, one after another. But now I’m starting to wonder, is consciousness really like this? Could this apparently innocent assumption be the reason we find consciousness so baffling?
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Susan J. Blackmore, Gavin Brelstaff, Katherine Nelson & Tom Troscianko (1995). Is the Richness of Our Visual World an Illusion? Transsaccadic Memory for Complex Scenes. Perception 24:1075-81.
  11. Ned Block (2011). Perceptual Consciousness Overflows Cognitive Access. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (12):567-575.
    One of the most important issues concerning the foundations ofconscious perception centerson thequestion of whether perceptual consciousness is rich or sparse. The overflow argument uses a form of ‘iconic memory’ toarguethatperceptual consciousnessisricher (i.e.,has a higher capacity) than cognitive access: when observing a complex scene we are conscious of more than we can report or think about. Recently, the overflow argumenthas been challenged both empirically and conceptually. This paper reviews the controversy, arguing that proponents of sparse perception are committed to the (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Jochen Braun (2001). Inattentional Blindness: It's Great but Not Necessarily About Attention. Psyche 7 (6).
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Bruce Bridgeman, David Hendry & L. Stark (1975). Failure to Detect Displacements of the Visual World During Saccadic Eye Movements. Vision Research 15:719-22.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Justin Broackes (2001). Experience, Attention, and Mental Representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):978-979.
    O'Regan & Noë make plausible that perception involves mastery of sensory-motor dependencies. Their rejection of qualia, however, is less persuasive; as is their view that we see only what we are attending to. At times they seem to oppose “internal representation” in general; I argue that they should in fact only be rejecting crude conceptions of brain picturing.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Beverly C. Butler & Raymond Klein (2009). Inattentional Blindness for Ignored Words: Comparison of Explicit and Implicit Memory Tasks. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):811-819.
  16. G. Caplovitz, R. FendRich & H. HugHes (2008). Failures to See: Attentive Blank Stares Revealed by Change Blindness. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):877-886.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Jean-Pierre Changeux & Stanislas Dehaene (2005). Ongoing Spontaneous Activity Controls Access to Consciousness: A Neuronal Model for Inattentional Blindness. PLoS Biology 3 (5):e141.
    1 INSERM-CEA Unit 562, Cognitive Neuroimaging, Service Hospitalier Fre´de´ric Joliot, Orsay, France, 2 CNRS URA2182 Re´cepteurs and Cognition, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Andy Clark (2002). Is Seeing All It Seems? Journal of Consciousness Studies 9:181-202.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Axel Cleeremans, Change Blindness to Gradual Changes in Facial Expressions.
    Change blindness—our inability to detect changes in a stimulus—occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without disruption (Simons et al., 2000). Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. In this experiment, we extend previous findings to the domain of facial expressions of emotions occurring in the context of a realistic scene. Even with changes occurring in central, highly relevant stimuli such as faces, gradual changes still produced high levels of change blindness: Detection (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Jonathan Cohen (2002). The Grand Grand Illusion Illusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (5-6):141-157.
    In recent years, a pair of intriguing phenomena has caused researchers working on vision and visual attention to reevaluate many of their assumptions. These phenomena, which have come to be called change blindness (CB) and inattentional blindness (IB), have led many to the conclusion that ordinary perceivers labor under a ``grand illusion'' concerning perception - an illusion that is..
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Daniel C. Dennett (2002). How Could I Be Wrong? How Wrong Could I Be? Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (5):13-16.
    One of the striking, even amusing, spectacles to be enjoyed at the many workshops and conferences on consciousness these days is the breathtaking overconfidence with which laypeople hold forth about the nature of consciousness Btheir own in particular, but everybody =s by extrapolation. Everybody =s an expert on consciousness, it seems, and it doesn =t take any knowledge of experimental findings to secure the home truths these people enunciate with such conviction.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Fred Dretske (2007). What Change Blindness Teaches About Consciousness. Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):215–220.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Fred Dretske (2004). Change Blindness. Philosophical Studies 120 (1-3):1-18.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Donelson E. Dulany (2001). Inattentional Awareness. Psyche 7 (5).
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Ralph D. Ellis (2001). Implications of Inattentional Blindness for "Enactive" Theories of Consciousness. Brain and Mind 2 (3):297-322.
    Mack and Rock show evidence that no consciousperception occurs without a prior attentiveact. Subjects already executing attention taskstend to neglect visible elements extraneous tothe attentional task, apparently lacking evenbetter-than-chance ``implicit perception,''except in certain cases where the unattendedstimulus is a meaningful word or has uniquepre-tuned salience similar to that ofmeaningful words. This is highly consistentwith ``enactive'' notions that consciousnessrequires selective attention via emotional subcortical and limbic motivationalactivation as it influences anterior attentionmechanisms. Occipital activation withoutconsciousness suggests that motivated search,enacted through the organism's (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Diego Fernandez-Duque, Giordana Grossi, Ian Thornton & Helen Neville (2003). Representation of Change: Separate Electrophysiological Markers of Attention, Awareness, and Implicit Processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15 (4):491-507.
    & Awareness of change within a visual scene only occurs in subjects were aware of, replicated those attentional effects, but the presence of focused attention. When two versions of a.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Diego Fernandez-Duque & Ian Thornton (2003). Explicit Mechanisms Do Not Account for Implicit Localization and Identification of Change: An Empirical Reply to Mitroff Et Al (2000). Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (5).
    Several recent findings support the notion that changes in the environment can be implicitly represented by the visual system. S. R. Mitroff, D. J. Simons, and S. L. Franconeri (2002) challenged this view and proposed alternative interpretations based on explicit strategies. Across 4 experiments, the current study finds no empirical support for such alternative proposals. Experiment 1 shows that subjects do not rely on unchanged items when locating an unaware change. Experiments 2 and 3 show that unaware changes affect performance (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Diego Fernandez-Duque & Ian Thornton (2000). Change Detection Without Awareness: Do Explicit Reports Underestimate the Representation of Change in the Visual System? Visual Cognition 7 (1):323-344.
    Evidence from many different paradigms (e.g. change blindness, inattentional blindness, transsaccadic integration) indicate that observers are often very poor at reporting changes to their visual environment. Such evidence has been used to suggest that the spatio-temporal coherence needed to represent change can only occur in the presence of focused attention. In four experiments we use modified change blindness tasks to demonstrate (a) that sensitivity to change does occur in the absence of awareness, and (b) this sensitivity does not rely on (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Jason Ford (2009). Saving Time: How Attention Explains the Utility of Supposedly Superfluous Representations. Cognitive Critique 1 (1):101-114.
    I contend that Alva Noë’s Enactive Approach to Perception fails to give an adequate account of the periphery of attention. Noë claims that our peripheral experience is not produced by the brain’s representation of peripheral items, but rather by our mastery of sensorimotor skills and contingencies. I offer a two-pronged assault on this account of the periphery of attention. The first challenge comes from Mack and Rock’s work on inattentional blindness, and provides robust empirical evidence for the semantic processing (and (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Jason Ford (2008). Attention and the New Sceptics. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (3):59-86.
    In response to new research into the phenomena of inattentional blindness and change- blindness, several philosophers and vision researchers have proposed a novel form of scepticism: they contend that we do not have the conscious experience that we think we have. I will show that this claim is not supported by the evidence usually cited in support of it, and I expose what I believe to be the underlying error motivating this position: the belief that consciousness is either focal (what (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. John A. Grimes (1996). On the Failure to Detect Changes in Scenes Across Saccades. In Kathleen Akins (ed.), Perception. Oxford University Press.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Gary Hatfield (2004). Seeing. Philosophical Studies 120 (1-3):19 - 35.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Greg Janzen (2008). Intentionalism and Change Blindness. Philosophia 36 (3):355-366.
    According to reductive intentionalism, the phenomenal character of a conscious experience is constituted by the experience's intentional (or representational) content. The goal of this article is to show that a phenomenon in visual perception called change blindness poses a problem for this doctrine. It is argued, in particular, that phenomenal character is not sensitive, as it should be if reductive intentionalism is correct, to fine-grained variations in content. The standard anti-intentionalist strategy is to adduce putative cases in which phenomenal character (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Mika Koivisto & Antti Revonsuo (2003). An ERP Study of Change Detection, Change Blindness, and Visual Awareness. Psychophysiology 40 (3):423-429.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Cedric Laloyaux, Christel Devue, Stephane Doyen, Elodie David & Axel Cleeremans (2008). Undetected Changes in Visible Stimuli Influence Subsequent Decisions. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):646-656.
    Change blindness—our inability to detect changes in a stimulus—occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without any disruption (Simons et al., 2000). Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. Using this method, David et al. (in press) recently showed substantial blindness to changes that involve facial expressions of emotion. In this experiment, we show that people who failed to detect any change in the displays were (1) nevertheless influenced by the changing information (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Victor A. F. Lamme & Rogier Landman (2001). Attention Sheds No Light on the Origin of Phenomenal Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):993-993.
    In O'Regan & Noë's (O&N's) account for the phenomenal experience of seeing, awareness is equated to what is within the current focus of attention. They find no place for a distinction between phenomenal and access awareness. In doing so, they essentially present a dualistic solution to the mind-brain problem, and ignore that we do have phenomenal experience of what is outside the focus of attention.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Daniel T. Levin (2002). Change Blindness Blindness as Visual Metacognition. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (5-6):111-30.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Daniel T. Levin, Sarah B. Drivdahl, Nausheen Momen & Melissa R. Beck (2002). False Predictions About the Detectability of Visual Changes: The Role of Beliefs About Attention, Memory, and the Continuity of Attended Objects in Causing Change Blindness Blindness. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):507-527.
  39. Daniel T. Levin, Nausheen Momen, Sarah B. Drivdahl & Daniel J. Simons (2000). Change Blindness Blindness: The Metacognitive Error of Overestimating Change-Detection Ability. Visual Cognition 7 (1):397-412.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Daniel T. Levin, Daniel J. Simons, Bonnie L. Angelone & Christopher Chabris (2002). Memory for Centrally Attended Changing Objects in an Incidental Real-World Change Detection Paradigm. British Journal of Psychology 93:289-302.
  41. Daniel T. Levin & D. Alexander Varakin (2004). No Pause for a Brief Disruption: Failures of Visual Awareness During Ongoing Events. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (2):363-372.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. S. LO & S. YEH (2008). Dissociation of Processing Time and Awareness by the Inattentional Blindness Paradigm☆. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1169-1180.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. S. LO & S. YEH (2008). Dissociation of Processing Time and Awareness by the Inattentional Blindness Paradigm☆. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1169-1180.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Arien Mack (2002). Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion? A Response. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (5-6):102-10.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Arien Mack & Irvin Rock (2003). Inattentional Blindness: An Overview. Current Directions in Psychological Science 12 (5):180-184.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Arien Mack & Irvin Rock (1998). Inattentional Blindness. MIT Press.
  47. Michael Madary (2014). Visual Experience. In Lawrence Shapiro (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. Routledge. 263-271.
  48. Michael Madary (2012). How Would the World Look If It Looked as If It Were Encoded as an Intertwined Set of Probability Density Distributions? Frontiers in Psychology 3:419.
    Commentary on Andy Clark's "Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science" Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2013).
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. G. W. McConkie & D. Zola (1979). Is Visual Information Integrated Across Successive Fixations in Reading? Perception and Psychophysics 25:221-24.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. D. Memmert (2006). The Effects of Eye Movements, Age, and Expertise on Inattentional Blindness. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (3):620-627.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 117