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  1. Richard Bader (2011). On the Non-Existence of Parallel Universes in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):11-37.
    This treatise presents thoughts on the divide that exists in chemistry between those who seek their understanding within a universe wherein the laws of physics apply and those who prefer alternative universes wherein the laws are suspended or ‘bent’ to suit preconceived ideas. The former approach is embodied in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), a theory based upon the properties of a system’s observable distribution of charge. Science is experimental observation followed by appeal to theory that, upon (...)
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  2. Jerome A. Berson (2008). Molecules with Very Weak Bonds: The Edge of Covalency. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):947-957.
    Because most chemical reactions, by definition, cannot avoid breaking of bonds, weakly bonded species exist fleetingly in almost every chemical change. Historically, chemical quantum mechanics was aimed at explaining the nature of strong bonds. The theory involved a number of approximations to the full solution of the Schrödinger equation. The study of non‐Kekulé molecules provides an opportunity to test whether modern quantum chemical computations are competent to deal with the nature of molecules with very weak bonds. †To contact the author, (...)
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  3. John E. Bloor (2002). Ronald J. Gillespie and Paul L. A. Popelier: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry: From Lewis to Electron Densities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):241-247.
  4. Mark Eberhart (2002). Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Design in the Twenty First Century. Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):201-211.
    It is argued that the conventional descriptions of chemical bonds as covalent, ionic, metallic, and Van der Waals are compromising the usefulness of quantum mechanics in the synthesis and design of new molecules and materials. Parallels are drawn between the state of chemistry now and when the idea that phlogiston was an element impeded the development of chemistry. Overcoming the current obstacles will require new methods to describe molecular structure and bonding, just as new concepts were needed before the phlogiston (...)
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  5. Eamonn Healy (2011). Heisenberg's Chemical Legacy: Resonance and the Chemical Bond. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):39-49.
    Heisenberg’s explanation of how two coupled oscillators exchange energy represented a dramatic success for his new matrix mechanics. As matrix mechanics transmuted into wave mechanics, resulting in what Heisenberg himself described as …an extraordinary broadening and enrichment of the formalism of the quantum theory , the term resonance also experienced a corresponding evolution. Heitler and London’s seminal application of wave mechanics to explain the quantum origins of the covalent bond, combined with Pauling’s characterization of the effect, introduced resonance into the (...)
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  6. Robin Findlay Hendry (2008). Two Conceptions of the Chemical Bond. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):909-920.
    In this article I sketch G. N. Lewis’s views on chemical bonding and Linus Pauling’s attempt to preserve Lewis’s insights within a quantum‐mechanical theory of the bond. I then set out two broad conceptions of the chemical bond, the structural and the energetic views, which differ on the extent in which they preserve anything like the classical chemical bond in the modern quantum‐mechanical understanding of molecular structure. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, Durham University, 50 Old (...)
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  7. Hinne Hettema (2008). A Note on Michael Weisberg's: Challenges to the Structural Conception of Chemical Bonding. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):135-142.
    Michael Weisberg’s recent 2007 paper on the chemical bond makes the claim that the chemical notion of the covalent bond is in trouble. This note casts doubts on that claim.
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  8. Shant Shahbazian & Mansour Zahedi (2007). Letter to the Editor: The Concept of Chemical Bond – Some Like It Fuzzy but Others Concrete. Foundations of Chemistry 9 (1):85-95.
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  9. G. K. Vemulapalli (2008). Theories of the Chemical Bond and its True Nature. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):167-176.
    Two different models for chemical bond were developed almost simultaneously after the Schrödinger formulation of quantum theory. These are known as the valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital (MO) theories. Initially chemists preferred the VB theory and ignored the MO theory. Now the VB theory is almost dropped out of currency. The context of discovery and Linus Pauling’s overpowering influence gave the VB theory its initial advantage. The current universal acceptance of the MO theory is due to its ability to (...)
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  10. Michael Weisberg (2008). Challenges to the Structural Conception of Chemical Bonding. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):932-946.
    The covalent bond, a difficult concept to define precisely, plays a central role in chemical predictions, interventions, and explanations. I investigate the structural conception of the covalent bond, which says that bonding is a directional, submolecular region of electron density, located between individual atomic centers and responsible for holding the atoms together. Several approaches to constructing molecular models are considered in order to determine which features of the structural conception of bonding, if any, are robust across these models. Key components (...)
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  11. Andrea I. Woody (2000). Putting Quantum Mechanics to Work in Chemistry: The Power of Diagrammatic Representation. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):627.
    Most contemporary chemists consider quantum mechanics to be the foundational theory of their discipline, although few of the calculations that a strict reduction would seem to require have ever been produced. In this essay I discuss contemporary algebraic and diagrammatic representations of molecular systems derived from quantum mechanical models, specifically configuration interaction wavefunctions for ab initio calculations and molecular orbital energy diagrams. My aim is to suggest that recent dissatisfaction with reductive accounts of chemical theory may stem from both the (...)
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