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Summary Chinese Buddhist philosophy primarily results from traditional Chinese Buddhist thinkers’ efforts to inherit, reinterpret, and develop theories and thoughts in various Chinese translations of Indian Mahayana scriptures and treatises. Five Chinese Buddhist schools or traditions are of philosophical significance: the Three-Treatise school, the Consciousness-Only school, the Tiantai school, the Huayan school, and Chinese Zen (Chan) Buddhism. Among them, the Three-Treatise and Consciousness-Only schools are the Chinese descendants of, respectively, Indian Madhyamaka and Yogācāra; however, both have all but disappeared after the Tang dynasty (618−907). The other three schools, Tiantai, Huayan, and Zen/Chan, are indigenous and can be seen as philosophically the most representative traditions of Chinese Buddhism. Considerably owing to the influence of Chinese thought and culture, Chinese Buddhist way of thinking is fundamentally nondualistic in character, emphasizing, more than Indian Mahayana does, the mutual sameness and interpenetration of the ultimate and the conventional. The thinking tends to be somewhat nondiscursive, involving holistic views expressed in paradoxical language, with particular concern on the practical. Meanwhile, Tathāgatagarbha thought receives much attention among Chinese Buddhist thinkers, and the widespread conviction is that all sentient beings have Buddha-nature and can attain Buddhahood.
Key works Refer to the subcategories.
Introductions Lai 2008 discusses the history of Chinese Buddhist thought up to the Tang dynasty. Inada 1997 comments on the Chinese reception of Buddhism. Liu 1985 and Liu 1989 elucidate the notion of Buddha-nature in Chinese Buddhism.
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  1. Allan A. Andrews (1977). World Rejection and Pure Land Buddhism in Japan. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 4 (4):251-266.
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  2. Global Bioethics (2002). Jonathan Chan. In Kazumasa Hoshino, H. Tristram Engelhardt & Lisa M. Rasmussen (eds.), Bioethics and Moral Content: National Traditions of Health Care Morality: Papers Dedicated in Tribute to Kazumasa Hoshino. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 3--235.
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  3. Maria Bittner, Chan T'u'ul Ichil le Sahkabo'.
    TEXT: D. and A. Bolles, 1996, A Grammar of the Yucatecan Mayan Language/The Expoloits of Juan Thul, The Trickster Rabbit. http://www.famsi.org/reports/96072/grammar/section42.html. GLOSSES & TRANSLATION: See the text pdf at http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~mbittner/ym.html. ONLINE UPDATE: See Bittner 2004 ‘Online Update: Quantified de se and polysynthesis’. The following table lists some basic symbols of the semantic representation language to be used.
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  4. Daniel Bouchez (1985). Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism in Kim Manjung's Random Essays (Sŏp'o Manp'il). In William Theodore De Bary & JaHyun Kim Haboush (eds.), The Rise of Neo-Confucianism in Korea. Columbia University Press.
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  5. Wing-Tsit Chan (1958). Transformation of Buddhism in China. Philosophy East and West 7 (3/4):107-116.
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  6. Wing‐Cheuk Chan (2013). The Thought of Mou Zongsan. By N. Serina Chan. (Leiden: Brill, 2011. 342 Pp. Hardback, ISBN 978‐900‐04‐21211‐4.). Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (1):208-211.
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  7. Hyun Choo (2008). The Ban-Ya Pa-Ra-Mil-da Sim Gyeong Chan. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 6:15-28.
    This paper has attempted to present Wonch'uk's Ban-ya pa-ra-mil-da sim gyeong chan (般若波羅蜜多心經贊) or Commentary on the Heart Sūtra which was written in classical Chinese in the 7th century. As an example of the intellectual analysis of a sūtra, Wonch'uk's Commentary is an important text that has exerted asignificant influence on East Asian Buddhist thought. A prominent Korean Yogācāra scholar, Wonch'uk authored twenty-three works during his lifetime; unfortunately, all but three have been lost. The Commentary on the Heart Sūtra is (...)
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  8. Philip E. Devenish (2001). The Lotus Sutra and Process Philosophy. (News and Views). Buddhist-Christian Studies 21 (1):119.
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  9. Homer H. Dubs (1955). Y. R. Chao on Chinese Grammar and Logic. Philosophy East and West 5 (2):167-168.
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  10. Sueki Fumihiko (forthcoming). Chinese Buddhism and the Anti-Japan War. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies.
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  11. Rita M. Gross (2012). Eminent Nuns: Women Chan Masters of Seventeenth-Century China (Review). Buddhist-Christian Studies 32 (1):154-157.
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  12. Ann Heirman (2008). Indian Disciplinary Rules and Their Early Chinese Adepts: A Buddhist Reality. Journal of the American Oriental Society 128 (2):257-272.
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  13. Yuanling Hu (2009). Liu Zongzhou Shen du Zhi Xue Chan Wei. Taiwan Xue Sheng Shu Ju.
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  14. Paul D. Jaffe (1986). Rising From the Lotus: Two Bodhisattvas From the Lotus Sutra as a Psychodynamic Paradigm for Nichiren. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 13 (1):81-105.
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  15. Yun-hua Jan (1991). Patterns of Chinese Assimilation and Transformation of Meditative Ideas From Indian Buddhism. In Hajime Nakamura & V. N. Jha (eds.), Kalyāṇa-Mitta: Professor Hajime Nakamura Felicitation Volume. Sri Satguru Publications. 86--63.
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  16. Guoqing Ji (2010). Ru Jia de Dang Dai Chan Shi. Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  17. Zhe Ji (2007). Mémoire reconstituée : les stratégies mnémoniques dans la reconstruction d'un monastère bouddhique. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 1 (1):145-164.
    La renaissance du bouddhisme dans la Chine contemporaine est d’abord un travail symbolique qui consiste essentiellement en la reconstitution d’une mémoire. Par l’observation d’un monastère reconstruit depuis 1988 en Chine du Nord, cet article analyse comment un appareil institutionnel religieux se légitime dans sa réimplantation en invoquant l’autorité de la tradition. Quatre stratégies de mémoire adoptées par le responsable du monastère sont discernées : le réaménagement de l’espace, l’encodage des objets, la commémoration des personnages historiques et l’inscription de la généalogie.The (...)
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  18. Minoru Kiyota (1985). Tathāgatagarbha Thought: A Basis of Buddhist Devotionalism in East Asia. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 12 (2/3):207-231.
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  19. Kunitsugu Kosaka (2008). Tōyōteki Na Ikikata: Mui Shizen No Michi. Mineruva Shobō.
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  20. Sanping Kuang (2007). Makesi "She Hui Cun Zai Lun" Ji Qi Dang Dai Jia Zhi: Yi Zhong Cun Zai Lun Shi Yu Xia de Zhe Xue Chan Shi. Jiangxi Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  21. Shen-Chon Lai (2007). Haidege'er Yu Chan Dao de Kua Wen Hua Gou Tong: A Cross-Cultural Communication Between Martin Heidegger and Zen School/Daoism. Zong Jiao Wen Hua Chu Ban She.
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  22. Whalen Lai (forthcoming). Chinese Buddhist and Christian Charities: A Comparative History. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  23. Whalen Lai (1987). Why the Lotus Sutra? On the Historic Significance ofTendai. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 14 (2-3):83-99.
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  24. Whalen Lai (1984). Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism: A Critical Study of Cumulative Penetration Vs. Interpretation. [REVIEW] Idealistic Studies 14 (3):278-278.
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  25. Young-Ja Lee (2003). A Study on the Lotus Sutra in India, China and Korea. In S. R. Bhatt (ed.), Buddhist Thought and Culture in India and Korea. Indian Council of Philosophical Research. 96.
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  26. Taigen Dan Leighton (forthcoming). Dōgen's Appropriation of Lotus Sutra Ground and Space. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies.
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  27. Qingliang Li (2001). Zhongguo Chan Shi Xue =. Hunan Shi Fan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  28. Silong Li & Xuenong Zhou (eds.) (2004). Zhe Xue, Zong Jiao Yu Ren Wen. Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan.
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  29. Jiahe Liu & Dongfang Shao (forthcoming). Early Buddhism and Taoism in China (AD 65-420). Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  30. Thierry Meynard (2010). The Religious Philosophy of Liang Shuming: The Hidden Buddhist. Brill.
    Liang Shuming, considered to be the Last Confucian, was a Buddhist.
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  31. Douglas K. Mikkelson (2009). Visions of Awakening Space and Time: Dōgen and the Lotus Sutra (Review). Buddhist-Christian Studies 29 (1):168-171.
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  32. Eric Sean Nelson (2005). Opening a Mountain: Koans of the Zen Masters, And: The Koan: Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism (Review). Buddhist-Christian Studies 24 (1):284-288.
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  33. Thomas Ohm (1959). Yau Wan Chan. Kairos 1:228-231.
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  34. J. H. P. (1969). The Practice of Chinese Buddhism 1900-1950. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 22 (4):769-770.
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  35. Tang Qtian (1998). Modern Chinese Buddhism. In Melville Y. Stewart & Chih-kʻang Chang (eds.), The Symposium of Chinese-American Philosophy and Religious Studies. International Scholars Publications. 1--221.
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  36. Stuart Sargent (1996). Original Insights Never Fully Present: Chan/Zen/Deconstruction. [REVIEW] Journal of the American Oriental Society 116 (1):77-84.
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  37. Jun Shi (2006). Shi Jun Wen Cun. Hua Xia Chu Ban She.
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  38. Hu Shih (1981). "A History of Chinese Philosophy" and its Subsequent Researches, Particularly on Ch'An Buddhism. Chinese Studies in History 14 (3):88-101.
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  39. Hu Shih (1953). Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China its History and Method. Philosophy East and West 3 (1):3-24.
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  40. I. Continental Spirit (1997). The Chinese Doctrinal Acceptance of Buddhism By Inada, Kenneth K. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (1):5-17.
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  41. Laura Specker Sullivan (2013). Dōgen and Wittgenstein: Transcending Language Through Ethical Practice. Asian Philosophy 23 (3):221-235.
    While there have been numerous claims of a resemblance between the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Zen Buddhism, few studies of the philosophy of Wittgenstein in detailed comparison with specific Zen thinkers have emerged. This article attempts to fill this gap by considering Wittgenstein's philosophy in relation to that of Eihei D?gen, founder of the S?t? school of Zen. Points of particular confluence are found in both thinkers? approaches to language, experience, and practice. Through an elucidation of these points, this (...)
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  42. Yifeng Sun (2004). Shi Jiao Chan Shi Wen Hua: Wen Xue Fan Yi Yu Fan Yi Li Lun. Qing Hua da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  43. Hoang Thi Tho (2003). Main Thoughts of Buddhist Ch'an in China and Oriental Culture. In Keli Fang (ed.), Chinese Philosophy and the Trends of the 21st Century Civilization. Commercial Press. 290.
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  44. Gishin Tokiwa (1985). Chan (Zen) View of Suffering [Replies, SM Ogden and D. Lochhead]. Buddhist-Christian Studies 5:103-129.
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  45. Ming-Yu Tseng (2007). Space Metaphor as a Signifying Force in Chan Poems. American Journal of Semiotics 23 (1/4):221-241.
    This paper analyzes how space is metaphorized in some Chan poems, and it investigates how space metaphor contributes to Chan culture. It concentrates onorientational metaphors, metaphor associated with an upward or/and a downward orientation. Orientational metaphors tend to be grounded in dichotomized thought, e.g., “GOOD IS UP” vs. “BAD IS DOWN”, “DIVINE IS UP” vs. “MORTAL IS DOWN”, etc. This paper will demonstrate that in some Chan poems, orientational metaphors do not function this way. Instead, what is foregrounded is the (...)
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  46. Dirck Vorenkamp (2005). Reconsidering the Whiteheadian Critique of Huayan Temporal Symmetry in Light of Fazang's Views. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (2):197–210.
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  47. Q. Edward Wang (2013). Buddhism in Modern China. Chinese Studies in History 46 (3):3-6.
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  48. B. Watson (2000). Dharma Rain: Lotus Sutra. In Stephanie Kaza & Kenneth Kraft (eds.), Dharma Rain: Sources of Buddhist Environmentalism. Shambhala Publications. 43--48.
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  49. Harry Lee Wells (2005). Transformation of Hearts and Minds: Chan Zen--Catholic Approaches to Precepts. Buddhist-Christian Studies 25 (1):155-156.
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  50. Ngai Ying Wong (1998). The Gradual and Sudden Paths of Tibetan and Chan Buddhism: A Pedagogical Perspective. Journal of Thought 33 (2):9-23.
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