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Summary Chinese Buddhist philosophy primarily results from traditional Chinese Buddhist thinkers’ efforts to inherit, reinterpret, and develop theories and thoughts in various Chinese translations of Indian Mahayana scriptures and treatises. Five Chinese Buddhist schools or traditions are of philosophical significance: the Three-Treatise school, the Consciousness-Only school, the Tiantai school, the Huayan school, and Chinese Zen (Chan) Buddhism. Among them, the Three-Treatise and Consciousness-Only schools are the Chinese descendants of, respectively, Indian Madhyamaka and Yogācāra; however, both have all but disappeared after the Tang dynasty (618−907). The other three schools, Tiantai, Huayan, and Zen/Chan, are indigenous and can be seen as philosophically the most representative traditions of Chinese Buddhism. Considerably owing to the influence of Chinese thought and culture, Chinese Buddhist way of thinking is fundamentally nondualistic in character, emphasizing, more than Indian Mahayana does, the mutual sameness and interpenetration of the ultimate and the conventional. The thinking tends to be somewhat nondiscursive, involving holistic views expressed in paradoxical language, with particular concern on the practical. Meanwhile, Tathāgatagarbha thought receives much attention among Chinese Buddhist thinkers, and the widespread conviction is that all sentient beings have Buddha-nature and can attain Buddhahood.
Key works Refer to the subcategories.
Introductions Lai 2008 discusses the history of Chinese Buddhist thought up to the Tang dynasty. Inada 1997 comments on the Chinese reception of Buddhism. Liu 1985 and Liu 1989 elucidate the notion of Buddha-nature in Chinese Buddhism.
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  1. Terry Rae Abbott (1985). Vasubandhu's Commentary to the "Saddharmapundarika-Sutra": A Study of its History and Significance. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    The Saddharmapundarika-sutra-upadesa , composed by the eminent Buddhist philosopher Vasubandhu in the fourth or fifth century A. D., has the important distinction of being the only Indian commentary on the Lotus Sutra to be preserved in any Buddhist canon. The Lotus Sutra, with a 2,000 year history spanning India, Central Asia, China and Japan, still remains one of the most important of all the Mahayana Sutras. ;This dissertation on Vasubandhu's commentary to the Lotus Sutra is comprised of three parts: Part (...)
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  2. Allan A. Andrews (1977). World Rejection and Pure Land Buddhism in Japan. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 4 (4):251-266.
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  3. Kengo Araki (1972). Min-Dai Shiso Kenkyu. Sobunsha.
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  4. Timothy Hugh Barrett (1978). Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism in the Thought of Li Ao. Dissertation, Yale University
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  5. Global Bioethics (2002). Jonathan Chan. In Kazumasa Hoshino, H. Tristram Engelhardt & Lisa M. Rasmussen (eds.), Bioethics and Moral Content: National Traditions of Health Care Morality: Papers Dedicated in Tribute to Kazumasa Hoshino. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 3--235.
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  6. Maria Bittner, Chan T'u'ul Ichil le Sahkabo'.
    TEXT: D. and A. Bolles, 1996, A Grammar of the Yucatecan Mayan Language/The Expoloits of Juan Thul, The Trickster Rabbit. http://www.famsi.org/reports/96072/grammar/section42.html. GLOSSES & TRANSLATION: See the text pdf at http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~mbittner/ym.html. ONLINE UPDATE: See Bittner 2004 ‘Online Update: Quantified de se and polysynthesis’. The following table lists some basic symbols of the semantic representation language to be used.
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  7. Daniel Bouchez (1985). Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism in Kim Manjung's Random Essays (Sŏp'o Manp'il). In William Theodore De Bary & JaHyun Kim Haboush (eds.), The Rise of Neo-Confucianism in Korea. Columbia University Press.
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  8. Beverly Chan (1996). Shuiyue Guanyin in China: The Way of Compassion. Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies
    Compassion plays a central role in the Buddhist tradition. Throughout the development of Buddhist philosophy and its religious practices, the fundamental importance of compassion has remained, regardless of the particular geographical, cultural, or individual differences that may exist between the different branches of the Buddhist world. This is evident in the development of the image of the Chinese bodhisattva Guanyin as it evolved from its original Indian roots in the portrayal of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. ;Guanyin is the primary bodhisattva that (...)
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  9. Wing-Tsit Chan (1958). Transformation of Buddhism in China. Philosophy East and West 7 (3/4):107-116.
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  10. Wing‐Cheuk Chan (2013). The Thought of Mou Zongsan. By N. Serina Chan. (Leiden: Brill, 2011. 342 Pp. Hardback, ISBN 978‐900‐04‐21211‐4.). Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (1):208-211.
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  11. Hsien-lin Chi (1996). Chi Hsien-Lin Hsüeh Shu Wen Hua Sui Pi. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  12. Hyun Choo (2008). The Ban-Ya Pa-Ra-Mil-da Sim Gyeong Chan. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 6:15-28.
    This paper has attempted to present Wonch'uk's Ban-ya pa-ra-mil-da sim gyeong chan (般若波羅蜜多心經贊) or Commentary on the Heart Sūtra which was written in classical Chinese in the 7th century. As an example of the intellectual analysis of a sūtra, Wonch'uk's Commentary is an important text that has exerted asignificant influence on East Asian Buddhist thought. A prominent Korean Yogācāra scholar, Wonch'uk authored twenty-three works during his lifetime; unfortunately, all but three have been lost. The Commentary on the Heart Sūtra is (...)
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  13. E. J. D. Conze (1959). WRIGHT, Buddhism in Chinese History. [REVIEW] Hibbert Journal 58:317.
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  14. Philip E. Devenish (2001). The Lotus Sutra and Process Philosophy. (News and Views). Buddhist-Christian Studies 21 (1):119.
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  15. Homer H. Dubs (1955). Y. R. Chao on Chinese Grammar and Logic. Philosophy East and West 5 (2):167-168.
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  16. David Andreoff Evans, An Overview of NLP in ALICE-Chan.
    : "The ALICE-chan project at CMU has developed a language-training environment for Japanese that uses natural-language processing (NLP) as a basis both for assisting instructors in preparing exercises and for evaluating student responses to exercises. This paper presentsan overview of the main components of ALICE-chan: the authoring and student interfaces and the natural language processing components.".
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  17. Bernard Faure (1993). Chan Insights and Oversights an Epistemological Critique of the Chan Tradition. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  18. Charles Wei-Hsun Fu (1984). Chinese Buddhism as an Existential Phenomenology. Analecta Husserliana 17:229.
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  19. Kåojun Fukui (1988). Chåugoku No Shisåo to Bukkyåo.
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  20. Sueki Fumihiko (forthcoming). Chinese Buddhism and the Anti-Japan War. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies.
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  21. Rita M. Gross (2012). Eminent Nuns: Women Chan Masters of Seventeenth-Century China (Review). Buddhist-Christian Studies 32 (1):154-157.
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  22. Ann Heirman (2008). Indian Disciplinary Rules and Their Early Chinese Adepts: A Buddhist Reality. Journal of the American Oriental Society 128 (2):257-272.
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  23. Dominique Hoizey (1983). Le patriarche Ma, maître "chan" du VIII e siècle. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 88 (2):266 - 268.
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  24. Chün-tu Hsüeh & P. I.-Hsiang Kung (1997). Fa Chih Hsien Tai Hua Yü Chung-Kuo Ching Chi Fa Chan.
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  25. Yuanling Hu (2009). Liu Zongzhou Shen du Zhi Xue Chan Wei. Taiwan Xue Sheng Shu Ju.
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  26. Leon Hurvitz (1969). Toward a Comprehensive History of Chinese Buddhism. [REVIEW] Journal of the American Oriental Society 89 (4):763-773.
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  27. Chang-Geun Hwang (2000). A Korean Yogacara Monk in China: Won-Cheuk and His Commentary on the Heart Sutra. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
    During the seventh to eighth centuries, China was the site of confluence and lively debate between two major streams within Yogacara studies which solidified into two main sects---the Tz'u-en and the Hsi-ming, which were led by two scholars, K'uei-chi and Won-cheuk, respectively. K'uei-chi, who was Hsuan-tsang's successor, enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most authoritative Yogacara, scholars in Chinese Buddhist history, and was acknowledged as the founder of the Chinese Yogacara School or the Fa-hsiang School. On the other (...)
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  28. Paul D. Jaffe (1986). Rising From the Lotus: Two Bodhisattvas From the Lotus Sutra as a Psychodynamic Paradigm for Nichiren. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 13 (1):81-105.
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  29. Yun-hua Jan (1991). Patterns of Chinese Assimilation and Transformation of Meditative Ideas From Indian Buddhism. In Hajime Nakamura & V. N. Jha (eds.), Kalyāṇa-Mitta: Professor Hajime Nakamura Felicitation Volume. Sri Satguru Publications. 86--63.
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  30. Guoqing Ji (2010). Ru Jia de Dang Dai Chan Shi. Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  31. Zhe Ji (2007). Mémoire reconstituée : les stratégies mnémoniques dans la reconstruction d'un monastère bouddhique. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 1 (1):145-164.
    La renaissance du bouddhisme dans la Chine contemporaine est d’abord un travail symbolique qui consiste essentiellement en la reconstitution d’une mémoire. Par l’observation d’un monastère reconstruit depuis 1988 en Chine du Nord, cet article analyse comment un appareil institutionnel religieux se légitime dans sa réimplantation en invoquant l’autorité de la tradition. Quatre stratégies de mémoire adoptées par le responsable du monastère sont discernées : le réaménagement de l’espace, l’encodage des objets, la commémoration des personnages historiques et l’inscription de la généalogie.The (...)
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  32. Chao Kåetécharåun (1991). °Anusøåon Nai Ngåan Phraråatchathåan Phlå¶Ng Sop Phon Thåo Chao Kåetécharåun, Møåo. Pøåo. Chøåo., Møåo. Wøåo. Møåo. Na Måen Wat Såomanatwihåan, Krung Thåep Mahåa Nakhøåon, Wanéchan Thåi 4 Phr½Tsaéchikåayon Phutthasakkaråat 2534. [REVIEW] Lå¶Lak Rattanarak.
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  33. Minoru Kiyota (1985). Tathāgatagarbha Thought: A Basis of Buddhist Devotionalism in East Asia. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 12 (2/3):207-231.
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  34. Kunitsugu Kosaka (2008). Tōyōteki Na Ikikata: Mui Shizen No Michi. Mineruva Shobō.
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  35. Sanping Kuang (2007). Makesi "She Hui Cun Zai Lun" Ji Qi Dang Dai Jia Zhi: Yi Zhong Cun Zai Lun Shi Yu Xia de Zhe Xue Chan Shi. Jiangxi Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  36. Tsugunari Kubo (1994). A Study Concerning the Acceptance and Reconstruction of a Philosophy in its Assimilation Into a Different Culture Tao in Kumarajiva's Translation of the Lotus Sutra. International Institute for Buddhist Studies.
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  37. Shen-Chon Lai (2007). Haidege'er Yu Chan Dao de Kua Wen Hua Gou Tong: A Cross-Cultural Communication Between Martin Heidegger and Zen School/Daoism. Zong Jiao Wen Hua Chu Ban She.
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  38. Whalen Lai (forthcoming). Chinese Buddhist and Christian Charities: A Comparative History. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  39. Whalen Lai (1987). Why the Lotus Sutra? On the Historic Significance ofTendai. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 14 (2-3):83-99.
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  40. Whalen Lai (1984). Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism: A Critical Study of Cumulative Penetration Vs. Interpretation. [REVIEW] Idealistic Studies 14 (3):278-278.
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  41. D. Lau (1966). Rejoinder to Wing-Tsit Chan's Review of Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching. Journal of the American Oriental Society 86 (2):199-203.
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  42. Peter Lee (1962). Fa-Tsang and Ŭisang. Journal of the American Oriental Society 82 (1):56-62.
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  43. Young-Ja Lee (2003). A Study on the Lotus Sutra in India, China and Korea. In S. R. Bhatt (ed.), Buddhist Thought and Culture in India and Korea. Indian Council of Philosophical Research. 96.
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  44. Dan Leighton (2005). Dōgen’s Appropriation of Lotus Sutra Ground and Space. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 32 (1):85-105.
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  45. Taigen Dan Leighton (forthcoming). Dōgen's Appropriation of Lotus Sutra Ground and Space. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies.
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  46. Qingliang Li (2001). Zhongguo Chan Shi Xue =. Hunan Shi Fan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  47. Silong Li & Xuenong Zhou (eds.) (2004). Zhe Xue, Zong Jiao Yu Ren Wen. Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan.
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  48. Walter Liebenthal & Shih Hui-Yuan (1950). Shih Hui-Yüan's Buddhism as Set Forth in His Writings. Journal of the American Oriental Society 70 (4):243-259.
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  49. Arthur Link & Shih Seng-yu (1960). Shih Seng-Yu and His Writings. Journal of the American Oriental Society 80 (1):17-43.
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  50. Chenghua Liu (2002). Zhongguo Yin Yue de Ren Wen Chan Shi. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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