About this topic
Summary ‘Neo-Confucianism’ typically refers to the revival of classical Confucianism developed between the eleventh and the eighteenth century in China, spanning over four dynasties in Chinese history: Song (960-1279), Yuan (1271-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911). In Chinese intellectual history, neo-Confucianism is standardly divided into two periods: Song-Ming neo-Confucianism and Qing neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism was a new form of Confucianism that came after the dominance of Daoism and subsequently Buddhism within Chinese intellectual circles. Neo-Confucianism revitalized classical Confucianism and expanded the traditional philosophical discourse to new dimensions. Neo-Confucianism invigorated the metaphysical speculation found in classics such as the Yijing and incorporated different concepts and perspectives from Chinese Daoism and Buddhism into its discourse. Neo-Confucians’ metaphysical views lay the foundation for their moral theories. In their various debates, Neo-Confucians touched on the possibility of an innate moral sense and the various means of moral knowledge. In Neo-Confucians’ views, morality takes its root either in the universal goodness of human nature, or in the individual’s moral reflection and cultivation of the human mind. This debate between the School of Nature and the School of Mind was one of the major themes in Neo-Confucianism. Finally, in Neo-Confucianism we see a consistent effort not only to redefine a realist worldview that affirms the world as existing independently of human conception, but also to reassert (after Daoism and Buddhism) a humanist worldview that places human beings at the center of meaning and values. These trends delineate the spirit of Neo-Confucianism.
Key works Other than the short selective translation in the Source Book (Chan 1963, under General Overview), there is little translation of primary texts (the ones available will be mentioned under individual philosopher). Of secondary materials, Makeham 2010 gives the most complete coverage of neo-Confucianism, but it is a collection of essays by different authors. Cheng 1991 is a collection of a seasoned scholar’s essays on Confucianism, and Part III is devoted to Neo-Confucianism.  Both Bol 2008 and De Bary 1981 take the historical approach.  Bol 2008 covers the cultural and political background in which neo-Confucianism emerged and developed, while De Bary 1981 traces the development of neo-Confucian orthodoxy from the Yuan dynasty to Tokugawa Japan. Liu 1998 provides a short beginner’s guide to neo-Confucianism in addition to classical Confucianism.
Introductions

Bol 2008 takes an intellectual historical approach to Neo-Confucianism. It is useful for readers who want to know the historical background of Neo-Confucianism.

Cheng, Chung-ying. New Dimensions of Confucian and Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. 1991.

This book is a collection of essays by the author, who has been plowing the field for many years and is instrumental in promoting Chinese philosophy in the West. These essays were written over a span of twenty years from 1965 to 1985. Part III of this book contains seven sophisticated papers on key thinkers such as Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. The final essay, a comparative study on Neo-Confucianism and A. N. Whitehead’s process philosophy, led an important direction for comparative philosophy.

De Bary 1981, written by a distinguished historian de Bary, contains three essays.  The first essay explains the historical and political background of neo-Confucianism in the Yuan dynasty. The second essay analyzes how neo-Confucian orthodoxy was established and fortified.  The final essay traces the intellectual history of neo-Confucian orthodoxy in Tokugawa Japan. This book is probably of interest only to scholars of intellectual history.

Liu 1998 provides a general introduction to Confucianism, and Part II deals specifically with Neo-Confucianism. The analysis is accessible but traditional.

Makeham 2010: This collection contains comprehensive essays that devote to the following Neo-Confucians: Zhou Dunyi, Shao Yong, Zhang Zai, Cheng Yi, Cheng Hao, Hu Hong, Zhang Shi, Zhu Xi, Lu Zuqian, Chen Chun, Lu Xiangshan, Wang Yangming, Liu Zongzhou, Wang Fuzhi, Li Guangdi and Dai Zhen. Each chapter provides solid introduction to the philosopher covered. Individual chapters will not be mentioned separately in the following bibliography.

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  1. Joseph Adler (2008). Divination and Sacrifice in Song Neo-Confucianism. In Jeffrey L. Richey (ed.), Teaching Confucianism. Oxford University Press. 55--82.
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  2. Jen-hou Ts ai (1990). Ju Hsüeh Ti Ch Ang Yü Pien. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  3. Huang Airen (2004). Hu Shi and Wang Yunwu. Chinese Studies in History 37 (3):34-65.
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  4. Norimatsu Akifumi (1989). Ming-Qing Studies in Japan: 1985. Chinese Studies in History 22 (1):56-65.
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  5. Lucyna Aleksandrowicz-pędich (1990). Konfucjańskie pojęcie Cheng Ming w interpretacji Ezry Pounda. Idea 3 (3):33-44.
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  6. Ruth Amossy, Commentary on Cheng.
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  7. Ssu-T. Ung T. an & Chih-chün T. ang (1998). Jen Hsüeh.
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  8. Stephen C. Angle (2010). WANG Yangming as a Virtue Ethicist. In John Makeham (ed.), Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Springer. 315--335.
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  9. Iep Author, Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang).
    Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang, 1877-1969) Zhang Junmai (Chang Chun-mai, 1877-1969), also known as Carsun Chang, was an important twentieth-century Chinese thinker and a representative of modern Chinese philosophy. Zhang’s participation in “The Debate between Metaphysicians and Scientists” of 1923, in which he defended his Neo-Confucian views against those of Chinese progressives and scientists, made a […].
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  10. Adam D. Bailey & Alan Strudler (2011). Dialogue - The Confucian Critique of Rights-Based Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (4):661-677.
    Confucianism-Based Rights Skepticism and Rights in the Workplace by Adam D. Bailey - Must even Confucian rights skeptics—those who are, on account of their Confucian beliefs, skeptical of the existence of human rights, and believe that asserting or recognizing rights is morally wrong—concede that in the workplace, they are morally obligated to recognize rights? Alan Strudler has recently argued that such is the case. In this article, I argue that because Confucian rights skeptics locate wrongness in inconsistency with the idea (...)
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  11. John Berthrong (1991). To Catch a Thief: Chu Hsi (1130–1200) and the Hermeneutic Art. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (2):195-212.
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  12. T. S. C. (1969). Reflection on Things at Hand. Review of Metaphysics 22 (4):749-750.
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  13. Fanglu Cai (2009). Song Ming Li Xue Xin Xing Lun. Ba Shu Shu She.
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  14. Renhou Cai (2009). Song Ming Li Xue. Jilin Chu Ban Ji Tuan.
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  15. Taiyi Cao (2004). Ming Dai da Ru Chen Baisha. Guangdong Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  16. Y. Cao, X. Chen & R. Fan (2011). Toward a Confucian Family-Oriented Health Care System for the Future of China. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (5):452-465.
    Recently implemented Chinese health insurance schemes have failed to achieve a Chinese health care system that is family-oriented, family-based, family-friendly, or even financially sustainable. With this diagnosis in hand, the authors argue that a financially and morally sustainable Chinese health care system should have as its core family health savings accounts supplemented by appropriate health insurance plans. This essay’s arguments are set in the context of Confucian moral commitments that still shape the background culture of contemporary China.
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  17. Sŏk-ki Ch'oe (ed.) (2011). Kyurha Ch'oe Sing-Min Kwa Kyenam Ch'oe Sung-Min Ŭi Hangmun Kwa Sasang. Suri.
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  18. Ch'U. Chai (forthcoming). Neo-Confucianism of the Sung-Ming Periods. Social Research.
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  19. Wing-Cheuk Chan (2004). How is Absolute Wisdom Possible? Wang Yangming and Buddhism. Wisdom in China and the West 22:329.
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  20. Chung-yue Chang (1979). The Metaphysics of Wang Pi. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania
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  21. Hsin Chang (1996). Chung-Kuo Ming Chia Ch I Tz U to Li Ming Shih Chih Pien. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  22. Li-wen Chang (1993). Sung Ming Li Hsüeh Lo Chi Chieh Kou Ti Yen Hua.
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  23. Tzu-li Chang, Personal Identity, Moral Agency and Liang-Zhi: A Comparative Study of Korsgaard and Wang Yangming.
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  24. Yü-chüan Chang (1975). Wang Shou-Jen as a Statesman. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  25. Yung-T. Ang Chang (1994). Ming Mo Ch Ing Ch U Li Hsüeh Yü K o Hsüeh Kuan Hsi Tsai Lun. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  26. Jan Chapman (1987). The Thought of Chang Tsai (1020–1077). Philosophical Studies 31:416-418.
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  27. Gujia Chen (2006). Song Dai Li Xue Lun Li Si Xiang Yan Jiu =. Hunan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  28. Lai Chen (2008). Song Ming Ru Xue Lun. San Lian Shu Dian (Xianggang) You Xian Gong Si.
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  29. Lai Chen (ed.) (2007). Zao Qi Dao Xue Hua Yu de Xing Cheng Yu Yan Bian. Anhui Jiao Yu Chu Ban She.
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  30. Lai Chen (2004). Song Ming Li Xue. Hua Dong Shi Fan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  31. Lisheng Chen (2008). Wang Yangming "Wan Wu Yi Ti" Lun: Cong "Shen -- Ti" de Li Chang Kan. Hua Dong Shi Fan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  32. Shaofeng Chen (2001). Song Ming Li Xue Yu Dao Jia Zhe Xue.
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  33. Wp Chen (1991). On The'arriving at Principles From Numbers'method of Thought in the Late-Ming, Early-Qing Period-a Look at the Nature of Late-Ming, Early-Qing Thought From One Angle. Chinese Studies in Philosophy 22 (2):3-23.
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  34. K'ai Chia (1967). Sung Ming Hsin Hsüeh P'ing Shu. T'ai-Wan Shang Wu Yin Shu Kuan.
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  35. Ch Ün-Chen Chou (1984). Ju Hsüeh T an Yüan. O Hu Ch U Pan She.
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  36. Chi Fu Chu (2003). A Critical Study of the Teachings of the "Qian Shu" of Tang Zhen. Dissertation, University of Hong Kong (People's Republic of China)
    For the past few decades, study of Chinese intellectual history in the Ming-Qing transition has become a popular and favorable topic and much emphasis has been put on the great thinkers and top elites. As a secondary elite, Tang Zhen did not receive much scholar's attention. However, it is believed that the study of the lower social status intellectual would give us a more complete picture of the intellectual trends of that period. The present study of the teachings of Tang (...)
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  37. Wang Chuanman (2012). On Variations in Huizhou Women's Chastity Behaviors During the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Chinese Studies in History 45 (4):43-57.
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  38. Daihyun Chung (2008). 씨알: 誠的 지향성의 주체. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1123-1129.
    The Seed Thoughts by YU Youngmo and HAM Sukhun each may be summed up in “People are a May-fly seed” and “Seeds embodies the eternal meaning”. They used “seed” to refer to humans or people on the one hand and placed the notion of seed in the holistic context of the Eastern Asian tradition. Then, I seek to connect the anthropological notion and the holistic notion via cheng or integration. 『The Doctrine of the Mean』 says that any ultimate integration (至誠) (...)
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  39. Chae-mok Ch°oe (1996). Tong Asia Æui Yangmyæonghak.
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  40. Anne M. Cox-Petersen (2002). Hsingchi A. Wang. Science and Education 11:69-81.
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  41. Qing Dai (2009). Zai Ru Lai Fo Zhang Zhong: Zhang Dongsun He Ta de Shi Dai. Xianggang Zhong Wen da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  42. Qing Dai (1996). The Wang-Zhen-Complex and Dong-Shi. Chinese Studies in Philosophy 27 (3):45-48.
    According to the rumor mill in China: "The Central Discipline Inspection Commission is considering internal party disciplinary action against Song Renqiong and others ." I am truly happy for the CCP—by taking this stand there is still hope it can continue with its mission and transform China into a modern society.
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  43. Qing Dai (1996). Wang, Shiwei Under My Pen (Presented at the Colloquium on Revolutionary-Intellectuals, the Case of Wang, Shiwei, Whitney-Center-for-the-Humanities, Yale-University, November-13, 1992). [REVIEW] Chinese Studies in Philosophy 27 (2):77-86.
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  44. Lin Dan (2008). The Inner Contradiction in Zhu Xi's Thoughts——An Analysis of the Possibility of a Metamorphosis From Zhu Zi's Philosophy to Yangming's Philosophy. Modern Philosophy 6:016.
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  45. H. De Dun (1999). Reaction to Professor Chen Lai's' The Concepts of Dao and Li in Song-Ming Neo-Confucian Philosophy'. Contemporary Chinese Thought 30 (4):25-27.
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  46. Keming Deng (2010). Wang Yangming Si Xiang Guan Nian Yan Jiu. Taiwan da Xue Chu Ban Zhong Xin.
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  47. John Calvin Didier (1998). Way Transformation: Universal Unity in Warring States Through Sung China. The "Book of Transformation" and the Renewal of Metaphysics in the Tenth Century. Dissertation, Princeton University
    This dissertation centers on the Book of Transformation , a work of metaphysical, socio-political, and internal alchemical theory first published in southern China in 930 A.D. The thesis includes three parts. ;Part I examines Chinese conceptions of universal unity through the thirteenth century A.D. "Universal unity" here includes metaphysical-physical, socio-political, and doctrinal unities. Viewed from the unifying perspective of the metaphysics of hua , eight early seminal Taoistic and Confucian philosophical texts reveal their essential adherence to one metaphysical sub-structure that (...)
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  48. Baorui Du (2010). Nan Song Ru Xue. Taiwan Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan.
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  49. Baorui Du (2005). Bei Song Ru Xue. Taiwan Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan.
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  50. David Elstein (2012). Mou Zongsan's New Confucian Democracy. Contemporary Political Theory 11 (2):192.
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