About this topic
Summary ‘Neo-Confucianism’ typically refers to the revival of classical Confucianism developed between the eleventh and the eighteenth century in China, spanning over four dynasties in Chinese history: Song (960-1279), Yuan (1271-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911). In Chinese intellectual history, neo-Confucianism is standardly divided into two periods: Song-Ming neo-Confucianism and Qing neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism was a new form of Confucianism that came after the dominance of Daoism and subsequently Buddhism within Chinese intellectual circles. Neo-Confucianism revitalized classical Confucianism and expanded the traditional philosophical discourse to new dimensions. Neo-Confucianism invigorated the metaphysical speculation found in classics such as the Yijing and incorporated different concepts and perspectives from Chinese Daoism and Buddhism into its discourse. Neo-Confucians’ metaphysical views lay the foundation for their moral theories. In their various debates, Neo-Confucians touched on the possibility of an innate moral sense and the various means of moral knowledge. In Neo-Confucians’ views, morality takes its root either in the universal goodness of human nature, or in the individual’s moral reflection and cultivation of the human mind. This debate between the School of Nature and the School of Mind was one of the major themes in Neo-Confucianism. Finally, in Neo-Confucianism we see a consistent effort not only to redefine a realist worldview that affirms the world as existing independently of human conception, but also to reassert (after Daoism and Buddhism) a humanist worldview that places human beings at the center of meaning and values. These trends delineate the spirit of Neo-Confucianism.
Key works Other than the short selective translation in the Source Book (Chan 1963, under General Overview), there is little translation of primary texts (the ones available will be mentioned under individual philosopher). Of secondary materials, Makeham 2010 gives the most complete coverage of neo-Confucianism, but it is a collection of essays by different authors. Cheng 1991 is a collection of a seasoned scholar’s essays on Confucianism, and Part III is devoted to Neo-Confucianism.  Both Bol 2008 and De Bary 1981 take the historical approach.  Bol 2008 covers the cultural and political background in which neo-Confucianism emerged and developed, while De Bary 1981 traces the development of neo-Confucian orthodoxy from the Yuan dynasty to Tokugawa Japan. Liu 1998 provides a short beginner’s guide to neo-Confucianism in addition to classical Confucianism.
Introductions

Bol 2008 takes an intellectual historical approach to Neo-Confucianism. It is useful for readers who want to know the historical background of Neo-Confucianism.

Cheng, Chung-ying. New Dimensions of Confucian and Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. 1991.

This book is a collection of essays by the author, who has been plowing the field for many years and is instrumental in promoting Chinese philosophy in the West. These essays were written over a span of twenty years from 1965 to 1985. Part III of this book contains seven sophisticated papers on key thinkers such as Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. The final essay, a comparative study on Neo-Confucianism and A. N. Whitehead’s process philosophy, led an important direction for comparative philosophy.

De Bary 1981, written by a distinguished historian de Bary, contains three essays.  The first essay explains the historical and political background of neo-Confucianism in the Yuan dynasty. The second essay analyzes how neo-Confucian orthodoxy was established and fortified.  The final essay traces the intellectual history of neo-Confucian orthodoxy in Tokugawa Japan. This book is probably of interest only to scholars of intellectual history.

Liu 1998 provides a general introduction to Confucianism, and Part II deals specifically with Neo-Confucianism. The analysis is accessible but traditional.

Makeham 2010: This collection contains comprehensive essays that devote to the following Neo-Confucians: Zhou Dunyi, Shao Yong, Zhang Zai, Cheng Yi, Cheng Hao, Hu Hong, Zhang Shi, Zhu Xi, Lu Zuqian, Chen Chun, Lu Xiangshan, Wang Yangming, Liu Zongzhou, Wang Fuzhi, Li Guangdi and Dai Zhen. Each chapter provides solid introduction to the philosopher covered. Individual chapters will not be mentioned separately in the following bibliography.

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  1. Joseph Adler (2008). Divination and Sacrifice in Song Neo-Confucianism. In Jeffrey L. Richey (ed.), Teaching Confucianism. Oxford University Press. 55--82.
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  2. Huang Airen (2004). Hu Shi and Wang Yunwu. Chinese Studies in History 37 (3):34-65.
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  3. Norimatsu Akifumi (1989). Ming-Qing Studies in Japan: 1985. Chinese Studies in History 22 (1):56-65.
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  4. Lucyna Aleksandrowicz-pędich (1990). Konfucjańskie pojęcie Cheng Ming w interpretacji Ezry Pounda. Idea 3 (3):33-44.
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  5. Stephen C. Angle (2010). WANG Yangming as a Virtue Ethicist. In John Makeham (ed.), Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Springer. 315--335.
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  6. Iep Author, Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang).
    Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang, 1877-1969) Zhang Junmai (Chang Chun-mai, 1877-1969), also known as Carsun Chang, was an important twentieth-century Chinese thinker and a representative of modern Chinese philosophy. Zhang’s participation in “The Debate between Metaphysicians and Scientists” of 1923, in which he defended his Neo-Confucian views against those of Chinese progressives and scientists, made a […].
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  7. Adam D. Bailey & Alan Strudler (2011). Dialogue - The Confucian Critique of Rights-Based Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (4):661-677.
    Confucianism-Based Rights Skepticism and Rights in the Workplace by Adam D. Bailey - Must even Confucian rights skeptics—those who are, on account of their Confucian beliefs, skeptical of the existence of human rights, and believe that asserting or recognizing rights is morally wrong—concede that in the workplace, they are morally obligated to recognize rights? Alan Strudler has recently argued that such is the case. In this article, I argue that because Confucian rights skeptics locate wrongness in inconsistency with the idea (...)
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  8. John Berthrong (1991). To Catch a Thief: Chu Hsi (1130–1200) and the Hermeneutic Art. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (2):195-212.
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  9. T. S. C. (1969). Reflection on Things at Hand. Review of Metaphysics 22 (4):749-750.
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  10. Fanglu Cai (2009). Song Ming Li Xue Xin Xing Lun. Ba Shu Shu She.
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  11. Renhou Cai (2009). Song Ming Li Xue. Jilin Chu Ban Ji Tuan.
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  12. Taiyi Cao (2004). Ming Dai da Ru Chen Baisha. Guangdong Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  13. Y. Cao, X. Chen & R. Fan (2011). Toward a Confucian Family-Oriented Health Care System for the Future of China. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (5):452-465.
    Recently implemented Chinese health insurance schemes have failed to achieve a Chinese health care system that is family-oriented, family-based, family-friendly, or even financially sustainable. With this diagnosis in hand, the authors argue that a financially and morally sustainable Chinese health care system should have as its core family health savings accounts supplemented by appropriate health insurance plans. This essay’s arguments are set in the context of Confucian moral commitments that still shape the background culture of contemporary China.
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  14. Sŏk-ki Ch'oe (ed.) (2011). Kyurha Ch'oe Sing-Min Kwa Kyenam Ch'oe Sung-Min Ŭi Hangmun Kwa Sasang. Suri.
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  15. Ch'U. Chai (forthcoming). Neo-Confucianism of the Sung-Ming Periods. Social Research.
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  16. Wing-Cheuk Chan (2004). How is Absolute Wisdom Possible? Wang Yangming and Buddhism. Wisdom in China and the West 22:329.
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  17. Jan Chapman (1987). The Thought of Chang Tsai (1020–1077). Philosophical Studies 31:416-418.
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  18. Gujia Chen (2006). Song Dai Li Xue Lun Li Si Xiang Yan Jiu =. Hunan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  19. Lai Chen (2008). Song Ming Ru Xue Lun. San Lian Shu Dian (Xianggang) You Xian Gong Si.
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  20. Lai Chen (ed.) (2007). Zao Qi Dao Xue Hua Yu de Xing Cheng Yu Yan Bian. Anhui Jiao Yu Chu Ban She.
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  21. Lai Chen (2004). Song Ming Li Xue. Hua Dong Shi Fan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  22. Lisheng Chen (2008). Wang Yangming "Wan Wu Yi Ti" Lun: Cong "Shen -- Ti" de Li Chang Kan. Hua Dong Shi Fan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  23. Wp Chen (1991). On The'arriving at Principles From Numbers'method of Thought in the Late-Ming, Early-Qing Period-a Look at the Nature of Late-Ming, Early-Qing Thought From One Angle. Chinese Studies in Philosophy 22 (2):3-23.
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  24. Wang Chuanman (2012). On Variations in Huizhou Women's Chastity Behaviors During the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Chinese Studies in History 45 (4):43-57.
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  25. Daihyun Chung (2008). 씨알: 誠的 지향성의 주체. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1123-1129.
    The Seed Thoughts by YU Youngmo and HAM Sukhun each may be summed up in “People are a May-fly seed” and “Seeds embodies the eternal meaning”. They used “seed” to refer to humans or people on the one hand and placed the notion of seed in the holistic context of the Eastern Asian tradition. Then, I seek to connect the anthropological notion and the holistic notion via cheng or integration. 『The Doctrine of the Mean』 says that any ultimate integration (至誠) (...)
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  26. Anne M. Cox-Petersen (2002). Hsingchi A. Wang. Science and Education 11:69-81.
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  27. Qing Dai (2009). Zai Ru Lai Fo Zhang Zhong: Zhang Dongsun He Ta de Shi Dai. Xianggang Zhong Wen da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  28. Qing Dai (1996). The Wang-Zhen-Complex and Dong-Shi. Chinese Studies in Philosophy 27 (3):45-48.
    According to the rumor mill in China: "The Central Discipline Inspection Commission is considering internal party disciplinary action against Song Renqiong and others ." I am truly happy for the CCP—by taking this stand there is still hope it can continue with its mission and transform China into a modern society.
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  29. Qing Dai (1996). Wang, Shiwei Under My Pen (Presented at the Colloquium on Revolutionary-Intellectuals, the Case of Wang, Shiwei, Whitney-Center-for-the-Humanities, Yale-University, November-13, 1992). [REVIEW] Chinese Studies in Philosophy 27 (2):77-86.
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  30. Lin Dan (2008). The Inner Contradiction in Zhu Xi's Thoughts——An Analysis of the Possibility of a Metamorphosis From Zhu Zi's Philosophy to Yangming's Philosophy. Modern Philosophy 6:016.
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  31. H. De Dun (1999). Reaction to Professor Chen Lai's' The Concepts of Dao and Li in Song-Ming Neo-Confucian Philosophy'. Contemporary Chinese Thought 30 (4):25-27.
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  32. Keming Deng (2010). Wang Yangming Si Xiang Guan Nian Yan Jiu. Taiwan da Xue Chu Ban Zhong Xin.
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  33. Baorui Du (2010). Nan Song Ru Xue. Taiwan Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan.
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  34. Baorui Du (2005). Bei Song Ru Xue. Taiwan Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan.
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  35. David Elstein (2012). Mou Zongsan's New Confucian Democracy. Contemporary Political Theory 11 (2):192.
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  36. Feng Erkang (2009). Studies of Qing History. Chinese Studies in History 43 (2):20-32.
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  37. Yolande Escande (2011). Philosopher À Travers l'Art L'œuvre de Hsiung Ping-Ming. Rue Descartes 72 (2):81.
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  38. Lizhou Fan (2010). Zhou Dunyi. Guangdong Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  39. Chu Fo (2006). Wang Guowei Zhe Xue Yi Gao Yan Jiu. She Hui Ke Xue Wen Xian Chu Ban She.
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  40. Xiaofan Fu (2005). Song Ming Dao Xue Xin Lun: Ben Ti Lun Jian Gou Yu Zhu Ti Xing Zhuan Xiang = Newly Research of Song and Ming Dynasties' Philosophy: Construction of Ontology and Turn of Subjectivity. She Hui Ke Xue Wen Xian Chu Ban She.
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  41. Sato Fumitoshi (1989). Ming-Qing Studies in Japan: 1986. Chinese Studies in History 22 (1):79-90.
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  42. Bingqing Gao (2010). A Brief Discussion on the Themes of Women's Embroidery in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Asian Culture and History 2 (2):P71.
    Embroidery is a part of the needlework that is one of the four virtues of women in ancient times, including “appearance, speech, needlework and behavior”. (Chen Baoliang, 2004) The education of women in old times mainly focused on the "feminine virtues" and "needlework". Due to cultivation at an early age, the upper-class women were mostly clever and intelligent, and did not have to earn their own living. Because of the restraints of the traditional society, they could not devote too much (...)
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  43. Yanqing Gao (2009). She Hui Zhuan Xing Qi de Cheng Shi She Qu Jing Shen Wen Ming Jian She. Hebei da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  44. W. U. Genyou (2010). A Preliminary Discussion of Dai Zhen's Philosophy of Language. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (4):523-542.
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  45. Raymond Geuss (2010). On Korean Dual Civil Society: Thinking Through Tocqueville and Confucius. Contemporary Political Theory 9 (4):434-457.
    Korean civil society is often criticized because of its dual nature, that is, the paucity of social capital in everyday life and the plethora of collective political actions in the national civil society. Although liberals view such duality as the critical impediment to Korea’s authentic democratization, which would represent a fundamental, liberal-pluralist transformation of Korean society, this article rather acknowledges its cultural uniqueness and utilizes it as the basis on which to construct a Korean non-liberal democracy that is culturally pertinent (...)
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  46. Jie Gong (2001). Wang Gen Ping Zhuan. Nanjing da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  47. Shuduo Gong (2007). Characteristics of Lixue in Qing Dynasty. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (1):1-24.
    The lixue 理学 (learning of the Neo-Confucian principles) of the Qing Dynasty followed the tradition of lixue in the Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties, but it had its own characteristics. First, there was no primary direction and core train of ideas. Second, there was no creativity and the emphasis was made on ethics. Third, after the Opium War, the lixue of the Qing Dynasty was influenced by Western culture, partly resisting and partly integrating with the latter. Fourth, the tradition of (...)
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  48. Qiyong Guo (ed.) (2004). Song Ming Ru Xue Yu Chang Jiang Wen Hua =. Hubei Jiao Yu Chu Ban She.
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  49. Xiaodong Guo (2006). Shi Ren Yu Ding Xing: Gong Fu Lun Shi Yu Xia de Cheng Ming Dao Zhe Xue Yan Jiu. Fu Dan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  50. Jun He (2008). Nan Song Si Xiang Shi. Shanghai Gu Ji Chu Ban She.
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