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Summary  Chinese political philosophy section covers many themes and issues in major schools of thought in ancient China like Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, Mohism and their later development, as well as modern encounter with the West Philosophy and debate. The major themes include but not limited, human-Heaven harmony,  human relationships, rule of virtue, the way of political, state and society, law and order, sagely politics, etc.
Key works political, Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, Mohism, Buddhism, virtue, sage-hood, law.
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  1. Roger T. Ames (1983). Is Political Taoism Anarchism? Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (1):27-47.
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  2. Roger T. Ames (1981). 'The Art of Rulership' Chapter of the Huai Nan Tzu: A Practicable Taoism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 8 (2):225-244.
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  3. Roger T. Ames (1981). A Response to Fingarette on Ideal Authority in the Analects. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 8 (1):51-57.
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  4. Loubna Amine (2012). Jenco, Leigh K., Making the Political: Founding and Action in the Political Theory of Zhang Shizhao. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (3):399-403.
  5. Stephen Angle (2012). Contemporary Confucian and Islamic Approaches to Democracy and Human Rights. Comparative Philosophy 4 (1).
    Both Confucian and Islamic traditions stand in fraught and internally contested relationships with democracy and human rights. It can easily appear that the two traditions are in analogous positions with respect to the values associated with modernity, but a central contention of this essay is that Islam and Confucianism are not analogous in this way. Positions taken by advocates of the traditions are often similar, but the reasoning used to justify these positions differs in crucial ways. Whether one approaches these (...)
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  6. Stephen C. Angle (2013). Fred Dallmayr and Zhao Tingyang, Eds. Contemporary Chinese Political Thought: Debates and Perspectives. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (1):111-115.
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  7. Tongdong Bai (2011). Preliminary Remarks: Han Fei Zi—First Modern Political Philosopher? Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (1):4-13.
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  8. Tongdong Bai (2010). What to Do in an Unjust State?: On Confucius's and Socrates's Views on Political Duty. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):375-390.
    Confucius argued for the centrality of the superior man’s political duty to his fellow human beings and to the state, while Socrates suggested that the superior man (the philosopher) may have no such political duty. However, Confucius also suggested that one not enter or stay—let alone save—a troubled state, while Socrates stayed in an unjust state, apparently fulfilling his political duty to the state by accepting an unjust verdict. In this essay, I will try to show how Confucius could solve (...)
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  9. H. E. Baogang (2010). Four Models of the Relationship Between Confucianism and Democracy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (1):18-33.
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  10. Daniel A. Bell (2009). Toward Meritocratic Rule in China?: A Response to Professors Dallmayr, Li, and Tan. Philosophy East and West 59 (4):554-560.
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  11. Fred Dallmayr Chenyang Li Sor-hoon Tan Daniel A. Bell (2009). Beyond Liberal Democracy : A Debate on Democracy and Confucian Meritocracy. Philosophy East and West 59 (4):p. 523.
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  12. Frederic L. Bender (1983). Taoism and Western Anarchism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (1):5-26.
  13. Oleg Benesch (2009). Wang Yangming and Bushidō: Japanese Nativization and its Influences in Modern China. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (3):439-454.
  14. Robert Bernasconi (2008). Extraterritoriality: Outside the Subject, Outside the State. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (s1):167-181.
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  15. Bernard Berofsky (1977). The Metaphysics of Freedom. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 4 (2):161-186.
  16. Andrew Brennan & Ruiping Fan (2007). Autonomy and Interdependence: A Dialogue Between Liberalism and Confucianism. Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (4):511–535.
  17. Zhen Cai (2012). He, Huaihong 何懷宏, Hereditary Society 世襲社會. Beijing 北京: Peking University Press, 北京大學出版社, 2011, 246 Pages; and Selection Society 選舉社會. Beijing 北京: Peking University Press, 北京大學出版社, 2011, 372 Pages. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (2):247-252.
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  18. Hahm Chaibong (2001). Confucian Rituals and the Technology of the Self: A Foucaultian Interpretation. Philosophy East and West 51 (3):315-324.
    At first, the disciplined, proper, and moralistic Confucian might seem a far cry from the free, independent, and spontaneous individual of liberalism. However, Confucian self-discipline and ritual propriety are quite suitable for a democratic society. Liberal political theories privilege individual freedom, but there is little in them that deals with concrete ways in which this freedom can be exercised. Confucian theories of self-discipline and ritual propriety can fill this gap in liberal theory. Michel Foucault's investigations of Ancient Greek and Roman (...)
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  19. Joseph Chan (2007). Democracy and Meritocracy: Toward a Confucian Perspective. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 34 (2):179–193.
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  20. Joseph Chan (2002). Moral Autonomy, Civil Liberties, and Confucianism. Philosophy East and West 52 (3):281-310.
    Three claims are defended. (1) There is a conception of moral autonomy in Confucian ethics that to a degree can support toleration and freedom. However, (2) Confucian moral autonomy is different from personal autonomy, and the latter gives a stronger justification for civil and personal liberties than does the former. (3) The contemporary appeal of Confucianism would be strengthened by including personal autonomy, and this need not be seen as forsaking Confucian ethics but rather as an internal revision in response (...)
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  21. Albert H. Y. Chen (2007). Is Confucianism Compatible with Liberal Constitutional Democracy? Journal of Chinese Philosophy 34 (2):195–216.
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  22. Xunwu Chen (2013). Law, Humanity, and Reason: The Chinese Debate, the Habermasian Approach, and a Kantian Outcome. Asian Philosophy 23 (1):100-114.
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  23. Xunwu Chen (2009). Justice: The Neglected Argument and the Pregnant Vision. Asian Philosophy 19 (2):189 – 198.
    Countering the present trend in the discourse on justice wherein human reason is perceived and marginalized as an embarrassment to justice and the trend to reject the concept of formal justice, this paper argues that there is formal justice and the essence of justice is setting things right and setting righteousness to stand straight. By this token, justice means the rule of reason, not the rule of power and desire, and the ethics of justice differs fundamentally from the ethics of (...)
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  24. Xunwu Chen (2002). Reason and Feeling: Confucianism and Contractualism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 29 (2):269–283.
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  25. Xunwu Chen (1997). Justice as a Constellation of Fairness, Harmony and Righteousness. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (4):497-519.
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  26. Chung-Ying Chenc (1977). Toward Constructing a Dialectics of Harmonization: Harmony and Conflict in Chinese Philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 4 (3):209-245.
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  27. Anne Cheng (2011). Virtue and Politics: Some Conceptions of Sovereignty in Ancient China. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s1):133-145.
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  28. Chung-Ying Cheng (2012). Preface: World-Humanity and Chinese Philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (4):469-471.
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  29. Chung-ying Cheng (2007). Justice and Peace in Kant and Confucius. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 34 (3):345–357.
  30. Chung-Ying Cheng (1997). Critical Reflections on Rawlsian Justice Versus Confucian Justice. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (4):417-426.
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  31. Li Chenyang (2010). Confucian Moral Cultivation, Longevity, and Public Policy. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (1):25-36.
    By investigating the link between the Confucian ideal of longevity and moral cultivation, I argue that Confucian moral cultivation is founded on the ideal of harmony, and, in this connection, it promotes a holistic, healthy life, of which longevity is an important component. My argument is internal to Confucianism, in the sense that it aims to show these concepts are coherently constructed within the Confucian philosophical framework; I do not go beyond the Confucian framework to prove its validity. Finally, I (...)
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  32. Ewing Y. Chinn (1998). The Natural Equality of All Things. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (4):471-482.
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  33. Gordon Christie (2012). Replying to Armour:Certainty and Exceptionalism: Threats to a World-Humanities? Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (4):580-593.
    This article explores attitudes underscoring arguments I believe are located in Professor Armour's address in the present special issue. I first show how Armour's arguments are intertwined with a resolute belief in the existence of a unique form of knowledge, one particularly attuned to the work of humanities scholars, and then go on to argue this certainty is linked to an antecedent attitude, one of exceptionalism. Spelling out what I find to be troubling about this species of argument leads into (...)
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  34. John P. Clark (1983). On Taoism and Politics. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (1):65-87.
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  35. Erin M. Cline (2007). Two Senses of Justice: Confucianism, Rawls, and Comparative Political Philosophy. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 6 (4):361-381.
    This paper argues that a comparative study of the idea of a sense of justice in the work of John Rawls and the early Chinese philosopher Kongzi is mutually beneficial to our understanding of the thought of both figures. It also aims to provide an example of the relevance of moral psychology for basic questions in political philosophy. The paper offers an analysis of Rawls’s account of a sense of justice and its place within his theory of justice, focusing on (...)
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  36. Fred Dallmayr (2009). Exiting Liberal Democracy: Bell and Confucian Thought. Philosophy East and West 59 (4):524-530.
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  37. Fred R. Dallmayr (2012). Confucianism and Liberal Democracy: Some Comments. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (3):357-368.
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  38. Fred Dallmayr, Chenyang Li, Sor-Hoon Tan & Daniel A. Bell (2009). Beyond Liberal Democracy: A Debate on Democracy and Confucian Meritocracy. Philosophy East and West 59 (4):523-523.
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  39. William Theodore De Bary (1983). The Liberal Tradition in China. Columbia University Press.
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  40. Wm Theodore de Bary (1985). Confucian Liberalism and Western Parochialism: A Response to Paul A. Cohen. Philosophy East and West 35 (4):399-412.
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  41. Kirk A. Denton (1993). Democratic Movement and the May Fourth. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 20 (4):387-424.
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  42. Bruce M. Lan Desman (1990). Virginia Held, Rights and Goods: Justifying Social Action. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 17 (4):505-509.
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  43. Shuo Dongfang & Hongcheng Lin (2006). Separation of Politics and Morality: A Commentary on Analects of Confucius. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (3):401-417.
    Confucians emphasizes and values morality, hence observers tended to regard moralities as politics so that the independent politics in the Confucian tradition has become implicit. Through a perusal of the Analects of Confucius, we can find that ethics and politics were separated from and independent of each other to Confucius, the primitive Confucian: he did not substitute ethics for politics.
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  44. David Elstein (2011). Jiang, Qing 蔣慶, Living Faith and the Kingly Way of Politics 生命信仰與王道政治. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (3):395-398.
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  45. David Elstein (2010). Why Early Confucianism Cannot Generate Democracy. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):427-443.
    A central issue in Chinese philosophy today is the relationship between Confucianism and democracy. While some political figures have argued that Confucian values justify non-democratic forms of government, many scholars have argued that Confucianism can provide justification for democracy, though this Confucian democracy will differ substantially from liberal democracy. These scholars believe it is important for Chinese culture to develop its own conception of democracy using Confucian values, drawn mainly from Kongzi (Confucius) and Mengzi (Mencius), as the basis. This essay (...)
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  46. H. O. Fai & H. O. Hung (2008). Knowledge is a Dangerous Thing: Authority Relations, Ideological Conservatism, and Creativity in Confucian-Heritage Cultures. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38 (1):67–86.
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  47. Ruiping Fan (1997). Confucian and Rawlsian Views of Justice: A Comparison. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (4):427-456.
  48. Alex Feldt (2010). Governing Through the Dao: A Non-Anarchistic Interpretation of the Laozi. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (3):323-337.
    Within the literature, Daoist political philosophy has often been linked with anarchism. While some extended arguments have been offered in favor of this conclusion, I take this position to be tenuous and predicated on an assumption that coercive authority cannot be applied through wuwei. Focusing on the Laozi as the fundamental political text of classical Daoism, I lay out a general account of why one ought to be skeptical of classifying it as anarchistic. Keeping this skepticism in mind and recognizing (...)
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  49. Herbert Fingarette (1981). How the Analects Portrays the Ideal of Efficacious Authority. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 8 (1):29-49.
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  50. Russell Arben Fox (2008). Activity and Communal Authority: Localist Lessons From Puritan and Confucian Communities. Philosophy East and West 58 (1):36-59.
    : Puritanism and Confucianism have little in common in terms of their substantive teachings, but they do share an emphasis on bounded, authoritative, localized human arrangements, and this profoundly challenges the dominant presumptions of contemporary globalization. It is not enough to say that these worldviews are ‘‘communitarian’’ alternatives to globalism, for that defines away what needs to be explained. This article compares the ontology of certain elements of the Puritan and Confucian worldviews, and, by focusing on the role of both (...)
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