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Summary This category covers issues in classical Confucianism that don't fall under its sibling leaf categories. It includes works that are not only related to Confucius, Mencius and Xunzi considered to be main authors in what we think of as classical Confuciansm and  works that are not covered by two major topics in Confuciansm: The Doctrine of the Mean and The Great Learning. Many works cover early Confucianism from a comparative perspective, like comparisons of Confucian ethics with Kant and also very often Aristotle or more contemporary authors like Rawls. It can be very challenging and interesting to read about Confucian ethics in the age of social media and other applications of the classical concepts to modern society.
Key works Some important Confucian ideas are dealt with in the works in this category. Those are concepts like cheng or sincerity (An 2004) and ming or fate (Slingerland 1996).
Introductions Littlejohn 2010 Yao & Tu 2010 Berthrong & Evelyn Nagai Berthrong 2004
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  1. Brooke A. Ackerly (2005). Is Liberalism the Only Way Toward Democracy? Confucianism and Democracy. Political Theory 33 (4):547 - 576.
    This article identifies a foundation for Confucian democratic political thought in Confucian thought. Each of the three aspects emphasized is controversial, but supported by views held within the historical debates and development of Confucian political thought and practice. This democratic interpretation of Confucian political thought leads to (1) an expectation that all people are capable of ren and therefore potentially virtuous contributors to political life; (2) an expectation that the institutions of political, social, and economic life function so as to (...)
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  2. Mohammad Ashraf Adeel (2008). Islamic Ethics and the Controversy About the Moral Heart of Confucianism. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (2):151-156.
    This essay briefly evaluates the ongoing controversy between LIU Qingping and GUO Qiyong (and their followers) about the “moral heart ”of Confucianism in order to draw acomparison with Islamic ethics for mutual illumination of the two traditions.
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  3. Dennis M. Ahern (1980). An Equivocation in Confucian Philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 7 (2):175-185.
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  4. William Kelii Akina, Classical Confucianism as a Vision for the Exemplary Treatment of Persons-a Contribution to the East-West Discourse on Human Rights.
    Ph.D. University of Hawaii at Manoa 2010.
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  5. Aphrodite Alexandrakis (2006). The Role of Music and Dance in Ancient Greek and Chinese Rituals: Form Versus Content. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (2):267–278.
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  6. Barry Allen, Bernard Faure, Jacob Raz, Glenn Alexander Magee, N. Verbin, Dalia Ofer, Elaine Pryce & Amy M. King (2010). Introduction: Vanishing Into Things. Common Knowledge 16 (3):417-423.
    Introducing the sixth and final installment of the Common Knowledge symposium “Apology for Quietism,” Allen looks at the symposium retrospectively and concludes that it has mainly concerned “sage knowledge,” defined as foresight into the development of situations. The sagacious knower sees the disposition of things in an early, incipient form and knows how to intervene with nearly effortless and undetectable (quiet) effectiveness. Whatever the circumstance, the sage handles it with finesse, never doing too much but also never leaving anything undone (...)
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  7. Robert Elliott Allinson (2003). Hillel and Confucius: The Prescriptive Formulation of the Golden Rule in the Jewish and Chinese Confucian Ethical Traditions. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 3 (1):29-41.
    In this article, the Golden Rule, a central ethical value to both Judaism and Confucianism, is evaluated in its prescriptive and proscriptive sentential formulations. Contrary to the positively worded, prescriptive formulation – “Love others as oneself” – the prohibitive formulation, which forms the injunction, “Do not harm others, as one would not harm oneself,” is shown to be the more prevalent Judaic and Confucian presentation of the Golden Rule. After establishing this point, the remainder of the article is dedicated to (...)
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  8. Robert Almeder (1980). The Harmony of Confucian and Taoist Moral Attitudes. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 7 (1):51-53.
  9. R. T. Ames (2003). Confucianism: Confucius. In A. S. Cua (ed.), Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge
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  10. Roger T. Ames (2009). The Confucian Worldview : Uncommon Assumptions, Common Misconceptions. In David Edward Jones & Ellen R. Klein (eds.), Asian Texts, Asian Contexts: Encounters with Asian Philosophies and Religions. State University of New York Press
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  11. Roger T. Ames (2008). Using English to Speak Confucianism: Antonio S. Cua on the Confucian "Self". Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (1):33–41.
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  12. Roger T. Ames (2003). Confucianism and Deweyan Pragmatism: A Dialogue. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (3-4):403-417.
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  13. Ok-sun An (1995). A Study of Early Buddhist Ethics: In Comparison with Classical Confucianist Ethics. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i
    The purpose of this study is to explore early Buddhist ethics in comparison with classical Confucianist ethics and to show similarities. The study suggests that the popular belief that the two ethical systems are radically different from each other needs to be reconsidered. When a focus is given to the development, transformation, and realization of the self, a similar framework is revealed in the two ethical systems. Furthermore, this study intends to reject the popular thesis: early Buddhism is only self-liberation-concerned (...)
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  14. Yanming An (2009). Li, Youzheng 李幼蒸, a Hermeneutics of the Ren-Learning: A Structural Analysis of Confucian Ethics 仁學解釋學 : 孔孟倫理學結構分析. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (3):341-344.
  15. Yanming An (2004). Western 'Sincerity' and Confucian 'Cheng'. Asian Philosophy 14 (2):155 – 169.
    In philology, both 'sincerity' and 'cheng' primarily mean, 'to be true to oneself'. As a philosophical term, 'sincerity' roots in Aristotle's 'aletheutikos'. In medieval Europe, it is regarded as a neutral value that may either serve or disserve for 'truth.' As for Romantics, it is a positive value, and an individualistic concept whose two elements 'true' and 'self' refer to a person's 'true feeling' and 'individuality'. In contrast, both 'self' and 'true' in Confucianism are universalistic concepts, meaning 'good nature' common (...)
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  16. Yanming An (2004). The Concept of Cheng and its Western Translations. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 4 (1):117-136.
    The main reasons for the difficulty in understanding and translatingcheng may be summarized as follows. First, its prehistory is not always clear. This makes it troublesome to identify its original meaning. Second, the multiple sources from the three schools, Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, often causecheng to be entangled with various concepts specifically affiliated to certain schools. The particular meanings of these concepts and their connections withcheng possibly mislead our effort to explore the core content ofcheng as such. Finally,cheng has been (...)
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  17. Stephen Angle & Michael Slote (eds.) (2013). Virtue Ethics and Confucianism. Routledge.
    This volume presents the fruits of an extended dialogue among American and Chinese philosophers concerning the relations between virtue ethics and the Confucian tradition. Based on recent advances in English-language scholarship on and translation of Confucian philosophy, the book demonstrates that cross-tradition stimulus, challenge, and learning are now eminently possible. Anyone interested in the role of virtue in contemporary moral philosophy, in Chinese thought, or in the future possibilities for cross-tradition philosophizing will find much to engage with in the twenty (...)
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  18. Tongdong Bai (2009). The Price of Serving Meat—on Confucius's and Mencius's Views of Human and Animal Rights. Asian Philosophy 19 (1):85 – 99.
    The apparent conflict between some fundamental ideas of Confucianism and of rights seems to render Confucianism incompatible with rights. I will illustrate the general strategies, based upon an insight of the later Rawls, to solve the incompatibility problem. I will then show how these strategies can help us to develop a Confucian account of animal rights, which, by way of example, demonstrates how Confucianism can endorse and develop unique and constructive accounts of most rights that are commonly recognized today.
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  19. Lloyd Sci Ban (2004). Concept of Human Weakness: A Brief Comparison of Christian and Confucian Thinking. Wisdom in China and the West 22:67.
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  20. James Behuniak Jr (2002). Disposition and Aspiration in the Mencius and Zhuangzi. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 29 (1):65–79.
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  21. James Behuniak (2010). Wen, Haiming, Confucian Pragmatism as the Art of Contextualizing Personal Experience and World. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (2):249-252.
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  22. Jim P. Behuniak (1998). Poem as Proposition in the Analects: A Whiteheadian Reading of a Confucian Sensibility. Asian Philosophy 8 (3):191 – 202.
    I suggest that ubiquitous references made by Confucius to poetic songs in the Analects reveal an important aspect of his philosophy. This aspect involves the assumption that things in the world “resonate” with one another. Using elements of Alfred North Whitehead's thought, as well as metaphysical insights from the Han Dynasty text, Huainanzi, I first present an aesthetic theory along with a supporting cosmological vision that enhances our appreciation of this trait in the Confucian world. With these preliminaries in mind, (...)
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  23. D. A. Bell (2009). War, Peace, and China's Soft Power: A Confucian Approach. Diogenes 56 (1):26-40.
    The contemporary Chinese intellectual Kang Xiaoguang has argued that Chinese soft power should be based on Confucian culture, the most influential Chinese political tradition. But which Confucian values should form the core of China’s soft power? This paper first explores the coexistence of state sovereignty and utopian cosmopolitanism through an analysis of Confucian tradition up to contemporary Chinese nationalism. It insists on the exogenous roots of the cosmopolitan ideal and its relations with the ideal of a harmonious political order and (...)
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  24. Douglas L. Berger (2008). Relational and Intrinsic Moral Roots: A Brief Contrast of Confucian and Hindu Concepts of Duty. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (2):157-163.
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  25. Mark A. Berkson (2005). Conceptions of Self/No‐Self and Modes of Connection Comparative Soteriological Structures in Classical Chinese Thought. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (2):293-331.
    This essay examines the ways that the terms "self and "no-self can illuminate the views of classical Chinese thinkers, particularly Confucians such as Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi, and the Daoist thinker Zhuangzi. In particular, the use of the term "no-self" to describe Zhuangzi's position is defended. The concepts of self and no-self are analyzed in relation to other terms within the thinkers' "concept clusters" - specifically temporality, nature, and social roles - and suggestions are given for constructing typologies that sort (...)
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  26. Thomas Berry (1962). The Confucian Persuasion. New Scholasticism 36 (2):271-273.
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  27. By John H. Berthrong & Matthew A. Levey Evelyn Nagai Berthrong (2004). Confucianism: A Short Introduction. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (2):301–305.
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  28. John Berthrong (1998). Confucian Piety and the Religious Dimension of Japanese Confucianism. Philosophy East and West 48 (1):46-79.
    Definitions of the nature of Confucian piety and the religious dimension of the Japanese Confucian tradition are sought. The general religious dimension of Confucianism is defined both by the nature of its canon, the Thirteen Classics, and its transcendent referent, the root metaphor of ultimate concern. The Japanese Confucians inherited this pan-East Asian philosophic and religious tradition and modified it to suit their own cultural and religious sensibilities. If we recognize, as Herbert Fingarette has shown, that for Confucians the secular (...)
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  29. John H. Berthrong (2008). The Hard Sayings: The Confucian Case of Xiao 孝 in Kongzi and Mengzi. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (2):119-123.
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  30. Lijun Bi & Fred D'agostino (2004). The Doctrine of Filial Piety: A Philosophical Analysis of the Concealment Case. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (4):451-467.
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  31. Anne D. Birdwhistell (1995). Medicine and History as Theoretical Tools in a Confucian Pragmatism. Philosophy East and West 45 (1):1-28.
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  32. Donald N. Blakeley (2003). Listening to the Animals: The Confucian View of Animal Welfare. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (2):137–157.
  33. Erica Brindley (2005). After Confucius: Studies in Early Chinese Philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (4):649–653.
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  34. Lajos L. Brons (2015). Wang Chong, Truth, and Quasi-Pluralism. Comparative Philosophy 6 (1):129-148.
    In (2011) McLeod suggested that the first century Chinese philosopher Wang Chong 王充 may have been a pluralist about truth. In this reply I contest McLeod's interpretation of Wang Chong, and suggest "quasi-pluralism" (albeit more as an alternative to pluralism than as an interpretation of Wang Chong), which combines primitivism about the concept of truth with pluralism about justification.
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  35. Joshua R. Brown (2014). Towards Filial Love: Reconsidering Hans Urs von Balthasar's Theme of Christological Obedience in Light of Early Confucian Philosophy. Heythrop Journal 57 (4):n/a-n/a.
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  36. Kang Chan (2000). The Uncultivated Man and the Weakness of the Ideal in Classical Chinese Philosophy. Dissertation, Harvard University
    The Chinese philosophical tradition aims at a departure from the imperfect reality for the sake of the ideal. But it is also clear to the Chinese philosophers that most people would not follow their footsteps in discarding reality and seeking the ideal. The weakness of the ideal in its incapacity to change the uncultivated man defines a common thread of philosophical thinking in China, and constitutes a bitter truth which these philosophers do not make explicit. Seven philosophers from the fifth (...)
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  37. Shirley Chan, Polishing the Jade : 'Xing' and Moral Cultivation in the Analects.
    The absence in the Analects of explicit statements on and detailed discussions of the nature of things including human nature is obvious enough that readers would need no prompting by Zigong, one of Confucius' disciples, to be made aware of it, given that the word appears in the text only twice, one of these being Zigong's reminder that the Master's view on xing cannot be heard.1 On the other hand, the notion of xing attracted considerable attention in the Warring States (...)
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  38. Shirley Chan (2009). Human Nature and Moral Cultivation in the Guodian 郭店 Text of the Xing Zi Ming Chu 性自命出 (Nature Derives From Mandate). Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (4):361-382.
    The debate over whether human nature is good or bad and how this is related to self-cultivation was central in the minds of traditional Chinese thinkers. This essay analyzes the interrelationship between the key concepts of xing 性 (human nature), qing 情 (human emotions/feelings), and xin 心 (heart-mind) in the Guodian text of the Xing Zi Ming Chu 性自命出 (Nature Derives from Mandate) discovered in 1993 in Hubei province. The intellectual engagements evident in this Guodian text emerge as more syncretic (...)
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  39. Sin Yee Chan (2000). Gender and Relationship Roles in the Analects and the Mencius. Asian Philosophy 10 (2):115 – 132.
    In this paper I argue that the conception of gender as illustrated in the Analects and the Mencius is basically a functional one that assigns women a domestic role. I show how this conception might imply the exclusion of women from the moral ideal of chun-tzu, which would result in the further subordination of women as wives to men as husbands in the context of the Confucian role system. On the other hand, I show how the Confucian role system can (...)
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  40. Sin yee Chan (1993). An Ethic of Loving: Ethical Particularism and the Engaged Perspective in Confucian Role-Ethics. Dissertation, University of Michigan
    In personal relationships, we conceive of the related person as an individual who is more than a combination of qualities, a bearer of claims or a role-occupant. She is envisaged as a distinct and irreplaceable particular. We have immediate concerns for her that are not mediated by consideration of principles such as the promotion of welfare or the fulfillment of duty. The aim of my dissertation is to analyze and defend this particularistic concern and show how it is anchored in (...)
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  41. Qinghua Chen (2009). Kongzi Wei Shi Me Zhe Yang Hong. Chong Wen Shu Ju.
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  42. Xin Chen (2012). Huang, Yushun 黃玉順, Confucianism and Contemporary Life: Collected Essays on “Life Confucianism” 儒家思想與當代生活—“生活儒學” 論集. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (3):393-397.
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  43. Xunwu Chen (2012). Cultivating Oneself After the Images of Sages: Another Version of Ethical Personalism. Asian Philosophy 22 (1):51-62.
    Countering the general reading of Confucian ethics as a form of virtue ethics or humanistic ethics, this essay reads Confucian ethics as a form of ethical personalism. Doing so, it examines the ethical orientations in the Confucian classics, The Analects, Da Xue, and others, pointing out that the touchstone concept of Confucian ethics taught in these classics is the person, recalling the Confucian motto of ethical cultivation, ?inner sagehood and outer kinghood?. It demonstrates that only the name of personalism describes (...)
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  44. Chunc‐Yinc Chenc (1997). Critical Reflections on Rawlsian Justice Versus Confucian Justice. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (4):417-426.
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  45. Chung-Ying Cheng (2011). Incorporating Kantian Good Will (2) a Confucian–Kantian Synthesis. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (4):602-638.
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  46. Chung-Ying Cheng (2006). Theoretical Links Between Kant and Confucianism: Preliminary Remarks. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (1):3–15.
  47. Chung-Ying Cheng (1977). Rectifying Names [Cheng-Ming] in Classical Confucianism. Chinese Studies in Philosophy 8 (3):67.
    The concept of rectifying names [cheng-ming] is a familiar one in the Confucian Analects. It occupies an important, if not central, position in the political philosophy of Confucius. Since, according to Confucius, the rectification of names is the basis of the establishment of social harmony and political order, one might suspect that later political theories of Confucian-ists should be traced back to the Confucian doctrine of rectifying names. It need not be added that the theory of rectifying names, as developed (...)
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  48. Chung‐Ying Cheng (2013). A Generative Ontological Unity of Heart‐Mind and Nature in the Four Books. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (2):234-251.
    Traditional scholarship seems not to pay sufficient attention to the fact that Daxue 《大學》 has established a system of ethical and political philosophy on the basis of the idea of xin 心 (heart-mind) whereas the Zhongyong 《中庸》 has argued for the participation of the human person in the creativities of heaven and earth based on the onto-generative nature (xing 性) of the human person. How to explain this fact and interrelate and integrate these two systems become both a historical challenge (...)
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  49. Peng Chengyi (2013). Traditional Confucian Constitutionalism: Current Explorations and Prospects. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 8 (1):76-98.
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  50. Jiunn-Huei Chern (2000). On Confucius, Mencius and Hsun-Tzu's Confucian philosophy of Man and the Good of the Jewish and Christian Idea of Man. Philosophy and Culture 27 (7):642-660.
    This thesis focused on Confucian Confucius, Mencius, Xun people of the three philosophers philosophy, and try to cum from the original Jewish concept of replenishing the Christian people, to explore the Confucian Confucius, Mencius, Xun Sanzhe back to the people of the philosophy capacity, and it may take in response to the road. First, we want to explore each of Confucius, Mencius and Xun Zi, three of them on philosophical thinkers of the people, human understanding and view of life made (...)
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