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Summary Climate change threatens to create serious risks, ranging from economic risks to increased risk of death and disease to the complete annihilation of small island states. The field of climate ethics (also known as "climate justice") includes questions about how global society should respond to the creation of such risks and who, exactly, should take responsibility for which parts of that response. Major issues include: How aggressively should society reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? How should the burden of achieving those reductions be distributed across and within nations? What role should adaptation play in responding to climate change? Should high emitters pay damages to affected parties? What responsibilities, if any, does climate change impose on individuals? Because climate change is unfolding on a global scale over long periods of time, and because it involves complex issues of politics, science, economics, and technology, answering these questions requires drawing on moral and political philosophy, philosophy of science and epistemology, philosophy of economics, and philosophy of technology, along with a range of other disciplines.
Key works The seminal review of climate ethics is still Gardiner 2004. For collections of key papers on various aspects of climate ethics, see Gardiner et al 2010, which compiles important papers from the first two decades of the field; Arnold 2011, which includes new papers on important issues in climate ethics; and Shue 2014, which collects major papers from one of the most important voices in climate ethics. Important monographs in climate ethics include Gardiner 2011, in which Gardiner delves more deeply into the structure of the moral problems raised by climate change; Broome 2012 and Moellendorf 2014, in which Broome and Moellendorf articulate their respective answers to key questions in climate ethics; and Vanderheiden 2008, in which Vanderheiden addresses issues of climate justice from the perspective of political theory. On the question of individual responsibility for climate change, see Sinnott-Armstrong 2005 (reprinted in Gardiner et al 2010); Hiller 2011, a reply to Sinnott-Armstrong; and for a different approach, Jamieson 2007 (also reprinted in Gardiner et al 2010).
Introductions Chapter 2 of Singer 2002 includes a highly accessible introduction to some key moral issues raised by climate change, suitable for beginning undergraduates. More advanced undergraduates might start with Hayward 2012. Graduate students and professionals looking for a concise survey of climate ethics should consider  Moellendorf 2015. Those looking for more detail, including relevant scientific and economic background, will find it in Gardiner 2004Broome 2012 provides an accessible book-length overview many key issues in climate ethics, along with a primer on climate science and climate economics.
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  1. John Abatzoglou, Joseph Fc Dimento, Pamela Doughman & Stefano Nespor (2007). Climate-Change Effects: Global and Local Views. In Joseph F. DiMento & Pamela Doughman (eds.), Climate Change: What It Means for Us, Our Children, and Our Grandchildren. The Mit Press.
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  2. Dennis Patrick O'Hara Alan Abelsohn (2011). Ethical Response to Climate Change. Ethics and the Environment 16 (1):25-50.
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  3. John Aber, Ronald P. Neilson, Steve McNulty, James M. Lenihan, Dominique Bachelet & Raymond J. Drapek (2001). Overview Articles-a Special Section on Climate Change and Forest Ecosystems-Forest Processes and Global Environmental Change: Predicting the Effects of Individual and Multiple Stressors. BioScience 51 (9):735-752.
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  4. Jonathan H. Adler (2009). Taking Property Rights Seriously: The Case of Climate Change. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):296-316.
    The dominant approach to environmental policy endorsed by conservative and libertarian policy thinkers, so-called (FME), is grounded in the recognition and protection of property rights in environmental resources. Despite this normative commitment to property rights, most self-described FME advocates adopt a utilitarian, welfare-maximization approach to climate change policy, arguing that the costs of mitigation measures could outweigh the costs of climate change itself. Yet even if anthropogenic climate change is decidedly less than catastrophic, human-induced climate change is likely to contribute (...)
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  5. Julia Agapitos (2010). Eileen Crist and H. Bruce Rinker, Eds. Gaia in Turmoil: Climate Change, Biodepletion and Earth Ethics in an Age of Crisis. Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):286-288.
    Gaia in Turmoil is the latest collaborative work put forth by the interdisciplinary group of Gaian thinkers. The contributors set out to meaningfully grapple with the bewildering ecological and social crises that humanity faces in this young century. Their work clearly rests on the assumption that such crises not only exist, but are dire—a conviction that unifies the essays in Gaia in Turmoil. By demonstrating how Gaia theory can advance various research projects, Gaia in Turmoil is an alarmist plea to (...)
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  6. G. A. Albrecht, C. Brooke, D. H. Bennett & S. T. Garnett (2013). The Ethics of Assisted Colonization in the Age of Anthropogenic Climate Change. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (4):827-845.
    This paper examines an issue that is becoming increasingly relevant as the pressures of a warming planet, changing climate and changing ecosystems ramp up. The broad context for the paper is the intragenerational, intergenerational, and interspecies equity implications of changing the climate and the value orientations of adapting to such change. In addition, the need to stabilize the planetary climate by urgent mitigation of change factors is a foundational ethical assumption. In order to avoid further animal and plant extinctions, or (...)
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  7. Ben Almassi (2012). Climate Change and the Ethics of Individual Emissions. Perspectives International Postgraduate Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):4-21.
    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong argues, on the relationship between individual emissions and climate change, that “we cannot claim to know that it is morally wrong to drive a gas guzzler just for fun” or engage in other inessential emissions-producing individual activities. His concern is not uncertainty about the phenomenon of climate change, nor about human contribution to it. Rather, on Sinnott-Armstrong’s analysis the claim of individual moral responsibility for emissions must be grounded in a defensible moral principle, yet no principle withstands scrutiny. (...)
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  8. Phd Andrew Jameton (2010). Climate Change Ethics. Lahey Clinic Medical Ethics Journal 17 (2):1-8.
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  9. Raymond Anthony (2012). Taming the Unruly Side of Ethics: Overcoming Challenges of a Bottom-Up Approach to Ethics in the Areas of Food Policy and Climate Change. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (6):813-841.
    Here, I investigate the challenges involved in addressing ethical questions related to food policy, food security, and climate change in a public engagement atmosphere where “experts” (e.g., scientists and scholars), policy-makers and laypersons interact. My focus is on the intersection between food and climate in the state of Alaska, located in the circumpolar north. The intersection of food security and climate represents a “wicked problem.” This wicked problem is plagued by “unruliness,” characterized by disruptive mechanisms that can impede how ethical (...)
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  10. Denis G. Arnold (ed.) (2011). Ethics of Global Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
    Global climate change is one of the most daunting ethical and political challenges confronting humanity in the twenty-first century. The intergenerational and transnational ethical issues raised by climate change have been the focus of a significant body of scholarship. In this new collection of essays, leading scholars engage and respond to first-generation scholarship and argue for new ways of thinking about our ethical obligations to present and future generations. Topics addressed in these essays include moral accountability for energy consumption and (...)
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  11. Denis G. Arnold & Keith Bustos (2005). Business, Ethics, and Global Climate Change. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 24 (1/2):103-130.
    After providing a brief history of global climate change, we consider and reject the influential position that free markets and responsive democracies relieve corporations of obligations to protect the environment. Five main objections to the free market view are presented, focusing in particular on the roles of business organizations in the transportation and electricity generation sectors. Ethically grounded management and public policy recommendations are offered.
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  12. Andrew Askland (2014). Climate Change: Making Us Brothers and Sisters. Journal of Global Ethics 10 (3):292-296.
    The constraint for prevailing ethical orientations is the unavoidable concern each person has for her own welfare. Climate change can transform the fundamental structure of these ethical orientations because it compels the recognition that the behaviors of those at the far reaches of my concentric circle model have real and potentially disastrous effects upon me. The tangible prospect of climate change will inspire the recognition of our common destiny.
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  13. Monica Aufrecht (2012). Rethinking “Greening of Hate”: Climate Emissions, Immigration, and the Last Frontier. Ethics and the Environment 17 (2):51-74.
    The sheer number of immigrants has simply overwhelmed our country’s ability to continue to provide for newcomers and natives alike, and in many cases has only added to America’s problems… Our population growth … is a root cause of many of the United States’ problems and presents a serious threat to our limited natural resources such as topsoil, forests, clean air and water, and healthy ecosystems. It’s not so much the number of people that matters, but how they live. Concerns (...)
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  14. Monica Aufrecht (2011). Climate Change and Structural Emissions. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (2):201-213.
    Given that mitigating climate change is a large-scale global issue, what obligations do individuals have to lower their personal carbon emissions? I survey recent suggestions by Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Dale Jamieson and offer models for thinking about their respective approaches. I then present a third model based on the notion of structural violence. While the three models are not mutually incompatible, each one suggests a different focus for mitigating climate change. In the end, I agree with Sinnott-Armstrong that people have (...)
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  15. Paul Baer (2011). The Situation of the Most Vulnerable Countries After Copenhagen. Ethics, Policy and Environment 13 (2):223-228.
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  16. Paul Baer, Tom Athanasiou, Sivan Kartha & Eric Kemp-Benedict (2009). Greenhouse Development Rights: A Proposal for a Fair Global Climate Treaty. Ethics, Place and Environment 12 (3):267-281.
    One of the core debates concerning equity in the response to the threat of anthropogenic climate change is how the responsibility to reduce greenhouse gas emissions should be allocated, or, correspondingly, how the right to emit greenhouse gases should be allocated. Two alternative approaches that have been widely promoted are, first, to assign obligations to the industrialized countries on the basis of both their ability to pay and their responsibility for the majority of prior emissions, or, second, to assign emissions (...)
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  17. Melany Banks (2013). Individual Responsibility for Climate Change. Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (1):42-66.
    As we become more aware of the potential causes and consequences of climate change we are left wondering: who is responsible? Climate change has the potential to harm large portions of the global population and, arguably, is already doing so. Further, climate change is argued to be human-caused. If this is true, then it seems to be the case that we can analyze climate change in terms of responsibility. I argue that we can approach environmental harms, such as climate change, (...)
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  18. Valeria Barbi & Marco Borraccetti (forthcoming). The Relationship Between International Political Community and Civil Society Concerning Environment Protection and the Struggle Against Climate Change. Governare la Paura. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.
    The paper’s aim is to retrace the history of climate change through its definition and the process of negotiation aroused from the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC). After a brief description of this institution, the basic principles beneath the whole system of environment protection and the struggle against climate change will be presented. The intention is to demonstrate how, despite the undeniable advancements of the latest decades, the international legislative framework, even supported by the (...)
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  19. Christian Barry & Gerhard Øverland (forthcoming). Individual Responsibility for Carbon Emissions: Is There Anything Wrong with Overdetermining Harm? In Jeremy Moss (ed.), Climate Change and Justice. Cambridge University Press.
    Climate change and other harmful large-scale processes challenge our understandings of individual responsibility. People throughout the world suffer harms—severe shortfalls in health, civic status, or standard of living relative to the vital needs of human beings—as a result of physical processes to which many people appear to contribute. Climate change, polluted air and water, and the erosion of grasslands, for example, occur because a great many people emit carbon and pollutants, build excessively, enable their flocks to overgraze, or otherwise stress (...)
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  20. John Basl, Ronald Sandler, Rory Smead & Patrick Forber (2014). A Bargaining Game Analysis of International Climate Negotiations. Nature Climate Change 4:442-445.
    Climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have so far failed to achieve a robust international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Game theory has been used to investigate possible climate negotiation solutions and strategies for accomplishing them. Negotiations have been primarily modelled as public goods games such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma, though coordination games or games of conflict have also been used. Many of these models have solutions, in the form of equilibria, corresponding to possible (...)
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  21. Michelle Bastian (2012). Fatally Confused: Telling the Time in the Midst of Ecological Crises. Journal of Environmental Philosophy 9 (1):23-48.
    Focusing particularly on the role of the clock in social life, this article explores the conventions we use to “tell the time.” I argue that although clock time generally appears to be an all-encompassing tool for social coordination, it is actually failing to coordinate us with some of the most pressing ecological changes currently taking place. Utilizing philosophical approaches to performativity to explore what might be going wrong, I then draw on Derrida’s and Haraway’s understandings of social change in order (...)
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  22. S. Baum (forthcoming). Beyond the Ramsey Model for Climate Change Assessments. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics.
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  23. Seth Baum, Jacob Haqq-Misra & Chris Karmosky (2012). Climate Change: Evidence of Human Causes and Arguments for Emissions Reduction. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):393-410.
    In a recent editorial, Raymond Spier expresses skepticism over claims that climate change is driven by human actions and that humanity should act to avoid climate change. This paper responds to this skepticism as part of a broader review of the science and ethics of climate change. While much remains uncertain about the climate, research indicates that observed temperature increases are human-driven. Although opinions vary regarding what should be done, prominent arguments against action are based on dubious factual and ethical (...)
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  24. Whitney Bauman (2011). Religion, Science, and Nature: Shifts in Meaning on a Changing Planet. Zygon 46 (4):777-792.
    Abstract This article explores how religion and science, as worlding practices, are changed by the processes of globalization and global climate change. In the face of these processes, two primary methods of meaning making are emerging: the logic of globalization and planetary assemblages. The former operates out of the same logic as extant axial age religions, the Enlightenment, and Modernity. It is caught up in the process of universalizing meanings, objective truth, and a single reality. The latter suggests that the (...)
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  25. Elisabeth Beaubien & Andreas Hamann (2011). Spring Flowering Response to Climate Change Between 1936 and 2006 in Alberta, Canada. BioScience 61 (7):514-524.
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  26. U. Beck (2010). Climate for Change, or How to Create a Green Modernity? Theory, Culture and Society 27 (2-3):254-266.
    The discourse on climate politics so far is an expert and elitist discourse in which peoples, societies, citizens, workers, voters and their interests, views and voices are very much neglected. So, in order to turn climate change politics from its head onto its feet you have to take sociology into account. There is an important background assumption which shares in the general ignorance concerning environmental issues and, paradoxically, this is in corporated in the specialism of environmental sociology itself — this (...)
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  27. Beth A. Bee (2014). Training Manual on Gender and Climate Change. By Lorena Aguilar. San José, Costa Rica: Global Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA), 2009. [REVIEW] Hypatia 29 (3):702-706.
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  28. Derek Bell (2013). How Should We Think About Climate Justice? Environmental Ethics 35 (2):189-208.
    Climate change raises questions of justice. Some people are enjoying the benefits of energy use and other emissions-generating activities, but those activities are causing other people to suffer the burdens of climate change. Political philosophers have begun to pay more attention to the problem of “climate justice.” However, contributors to the literature have made quite different methodological assumptions about how we should develop a theory of climate justice and defend principles of climate justice. So far, there has been little systematic (...)
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  29. Derek Bell (2011). Does Anthropogenic Climate Change Violate Human Rights? Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (2):99-124.
    Early discussions of ?climate justice? have been dominated by economists rather than political philosophers. More recently, analytical liberal political philosophers have joined the debate. However, the philosophical discussion of climate justice remains in its early stages. This paper considers one promising approach based on human rights, which has been advocated recently by several theorists, including Simon Caney, Henry Shue and Tim Hayward. A basic argument supporting the claim that anthropogenic climate change violates human rights is presented. Four objections to this (...)
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  30. Derek Bell (2011). Global Climate Justice, Historic Emissions, and Excusable Ignorance. The Monist 94 (3):391-411.
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  31. Ted Benton (2013). Interdisciplinarity and Climate Change. Journal of Critical Realism 12 (2):260 - 265.
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  32. Brian Berkey (2014). State Action, State Policy, and the Doing/Allowing Distinction. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):147-149.
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  33. Brian Berkey (2014). Climate Change, Moral Intuitions, and Moral Demandingness. Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 4 (2):157-189.
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  34. Paweł Bernat, A Way Out From the Wrongful Environmental Mindset: The Origins and Possible Solutions to the Tragedy of the Commons. Philosophy and Practice of Sustainable Development.
    The paper indicates and discusses three phenomena identified as the main origins of the mindset responsible for the tragedy of the global commons, namely (1) Cornucopianism, (2) rationality of self-interest and egoism, and (3) the presupposed instrumental value of nature. It is demonstrated that all those theses can be philosophically and ethically dismissed and thus, the wrongful environmental mindset built around them should be rejected. It is further argued that the up-to-date solutions to the tragedy are unsatisfactory. Moreover, the tragedy (...)
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  35. Cristina Besio & Andrea Pronzini (2013). Morality, Ethics, and Values Outside and Inside Organizations: An Example of the Discourse on Climate Change. Journal of Business Ethics 119 (3):1-14.
    The public debate on climate change is filled with moral claims. However, scientific knowledge about the role that morality, ethics, and values play in this issue is still scarce. Starting from this research gap, we focus on corporations as central decision makers in modern society and analyze how they respond to societal demands to take responsibility for climate change. While relevant literature on business ethics and climate change either places a high premium on morality or presents a strong skeptical bias, (...)
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  36. Gregor Betz (2012). The Case for Climate Engineering Research: An Analysis of the “Arm the Future” Argument. Climatic Change 111 (2):473-485.
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  37. Gregor Betz (2012). Wie ist das 2-Grad-Ziel der internationalen Klimapolitik begründet? In Geert Keil (ed.), Unscharfe Grenzen im Umwelt- und Technikrecht. Nomos.
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  38. Gregor Betz & Sebastian Cacean (2012). Ethical Aspects of Climate Engineering. Karlsruhe. KIT Scientific Publishing.
    This study investigates the ethical aspects of deploying and researching into so-called climate engineering methods, i.e. large-scale technical interventions in the climate system with the objective of offsetting anthropogenic climate change. The moral reasons in favour of and against R&D into and deployment of CE methods are analysed by means of argument maps. These argument maps provide an overview of the CE controversy and help to structure the complex debate.
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  39. Sabine Bock, Gero Fedtke & Sascha Gabizon (2010). Climate Justice Through Energy and Gender Justice: Strengthening Gender Equality in Accessing Sustainable Energy in the Eecca Region. In Irene Dankelman (ed.), Gender and Climate Change: An Introduction. Earthscan. 240.
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  40. Carol Booth (2012). Bystanding and Climate Change. Environmental Values 21 (4):397 - 416.
    Most normative advice to individuals about what they should do to help prevent climate change focuses on reductions in personal emissions. This is consistent with an accountancy model of morality, with perpetrators held responsible for the harms they individually cause. An alternative focus receiving less popular and philosophical attention, but with greater potential to achieve substantial mitigation outcomes, is citizen activism for systemic reforms. Rather than perpetration (consisting of negligible contributions to climate change) priority moral concern can be directed to (...)
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  41. Paul Bou-Habib (2010). Climate Change, Justice and Future Generations. Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (1):151-153.
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  42. Steve Bouma-Prediger (forthcoming). Book Review: Climate Justice: Ethics, Energy, and Public Policy. [REVIEW] Interpretation 65 (4):424-424.
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  43. Michel Bourban (2014). Human Rights, Climate Change and the Problem of Motivation. de Ethica 1 (1):37-52.
    In this paper, I discuss some of the human rights that are threatened by the impact of global warming and the problem of motivation to comply with the duties of climate justice. I explain in what sense human rights can be violated by climate change and try to show that there are not only moral reasons to address this problem, but also more prudential motives, which I refer to as quasi-moral and non-moral reasons. I also assess some implications of potentially (...)
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  44. Michel Bourban (2014). Climate Change, Human Rights and the Problem of Motivation. de Ethica. A Journal of Philosophical, Theological and Applied Ethics 1 (1):37-52.
    In this paper, I discuss some of the human rights that are threatened by the impact of global warming and the problem of motivation to comply with the duties of climate justice. I explain in what sense human rights can be violated by climate change and try to show that there are not only moral reasons to address this problem, but also more prudential motives, which I refer to as quasi-moral and non-moral reasons. I also assess some implications of potentially (...)
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  45. Jeremy Brennan (2010). Teaching and Learning: VCE - The Face of Climate Change - World Vision and the Threat of Climate Change to the World's Poorest and Most Vulnerable People. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 18 (4):37.
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  46. Scott D. Bridgham, Carol A. Johnston, John Pastor & Karen Updegraff (1995). Potential Feedbacks of Northern Wetlands on Climate Change. BioScience 45 (4):262-274.
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  47. Sylvia Broere-Moore (1994). What Are We Doing to the Earth's Climate and What Are We Going to Do About It? World Futures 41 (1):137-141.
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  48. Thom Brooks (2011). Respect for Nature: The Capabilities Approach. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (2):143 - 146.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 143-146, June 2011.
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  49. Thom Brooks, Climate Change and Negative Duties.
    It is widely accepted by the scientific community and beyond that human beings are primarily responsible for climate change and that climate change has brought with it a number of real problems. These problems include, but are not limited to, greater threats to coastal communities, greater risk of famine, and greater risk that tropical diseases may spread to new territory. In keeping with J. S. Mill's 'Harm Principle', green political theorists often respond that if we are contributing a harm to (...)
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  50. John Broome, Paper on the Ethics of Climate Change.
    commissioned for the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change.
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