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Cloning

Edited by Ruchika Mishra (Program in Medicine and Human Values, California Pacific Medical Center)
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  1. Nicholas Agar (2003). Cloning and Identity. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (1):9 – 26.
    Critics of human cloning allege that the results of the process are likely to suffer from compromised identities making it near impossible for them to live worthwhile lives. This paper uses the account of the metaphysics of personal identity offered by Derek Parfit to investigate and support the claim of identity-compromise. The cloned person may, under certain circumstances, be seen as surviving, to some degree, in the clone. However, I argue that rather than warranting concern, the potential for survival by (...)
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  2. Jaime Ahlberg & Harry Brighouse (2011). An Argument Against Cloning. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (4):539-566.
    It is technically possible to clone a human being. The result of the procedure would be a human being in its own right. Given the current level of cloning technology concerning other animals there is every reason to believe that early human clones will have shorter-than-average life-spans, and will be unusually prone to disease. In addition, they would be unusually at risk of genetic defects, though they would still, probably, have lives worth living. But with experimentation and experience, seriously unequal (...)
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  3. Fatima Agha Al-Hayani (2008). Muslim Perspectives on Stem Cell Research and Cloning. Zygon 43 (4):783-795.
    In Islam, the acquisition of knowledge is a form of worship. But human achievement must be exercised in conformity with God's will. Warnings against feelings of superiority often are coupled with the command to remain within the confines of God's laws and limits. Because of the fear of arrogance and disregard of the balance created by God, any new knowledge or discovery must be applied with careful consideration to maintaining balance in the creation. Knowledge must be applied to ascertain equity (...)
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  4. Fritz Allhoff (2004). Telomeres and the Ethics of Human Cloning. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (2):29 – 31.
    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.
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  5. Judith Andre (2002). Respecting Diversity, Respecting Complexity. Law Review of Michigan State University-Detroit College of Law 2002 (4):911-916.
    A discussion of the ethics of stem cell research, and attempts to regulate it.
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  6. Jonny Anomaly (2015). Public Goods and Procreation. Monash Bioethics Review 32.
    Procreation is the ultimate public goods problem. Each new child affects the welfare of many other people, and some (but not all) children produce uncompensated value that future people will enjoy. This essay addresses challenges that arise if we think of procreation and parenting as public goods. These include whether private choices are likely to lead to a socially desirable outcome over the long run, and whether changes in laws, social norms, or access to genetic engineering and embryo selection might (...)
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  7. Kiarash Aramesh & Soroush Dabbagh (2007). An Islamic View to Stem Cell Research and Cloning: Iran's Experience. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):62-63.
  8. Rebecca Bamford (2011). Reconsidering Risk to Women: Oocyte Donation for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (9):37-39.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 9, Page 37-39, September 2011.
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  9. Y. Michael Barilan (2003). One or Two: An Examination of the Recent Case of the Conjoined Twins From Malta. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (1):27 – 44.
    The article questions the assumption that conjoined twins are necessarily two people or persons by employing arguments based on different points of view: non-personal vitalism, the person as a sentient being, the person as an agent, the person as a locus of narrative and valuation, and the person as an embodied mind. Analogies employed from the cases of amputation, multiple personality disorder, abortion, split-brain patients and cloning. The article further questions the assumption that a conjoined twin's natural interest and wish (...)
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  10. Françoise Baylis (2002). Human Cloning: Three Mistakes and an Alternative. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (3):319 – 337.
    The current debate on the ethics of cloning humans is both uninspired and uninspiring. In large measure this is because of mistakes that permeate the discourse, including the mistake of thinking that cloning technology is strictly a reproductive technology when it is used to create whole beings. As a result, the challenge this technology represents regarding our understanding of ourselves and the species to which we belong typically is inappropriately downplayed or exaggerated. This has meant that important (albeit disquieting) societal (...)
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  11. L. Bernier (2004). Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning, Germline Therapy, and Purchase of Gametes and Embryos: Comments on Canadian Legislation Governing Reproduction Technologies. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):527-532.
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  12. Steven Best & Douglas Kellner, Biotechnology, Ethics, and the Politics of Cloning.
    As we move into a new millennium fraught with terror and danger, a global postmodern cosmopolis is unfolding in the midst of rapid evolutionary and social changes co-constructed by science, technology, and the restructuring of global capital. We are quickly morphing into a new biological and social existence that is ever-more mediated and shaped by computers, mass media, and biotechnology, all driven by the logic of capital and a powerful emergent technoscience. In this global context, science is no longer merely (...)
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  13. N. Biller-Andorno (2005). It's Cloning Again! Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (2):63-63.
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  14. Laura Jane Bishop & Susan Cartier Poland (2002). Bioethics and Cloning, Part II. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12 (4):391-407.
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  15. Russell Blackford (2007). Slippery Slopes to Slippery Slopes: Therapeutic Cloning and the Criminal Law. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):63-64.
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  16. Michael Blome-Tillman, Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future.
  17. Andrea Bonnicksen (2007). Pt. V. Reproduction and Cloning. Abortion Revisited / Don Marquis ; Moral Status, Moral Value, and Human Embryos: Implications for Stem Cell Research / Bonnie Steinbock ; Therapeutic Cloning: Politics and Policy. [REVIEW] In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
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  18. Andrea L. Bonnicksen (1997). Procreation by Cloning: Crafting Anticipatory Guidelines. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (4):273-282.
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  19. Christina Brandt (2012). Hybrid Times: Theses on the Temporalities of Cloning. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):75-81.
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  20. Yitzchok Breitowitz (2002). What's So Bad About Human Cloning? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12 (4):325-341.
    : There appears to be a consensus in the general community that reproductive cloning is an immoral technology that should be banned. It may, however, be argued, at least from the perspective of the Jewish tradition, that reproductive cloning has many positive benefits. It is thus essential that one carefully weigh the costs and the benefits before deciding on a definitive course of action.
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  21. Jaime Ahlberg Harry Brighouse (2010). An Argument Against Cloning. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (4):539-566.
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  22. Alistair Brown (2010). Therapeutic Cloning: The Ethical Road to Regulation - Part II: Analysing the UK Position. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (1):60-73.
    It will be remembered that the introductory chapter to this paper differentiated between human therapeutic cloning and embryonic stem cell research, with the former concept encapsulating the latter one. In turning to examine the current system of regulation found within the United Kingdom this has particular relevance as it is only the practice of therapeutic cloning – the creation and use of an embryo – which engages with the regulative measures adopted.
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  23. Alistair Brown (2010). Therapeutic Cloning: The Ethical Road to Regulation. Part I: Arguments For and Against & Regulations. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 15 (2):75-86.
    In analysing the position adopted by the United Kingdom over therapeutic cloning, this paper will endeavour to examine the question of regulation, its necessity and extent. This will be achieved through considering different models of relevant theoretical discourse before, in applying that discourse to identified systems of regulation, the advantages and pitfalls of each system will be assessed in the hope of reaching a solution appropriate to the sensitive, yet dynamic, needs of the issue.
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  24. J. Burley & J. Harris (1999). Human Cloning and Child Welfare. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (2):108-113.
    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones (...)
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  25. Daniel Callahan (1998). Cloning: Then and Now. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (2):141-144.
    The possibility of human cloning first surfaced in the 1960s, stimulated by the report that a salamander had been cloned. James D. Watson and Joshua Lederberg, distinguished Nobel laureates, speculated that the cloning of human beings might one day be within reach; it was only a matter of time. Bioethics was still at that point in its infancybioethicsand cloning immediately caught the eye of a number of those beginning to write in the field. They included Paul Ramsey, Hans Jonas, and (...)
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  26. Nigel M. S. Cameroden (2006). On One Path or the Other" : Cloning, Religion and the Making of U.S. Biopolicy. In David E. Guinn (ed.), Handbook of Bioethics and Religion. Oxford University Press.
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  27. S. Camporesi & L. Bortolotti (2008). Reproductive Cloning in Humans and Therapeutic Cloning in Primates: Is the Ethical Debate Catching Up with the Recent Scientific Advances? Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):e15-e15.
    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so (...)
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  28. Timothy Caulfield (2003). Human Cloning Laws, Human Dignity and the Poverty of the Policy Making Dialogue. BMC Medical Ethics 4 (1):1-7.
    Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for (...)
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  29. Ruth F. Chadwick (1982). Cloning. Philosophy 57 (220):201 - 209.
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  30. Jean E. Chambers (2002). Response to “Clone Alone” by Carson Strong and “Are There Limits to the Use of Reproductive Cloning” by Timothy Murphy (CQ Vol 11, No 1). [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11 (02):169-179.
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  31. Jean E. Chambers (2001). Response to “Entitlement to Cloning” by Timothy Murphy (CQ Vol 8, No 3) and “Cloning and Infertility” by Carson Strong (CQ Vol 7, No 3) May a Woman Clone Herself? [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 10 (2):194-204.
    Carson Strong argues, in that if cloning of humans by somatic cell nuclear transfer were to become a safe procedure, then infertile couples should have access to it as a last resort. He lists six reasons such couples might desire genetically related children. Of these, two are relevant to justifying their access to cloning—namely, that they want to jointly participate in the creation of a person, and that having a genetically related child would constitute an affirmation of their mutual love. (...)
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  32. Cynthia B. Cohen (2001). Banning Human Cloning--Then What? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (2):205-209.
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  33. R. Cole-Turner (1999). Cloning Humans From the Perspective of the Christian Churches. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (1):33-46.
    The announcement of the birth of Dolly the cloned sheep evoked widespread response from the Christian Churches. These responses are identified, organized thematically, and discussed critically. The churches have viewed reproductive human cloning either with unqualified opposition or with grave suspicion. Some statements have discussed animal cloning, generally granting limited approval, and nonreproductive human cloning, either in opposition or expressing an openness to entertain specific proposals as the technology develops.
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  34. Marilyn E. Coors (2002). Therapeutic Cloning: From Consequences to Contradiction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (3):297 – 317.
    The British Parliament legalized therapeutic cloning in December 2000 despite opposition from the European Union. The watershed event in Parliament's move was the active and unprecedented government support for the generation and destruction of human embryonic life merely as a means of medical advancement. This article contends that the utilitarian analysis of this procedure is necessary to identify the real world risks of therapeutic cloning but insufficient to identify the breach of defensible ethical limits that this procedure represents. A value-oriented (...)
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  35. Nathan Crowe (2013). Cancer, Conflict, and the Development of Nuclear Transplantation Techniques. Journal of the History of Biology 47 (1):1-43.
    The technique of nuclear transplantation – popularly known as cloning – has been integrated into several different histories of twentieth century biology. Historians and science scholars have situated nuclear transplantation within narratives of scientific practice, biotechnology, bioethics, biomedicine, and changing views of life. However, nuclear transplantation has never been the focus of analysis. In this article, I examine the development of nuclear transplantation techniques, focusing on the people, motivations, and institutions associated with the first successful nuclear transfer in metazoans in (...)
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  36. Thomas V. Cunningham (2014). Nonreductive Moral Classification and the Limits of Philosophy. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):22-24.
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  37. D. E. Cutas (2008). Illegal Beings. Human Cloning and the Law. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (6):510-510.
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  38. Uwe Czaniera (2001). Gregory E. Pence (Ed.), Flesh of My Flesh. The Ethics of Cloning Humans. A Reader. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (1):83-85.
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  39. Uwe Czaniera (1999). Gregory E. Pence: Who's Afraid of Human Cloning? [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (4):437-438.
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  40. Judith Daar (2001). Sliding the Slope Toward Human Cloning. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (1):23 – 24.
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  41. Victoria Davion (2006). Coming Down to Earth on Cloning: An Ecofeminist Analysis of Homophobia in the Current Debate. Hypatia 21 (4):58-76.
    : In this essay, Davion argues that many arguments appealing to an "intuition" that reproductive cloning is morally wrong because it is "unnatural" rely upon an underlying moral assumption that only heterosexuality is "natural," an assumption that grounds extreme homophobia in America. Therefore, critics of cloning who are in favor of gay and lesbian equality have reasons to avoid prescriptive appeals to the so-called "natural" in making their arguments. Davion then suggests anticloning arguments that do not make such appeals.
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  42. Dena S. Davis (2002). Stem Cells, Cloning, and Abortion: Making Careful Distinctions. American Journal of Bioethics 2 (1):47 – 49.
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  43. Richard Dawkins (1997). Thoughts on Cloning Humans. London Evening Standard.
    Cloning already happens by accident; not particularly often, but often enough that we all know examples. Identical twins are true clones..
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  44. Gabriele De Anna (2006). Cloning, Begetting, and Making Children. HEC Forum 18 (2):172-188.
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  45. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2002). On Cloning Human Beings. Bioethics 16 (3):246–265.
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  46. Castaño de Restrepo, María Patricia, Romeo Casabona & Carlos María (eds.) (2004). Derecho, Genoma Humano y Biotecnología. Temis.
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  47. Katrien Devolder & Julian Savulescu (2005). The Moral Imperative to Conduct Embryonic Stem Cell and Cloning Research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (01):7-21.
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  48. Annette Dufner (2013). Potentiality Arguments and the Definition of “Human Organism”. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (1):33-34.
    Bettina Schöne-Seifert and Marco Stier present a host of detailed and intriguing arguments to the effect that potentiality arguments have to be viewed as outdated due to developments in stem cell research, in particular the possibility of re-setting the development potential of differentiated cells, such as skin cells. However, their argument leaves them without an explanation of the intuitive difference between skin cells and human beings, which seems to be based on the assumption that a skin cell is merely part (...)
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  49. Leon Eisenberg (1976). The Outcome as Cause: Predestination and Human Cloning. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1 (4):318-331.
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  50. David Elliott (1998). Uniqueness, Individuality, and Human Cloning. Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (3):217–230.
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