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  1. added 2015-05-03
    Roberto Bottini, Davide Crepaldi, Daniel Casasanto, Virgine Crollen & Olivier Collignon (2015). Space and Time in the Sighted and Blind. Cognition 141:67-72.
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  2. added 2015-05-01
    Tony Manela (forthcoming). Gratitude and Appreciation. American Philosophical Quarterly.
    This article argues that "gratitude to" and "gratitude that" are fundamentally different concepts. The former (prepositional gratitude) is properly a response to benevolent attitudes, and entails special concern on the part of the beneficiary for a benefactor, while the latter (propositional gratitude) is a response to beneficial states of affairs, and entails no special concern for anyone. Propositional gratitude, it is argued, ultimately amounts to a species of appreciation. The tendency to see prepositional gratitude and propositional “gratitude” as two species (...)
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  3. added 2015-04-29
    John Gowdy & Lisi Krall (forthcoming). The Economic Origins of Ultrasociality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences:1-63.
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  4. added 2015-04-28
    Paul Carron, A Case for Virtue: Aristotle’s Psychology and Contemporary Accounts of Emotion Regulation. Images of Europe. Past, Present, Future: ISSEI 2014 - Conference Proceedings.
    This essay argues that recent evidence in neurobiology and psychology supports Aristotle’s foundational psychology and account of self-control and demonstrates that his account of virtue is still relevant for understanding human agency. There is deep correlation between the psychological foundation of virtue that Aristotle describes in The Nicomachean Ethics (NE)—namely his distinction between the rational and nonrational parts of the soul, the way that they interact, and their respective roles in self-controlled action—and dual-process models of moral judgment. Furthermore, Aristotle’s conception (...)
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  5. added 2015-04-28
    Christopher Vredenburgh & Tamar Kushnir (2015). Young Children's Help‐Seeking as Active Information Gathering. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers’ help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the difficulty of each step of the task. We hypothesized that children's help-seeking would be a function of both initial competency and task difficulty. The results confirmed this prediction; all children were more likely to seek assistance (...)
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  6. added 2015-04-28
    Kevin Reuter, Lara Kirfel, Raphael van Riel & Luca Barlassina (2014). The Good, the Bad, and the Timely: How Temporal Order and Moral Judgment Influence Causal Selection. Frontiers in Psychology 5:1-10.
    Causal selection is the cognitive process through which one or more elements in a complex causal structure are singled out as actual causes of a certain effect. In this paper, we report on an experiment in which we investigated the role of moral and temporal factors in causal selection. Our results are as follows. First, when presented with a temporal chain in which two human agents perform the same action one after the other, subjects tend to judge the later agent (...)
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  7. added 2015-04-24
    Valerie G. Hardcastle & Kiah Hardcastle (2015). Marr's Levels Revisited: Understanding How Brains Break. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):259-273.
    While the research programs in early cognitive science and artificial intelligence aimed to articulate what cognition was in ideal terms, much research in contemporary computational neuroscience looks at how and why brains fail to function as they should ideally. This focus on impairment affects how we understand David Marr's hypothesized three levels of understanding. In this essay, we suggest some refinements to Marr's distinctions using a population activity model of cortico-striatal circuitry exploring impulsivity and behavioral inhibition as a case study. (...)
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  8. added 2015-04-23
    Hongjing Lu, Randall R. Rojas, Tom Beckers & Alan L. Yuille (2015). A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that (...)
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  9. added 2015-04-23
    William Bechtel & Oron Shagrir (2015). The Non‐Redundant Contributions of Marr's Three Levels of Analysis for Explaining Information‐Processing Mechanisms. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):312-322.
    Are all three of Marr's levels needed? Should they be kept distinct? We argue for the distinct contributions and methodologies of each level of analysis. It is important to maintain them because they provide three different perspectives required to understand mechanisms, especially information-processing mechanisms. The computational perspective provides an understanding of how a mechanism functions in broader environments that determines the computations it needs to perform . The representation and algorithmic perspective offers an understanding of how information about the environment (...)
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  10. added 2015-04-22
    Wayne D. Gray (forthcoming). Introduction to Volume 7, Issue 2 oftopiCS. Topics in Cognitive Science:n/a-n/a.
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  11. added 2015-04-22
    Leon Bergen & Noah D. Goodman (2015). The Strategic Use of Noise in Pragmatic Reasoning. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):336-350.
    We combine two recent probabilistic approaches to natural language understanding, exploring the formal pragmatics of communication on a noisy channel. We first extend a model of rational communication between a speaker and listener, to allow for the possibility that messages are corrupted by noise. In this model, common knowledge of a noisy channel leads to the use and correct understanding of sentence fragments. A further extension of the model, which allows the speaker to intentionally reduce the noise rate on a (...)
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  12. added 2015-04-22
    Yunfeng Zhang, Jaehyon Paik & Peter Pirolli (2015). Reinforcement Learning and Counterfactual Reasoning Explain Adaptive Behavior in a Changing Environment. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):368-381.
    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the (...)
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  13. added 2015-04-22
    Thomas L. Griffiths, Falk Lieder & Noah D. Goodman (2015). Rational Use of Cognitive Resources: Levels of Analysis Between the Computational and the Algorithmic. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):217-229.
    Marr's levels of analysis—computational, algorithmic, and implementation—have served cognitive science well over the last 30 years. But the recent increase in the popularity of the computational level raises a new challenge: How do we begin to relate models at different levels of analysis? We propose that it is possible to define levels of analysis that lie between the computational and the algorithmic, providing a way to build a bridge between computational- and algorithmic-level models. The key idea is to push the (...)
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  14. added 2015-04-22
    Wayne D. Gray (2015). Introduction to Volume 7, Issue 2 of topiCS. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):185-186.
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  15. added 2015-04-22
    Maarten Speekenbrink & Emmanouil Konstantinidis (2015). Uncertainty and Exploration in a Restless Bandit Problem. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):351-367.
    Decision making in noisy and changing environments requires a fine balance between exploiting knowledge about good courses of action and exploring the environment in order to improve upon this knowledge. We present an experiment on a restless bandit task in which participants made repeated choices between options for which the average rewards changed over time. Comparing a number of computational models of participants’ behavior in this task, we find evidence that a substantial number of them balanced exploration and exploitation by (...)
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  16. added 2015-04-20
    F. Aveling (1931). Review of Pleasure and Instinct by Allen. [REVIEW] Philosophy 6 (22):267-268.
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  17. added 2015-04-19
    Benjamin D. Young (2014). Smelling Phenomenal. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Qualitative-consciousness arises at the sensory level of olfactory processing and pervades our experience of smells to the extent that qualitative character is maintained whenever we are aware of undergoing an olfactory experience. Building upon the distinction between Access and Phenomenal Consciousness the paper offers a nuanced distinction between Awareness and Qualitative-consciousness that is applicable to olfaction in a manner that is conceptual precise and empirically viable. Mounting empirical research is offered substantiating the applicability of the distinction to olfaction and showing (...)
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  18. added 2015-04-14
    Paola Escudero, Karen E. Mulak & Haley A. Vlach (2015). Cross‐Situational Learning of Minimal Word Pairs. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Cross-situational statistical learning of words involves tracking co-occurrences of auditory words and objects across time to infer word-referent mappings. Previous research has demonstrated that learners can infer referents across sets of very phonologically distinct words , but it remains unknown whether learners can encode fine phonological differences during cross-situational statistical learning. This study examined learners’ cross-situational statistical learning of minimal pairs that differed on one consonant segment , minimal pairs that differed on one vowel segment , and non-minimal pairs that (...)
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  19. added 2015-04-11
    Sergeiy Sandler (forthcoming). Fictive Interaction and the Nature of Linguistic Meaning. In Esther Pascual & Sergeiy Sandler (eds.), The conversation frame: Forms and functions of fictive interaction. John Benjamins.
    One may distinguish between three broad conceptions of linguistic meaning. One conception, which I will call “logical”, views meaning as given in reference (for words) and truth (for sentences). Another conception, the “monological” one, seeks meaning in the cognitive capacities of the single mind. A third, “dialogical”, conception attributes meaning to interaction between individuals and personal perspectives. In this chapter I directly contrast how well these three approaches deal with the evidence brought forth by fictive interaction. I examine instances of (...)
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  20. added 2015-04-11
    Helen Fischer & Cleotilde Gonzalez (2015). Making Sense of Dynamic Systems: How Our Understanding of Stocks and Flows Depends on a Global Perspective. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Stocks and flows are building blocks of dynamic systems: Stocks change through inflows and outflows, such as our bank balance changing with withdrawals and deposits, or atmospheric CO2 with absorptions and emissions. However, people make systematic errors when trying to infer the behavior of dynamic systems, termed SF failure, whose cognitive explanations are yet unknown. We argue that SF failure appears when people focus on specific system elements , rather than on the system structure and gestalt . Using a standard (...)
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  21. added 2015-04-11
    Amy M. Guthormsen, Kristie J. Fisher, Miriam Bassok, Lee Osterhout, Melissa DeWolf & Keith J. Holyoak (2015). Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations With Real‐World Knowledge: Evidence From Event‐Related Potentials. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials —N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving task, when participants generated labeled answers to semantically aligned and misaligned arithmetic problems , the second object label in misaligned problems yielded an N400 effect for addition problems. In a verification task, when participants judged (...)
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  22. added 2015-04-09
    Sarah R. Beck (2015). Counterfactuals Matter: A Reply to Weisberg & Gopnik. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
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  23. added 2015-04-09
    Deena Skolnick Weisberg & Alison Gopnik (2015). Which Counterfactuals Matter? A Response to Beck. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
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  24. added 2015-04-09
    Benjamin Swets & Christopher A. Kurby (2015). Eye Movements Reveal the Influence of Event Structure on Reading Behavior. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    When we read narrative texts such as novels and newspaper articles, we segment information presented in such texts into discrete events, with distinct boundaries between those events. But do our eyes reflect this event structure while reading? This study examines whether eye movements during the reading of discourse reveal how readers respond online to event structure. Participants read narrative passages as we monitored their eye movements. Several measures revealed that event structure predicted eye movements. In two experiments, we found that (...)
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  25. added 2015-04-07
    Michael S. C. Thomas, Neil A. Forrester & Angelica Ronald (2015). Multiscale Modeling of Gene–Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such associations can be detected despite the remoteness of these levels of description, and the fact that behavior is the outcome of an extended developmental process involving interaction of the whole organism with a variable environment. Given (...)
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  26. added 2015-04-06
    Stan Klein & Chloe Steindam (forthcoming). The Role of Subjective Temporality in Future-Oriented Mental Time Travel. In Kirk Michaelian, Stan Klein & Karl Szpunar (eds.), Seeing the Future: Theoretical Perspectives on Future-Oriented Mental Time Travel. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter we examine the tendency to view future-oriented mental time travel (FMTT) as a unitary faculty that, despite task-driven surface variation, ultimately reduces to a common phenomenological state (supported primarily by episodic memory). We review evidence that FMTT is neither unitary nor beholden to episodic memory: Rather, it is varied both in its memorial underpinnings and experiential realization. We conclude that the phenomenological diversity characterizing FMTT is dependent not on the type of memory (i.e., episodic versus semantic) activated (...)
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  27. added 2015-04-05
    Sarah R. Beck (2015). Why What Is Counterfactual Really Matters: A Response to Weisberg and Gopnik (). Cognitive Science 39 (2).
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  28. added 2015-04-05
    Sarah C. Creel (2015). Ups and Downs in Auditory Development: Preschoolers’ Sensitivity to Pitch Contour and Timbre. Cognitive Science 39 (2).
    Much research has explored developing sound representations in language, but less work addresses developing representations of other sound patterns. This study examined preschool children's musical representations using two different tasks: discrimination and sound–picture association. Melodic contour—a musically relevant property—and instrumental timbre, which is less musically relevant, were tested. In Experiment 1, children failed to associate cartoon characters to melodies with maximally different pitch contours, with no advantage for melody preexposure. Experiment 2 also used different-contour melodies and found good discrimination, whereas (...)
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  29. added 2015-04-04
    Rick A. Adams, Harriet R. Brown & Karl J. Friston (2015). Bayesian Inference, Predictive Coding and Delusions. Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard (3):51-88.
    This paper considers psychotic symptoms in terms of false inferences or beliefs. It is based on the notion that the brain is an organ of inference that actively constructs hypotheses to explain or predict its sensations. This perspective provides a normative (Bayes optimal) account of action and perception that emphasises probabilistic representations; in particular, the confidence or precision of beliefs about the world. We consider sensory attenuation deficits, catatonia and delusions as various expressions of the same core pathology: namely, an (...)
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  30. added 2015-04-04
    Przemysław Nowakowski (2015). On Embodiment in Predictions. A Book Review. [REVIEW] Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard (3):155-159.
  31. added 2015-04-04
    Jakob Hohwy (2015). Reflections on Predictive Processing and the Mind. An Interview. Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard (3):145-152.
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  32. added 2015-04-04
    Garry Young (2015). Amending the Revisionist Model of the Capgras Delusion: A Further Argument for the Role of Patient Experience in Delusional Belief Formation. Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard (3):89-112.
    Recent papers on the Capgras delusion have focused on the role played by subpersonal abductive inference in the formation and maintenance of the delusional belief. In these accounts, the delusional belief is posited as the first delusion-related event of which the patient is conscious. As a consequence, an explanatory role for anomalous patient experience is denied. The aim of this paper is to challenge this revisionist position and to integrate subpersonal inference within a model of the Capgras delusion which includes (...)
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  33. added 2015-04-04
    Eldad Yechiam, Matan Retzer, Ariel Telpaz & Guy Hochman (2015). Losses as Ecological Guides: Minor Losses Lead to Maximization and Not to Avoidance. Cognition 139:10-17.
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  34. added 2015-04-04
    Robert M. French & Elizabeth Thomas (2015). Interactive Effects of Explicit Emergent Structure: A Major Challenge for Cognitive Computational Modeling. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (1):206-216.
    David Marr's three-level analysis of computational cognition argues for three distinct levels of cognitive information processing—namely, the computational, representational, and implementational levels. But Marr's levels are—and were meant to be—descriptive, rather than interactive and dynamic. For this reason, we suggest that, had Marr been writing today, he might well have gone even farther in his analysis, including the emergence of structure—in particular, explicit structure at the conceptual level—from lower levels, and the effect of explicit emergent structures on the level that (...)
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  35. added 2015-04-04
    Jakub Ryszard Matyja (2015). Mearleau-Ponty Meets Enactivism. A Book Review. [REVIEW] Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard (3):160-163.
    A book review of 'The Intercorporeal Self. Merleau-Ponty on Subjectivity'.
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  36. added 2015-04-01
    Bradley C. Love (2015). The Algorithmic Level Is the Bridge Between Computation and Brain. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):230-242.
    Every scientist chooses a preferred level of analysis and this choice shapes the research program, even determining what counts as evidence. This contribution revisits Marr's three levels of analysis and evaluates the prospect of making progress at each individual level. After reviewing limitations of theorizing within a level, two strategies for integration across levels are considered. One is top–down in that it attempts to build a bridge from the computational to algorithmic level. Limitations of this approach include insufficient theoretical constraint (...)
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  37. added 2015-04-01
    Pavel Logačev & Shravan Vasishth (2015). A Multiple‐Channel Model of Task‐Dependent Ambiguity Resolution in Sentence Comprehension. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Traxler, Pickering, and Clifton found that ambiguous sentences are read faster than their unambiguous counterparts. This so-called ambiguity advantage has presented a major challenge to classical theories of human sentence comprehension because its most prominent explanation, in the form of the unrestricted race model , assumes that parsing is non-deterministic. Recently, Swets, Desmet, Clifton, and Ferreira have challenged the URM. They argue that readers strategically underspecify the representation of ambiguous sentences to save time, unless disambiguation is required by task demands. (...)
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  38. added 2015-04-01
    A. Mike Burton, Robin S. S. Kramer, Kay L. Ritchie & Rob Jenkins (2015). Identity From Variation: Representations of Faces Derived From Multiple Instances. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    Research in face recognition has tended to focus on discriminating between individuals, or “telling people apart.” It has recently become clear that it is also necessary to understand how images of the same person can vary, or “telling people together.” Learning a new face, and tracking its representation as it changes from unfamiliar to familiar, involves an abstraction of the variability in different images of that person's face. Here, we present an application of principal components analysis computed across different photos (...)
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  39. added 2015-03-29
    Janet H. Hsiao & Kit Cheung (2015). Visual Similarity of Words Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence From Modeling Chinese Character Recognition. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    In Chinese orthography, the most common character structure consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right ; the minority, opposite arrangement also exists . Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere lateralized than PS character processing. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this is due to phonetic radical position or character type frequency. Through computational modeling with artificial lexicons, in which we implement a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception but (...)
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  40. added 2015-03-28
    Rui Mata & Bettina Helversen (2015). Search and the Aging Mind: The Promise and Limits of the Cognitive Control Hypothesis of Age Differences in Search. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):n/a-n/a.
    Search is a prerequisite for successful performance in a broad range of tasks ranging from making decisions between consumer goods to memory retrieval. How does aging impact search processes in such disparate situations? Aging is associated with structural and neuromodulatory brain changes that underlie cognitive control processes, which in turn have been proposed as a domain-general mechanism controlling search in external environments as well as memory. We review the aging literature to evaluate the cognitive control hypothesis that suggests that age-related (...)
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  41. added 2015-03-28
    J. R. Hall, E. M. Bernat & C. J. Patrick (2007). Externalizing Psychopatholog Yand the Error-Related Negativity. Psychological Science 18 (4):326-333.
    Prior research has demonstrated that antisocial behavior, substance-use disorders, and personality dimensions of aggression and impulsivity are indicators of a highly heritable underlying dimension of risk, labeled externalizing. Other work has shown that individual trait constructs within this psychopathology spectrum are associated with reduced self-monitoring, as reflected by amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN) brain response. In this study of undergraduate subjects, reduced ERN amplitude was associated with higher scores on a self-report measure of the broad externalizing construct that links (...)
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  42. added 2015-03-26
    Judith Degen & Michael K. Tanenhaus (2015). Availability of Alternatives and the Processing of Scalar Implicatures: A Visual World Eye‐Tracking Study. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    Two visual world experiments investigated the processing of the implicature associated with some using a “gumball paradigm.” On each trial, participants saw an image of a gumball machine with an upper chamber with orange and blue gumballs and an empty lower chamber. Gumballs dropped to the lower chamber, creating a contrast between a partitioned set of gumballs of one color and an unpartitioned set of the other. Participants then evaluated spoken statements, such as “You got some of the blue gumballs.” (...)
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  43. added 2015-03-25
    Derek Powell, Zachary Horne, Ángel Pinillos & Keith Holyoak (2015). A Bayesian Framework for Knowledge Attribution: Evidence From Semantic Integration. Cognition 139:92-104.
    We propose a Bayesian framework for the attribution of knowledge, and apply this framework to generate novel predictions about knowledge attribution for different types of “Gettier cases”, in which an agent is led to a justified true belief yet has made erroneous assumptions. We tested these predictions using a paradigm based on semantic integration. We coded the frequencies with which participants falsely recalled the word “thought” as “knew” (or a near synonym), yielding an implicit measure of conceptual activation. Our experiments (...)
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  44. added 2015-03-24
    Larisa Heiphetz, Jonathan D. Lane, Adam Waytz & Liane L. Young (2015). How Children and Adults Represent God's Mind. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    For centuries, humans have contemplated the minds of gods. Research on religious cognition is spread across sub-disciplines, making it difficult to gain a complete understanding of how people reason about gods' minds. We integrate approaches from cognitive, developmental, and social psychology and neuroscience to illuminate the origins of religious cognition. First, we show that although adults explicitly discriminate supernatural minds from human minds, their implicit responses reveal far less discrimination. Next, we demonstrate that children's religious cognition often matches adults' implicit (...)
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  45. added 2015-03-24
    Teresa Marques (2015). Disagreeing in Context. Frontiers in Psychology 6 (257):1-12.
    This paper argues for contextualism about predicates of personal taste and evaluative predicates in general, and offers a proposal of how apparently resilient disagreements are to be explained. The present proposal is complementary to others that have been made in the recent literature. Several authors, for instance (López de Sa, 2008; Sundell, 2011; Huvenes, 2012; Marques and García-Carpintero, 2014; Marques, 2014a), have recently defended semantic contextualism for those kinds of predicates from the accusation that it faces the problem of lost (...)
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  46. added 2015-03-24
    Zachary Horne, Derek Powell & John Hummel (2015). A Single Counterexample Leads to Moral Belief Revision. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    What kind of evidence will lead people to revise their moral beliefs? Moral beliefs are often strongly held convictions, and existing research has shown that morality is rooted in emotion and socialization rather than deliberative reasoning. In addition, more general issues—such as confirmation bias—further impede coherent belief revision. Here, we explored a unique means for inducing belief revision. In two experiments, participants considered a moral dilemma in which an overwhelming majority of people judged that it was inappropriate to take action (...)
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  47. added 2015-03-24
    Samuel J. Gershman & Yael Niv (2015). Novelty and Inductive Generalization in Human Reinforcement Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2).
    In reinforcement learning , a decision maker searching for the most rewarding option is often faced with the question: What is the value of an option that has never been tried before? One way to frame this question is as an inductive problem: How can I generalize my previous experience with one set of options to a novel option? We show how hierarchical Bayesian inference can be used to solve this problem, and we describe an equivalence between the Bayesian model (...)
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  48. added 2015-03-23
    Anne E. Riggs, Martha W. Alibali & Charles W. Kalish (2015). Leave Her Out of It: Person‐Presentation of Strategies Is Harmful for Transfer. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    A common practice in textbooks is to introduce concepts or strategies in association with specific people. This practice aligns with research suggesting that using “real-world” contexts in textbooks increases students’ motivation and engagement. However, other research suggests this practice may interfere with transfer by distracting students or leading them to tie new knowledge too closely to the original learning context. The current study investigates the effects on learning and transfer of connecting mathematics strategies to specific people. A total of 180 (...)
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  49. added 2015-03-22
    Peng Zhou, Stephen Crain & Likan Zhan (2014). Grammatical Aspect and Event Recognition in Children’s Online Sentence Comprehension. Cognition 133 (1):262-276.
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  50. added 2015-03-22
    William S. Bush & Shaun P. Vecera (2014). Differential Effect of One Versus Two Hands on Visual Processing. Cognition 133 (1):232-237.
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