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  1. added 2016-06-30
    Sascha Benjamin Fink (2016). A Deeper Look at the "Neural Correlate of Consciousness". Frontiers in Psychology 7 (1044).
  2. added 2016-06-29
    Emily J. Hopkins, Deena Skolnick Weisberg & Jordan C. V. Taylor (2016). The Seductive Allure is a Reductive Allure: People Prefer Scientific Explanations That Contain Logically Irrelevant Reductive Information. Cognition 155:67-76.
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  3. added 2016-06-29
    Karl Ridgeway, Michael C. Mozer & Anita R. Bowles (2016). Forgetting of Foreign‐Language Skills: A Corpus‐Based Analysis of Online Tutoring Software. Cognitive Science 40 (4):n/a-n/a.
    We explore the nature of forgetting in a corpus of 125,000 students learning Spanish using the Rosetta Stone® foreign-language instruction software across 48 lessons. Students are tested on a lesson after its initial study and are then retested after a variable time lag. We observe forgetting consistent with power function decay at a rate that varies across lessons but not across students. We find that lessons which are better learned initially are forgotten more slowly, a correlation which likely reflects a (...)
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  4. added 2016-06-27
    J. H. van Hateren, The Evolved Self has Agency, Purpose, and Unity.
    Recently developed extensions of evolutionary theory are used to explain the human self as an evolved, unitary, and purposeful phenomenon. A basic mechanism that can generate life's agency and goal-directedness is combined with mechanisms that can account for awareness by and of the self, and for the social characteristics of humans. The new theory is largely consistent with major existing theories of the self, in particular theories centred on self-esteem, self-determination theory, and terror management theory. It can therefore be regarded (...)
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  5. added 2016-06-26
    Hannes Rusch, Robert Böhm & Benedikt Herrmann (2016). Editorial: Parochial Altruism – Pitfalls and Prospects. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (1004).
    The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this (...)
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  6. added 2016-06-26
    Hannes Rusch, Robert Böhm & Benedikt Herrmann (2016). Editorial: Parochial Altruism – Pitfalls and Prospects. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (1004).
    The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this (...)
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  7. added 2016-06-26
    Hannes Rusch, Robert Böhm & Benedikt Herrmann (2016). Editorial: Parochial Altruism – Pitfalls and Prospects. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (1004).
    The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this (...)
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  8. added 2016-06-26
    Hannes Rusch, Robert Böhm & Benedikt Herrmann (2016). Editorial: Parochial Altruism – Pitfalls and Prospects. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (1004).
    The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this (...)
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  9. added 2016-06-26
    Hannes Rusch, Robert Böhm & Benedikt Herrmann (2016). Editorial: Parochial Altruism – Pitfalls and Prospects. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (1004).
    The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this (...)
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  10. added 2016-06-26
    Hannes Rusch, Robert Böhm & Benedikt Herrmann (2016). Editorial: Parochial Altruism – Pitfalls and Prospects. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (1004).
    The ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail. We, the editors, are convinced that their highly instructive findings will help researchers interested in parochial altruism, but also in intergroup psychology more generally, to gain a much more fine-grained understanding of the interplay of altruistic and spiteful motives in human decision making in the context of intergroup relations. The broad range of disciplines represented by the authors contributing to this (...)
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  11. added 2016-06-22
    Kenneth D. Forbus, Ronald W. Ferguson, Andrew Lovett & Dedre Gentner (2016). Extending SME to Handle Large‐Scale Cognitive Modeling. Cognitive Science 40 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Analogy and similarity are central phenomena in human cognition, involved in processes ranging from visual perception to conceptual change. To capture this centrality requires that a model of comparison must be able to integrate with other processes and handle the size and complexity of the representations required by the tasks being modeled. This paper describes extensions to Structure-Mapping Engine since its inception in 1986 that have increased its scope of operation. We first review the basic SME algorithm, describe psychological evidence (...)
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  12. added 2016-06-22
    Hayward J. Godwin, Erik D. Reichle & Tamaryn Menneer (2016). Modeling Lag‐2 Revisits to Understand Trade‐Offs in Mixed Control of Fixation Termination During Visual Search. Cognitive Science 40 (4).
    An important question about eye-movement behavior is when the decision is made to terminate a fixation and program the following saccade. Different approaches have found converging evidence in favor of a mixed-control account, in which there is some overlap between processing information at fixation and planning the following saccade. We examined one interesting instance of mixed control in visual search: lag-2 revisits, during which observers fixate a stimulus, move to a different stimulus, and then revisit the first stimulus on the (...)
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  13. added 2016-06-22
    Kenji Ikeda, Taiji Ueno, Yuichi Ito, Shinji Kitagami & Jun Kawaguchi (2016). An Extension of a Parallel‐Distributed Processing Framework of Reading Aloud in Japanese: Human Nonword Reading Accuracy Does Not Require a Sequential Mechanism. Cognitive Science 40 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Humans can pronounce a nonword. Some researchers have interpreted this behavior as requiring a sequential mechanism by which a grapheme-phoneme correspondence rule is applied to each grapheme in turn. However, several parallel-distributed processing models in English have simulated human nonword reading accuracy without a sequential mechanism. Interestingly, the Japanese psycholinguistic literature went partly in the same direction, but it has since concluded that a sequential parsing mechanism is required to reproduce human nonword reading accuracy. In this study, by manipulating the (...)
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  14. added 2016-06-22
    Barbara Landau, Kristen Johannes, Dimitrios Skordos & Anna Papafragou (2016). Containment and Support: Core and Complexity in Spatial Language Learning. Cognitive Science 40 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Containment and support have traditionally been assumed to represent universal conceptual foundations for spatial terms. This assumption can be challenged, however: English in and on are applied across a surprisingly broad range of exemplars, and comparable terms in other languages show significant variation in their application. We propose that the broad domains of both containment and support have internal structure that reflects different subtypes, that this structure is reflected in basic spatial term usage across languages, and that it constrains children's (...)
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  15. added 2016-06-22
    Jette Viethen, Thomas Vessem, Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer (2016). Color in Reference Production: The Role of Color Similarity and Color Codability. Cognitive Science 40 (4).
    It has often been observed that color is a highly preferred attribute for use in distinguishing descriptions, that is, referring expressions produced with the purpose of identifying an object within a visual scene. However, most of these observations were based on visual displays containing only colors that were maximally different in hue and for which the language of experimentation possessed basic color terms. The experiments described in this paper investigate whether speakers’ preference for color is reduced if the color of (...)
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  16. added 2016-06-19
    Cara H. Cashon, Oh-Ryeong Ha, Katharine Graf Estes, Jenny R. Saffran & Carolyn B. Mervis (2016). Infants with Williams Syndrome Detect Statistical Regularities in Continuous Speech. Cognition 154:165-168.
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  17. added 2016-06-19
    Michael McEachrane (2009). Emotion, Meaning, and Appraisal Theory. Theory and Psychology 19 (1):33-53.
    According to psychological emotion theories referred to as appraisal theory, emotions are caused by appraisals (evaluative judgments). Borrowing a term from Jan Smedslund, it is the contention of this article that psychological appraisal theory is “pseudoempirical” (i.e., misleadingly or incorrectly empirical). In the article I outline what makes some scientific psychology “pseudoempirical,” distinguish my view on this from Jan Smedslund’s, and then go on to show why paying heed to the ordinary meanings of emotion terms is relevant to psychology, and (...)
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  18. added 2016-06-17
    Paul Metzner, Titus Malsburg, Shravan Vasishth & Frank Rösler (2016). The Importance of Reading Naturally: Evidence From Combined Recordings of Eye Movements and Electric Brain Potentials. Cognitive Science 40 (4).
    How important is the ability to freely control eye movements for reading comprehension? And how does the parser make use of this freedom? We investigated these questions using coregistration of eye movements and event-related brain potentials while participants read either freely or in a computer-controlled word-by-word format. Word-by-word presentation and natural reading both elicited qualitatively similar ERP effects in response to syntactic and semantic violations. Comprehension was better in free reading but only in trials in which the eyes regressed to (...)
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  19. added 2016-06-17
    Ray Scott Percival (1993). Is Jung's Theory of Archetypes Compatible with Neo-Darwinism and Sociobiology? Journal of Social and Evolutionary Systems 16 (4):459 - 487.
  20. added 2016-06-14
    Aidan J. Horner, James A. Bisby, Aijing Wang, Katrina Bogus & Neil Burgess (2016). The Role of Spatial Boundaries in Shaping Long-Term Event Representations. Cognition 154:151-164.
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  21. added 2016-06-13
    Michael Starks, The Logical Structure of Consciousness (Behavior, Personality, Rationality, Higher Order Thought, Intentionality).
    After half a century in oblivion, the nature of consciousness is now the hottest topic in the behavioral sciences and philosophy. Beginning with the pioneering work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in the 1930’s (the Blue and Brown Books) and from the 50’s to the present by his logical successor John Searle, I have created the following table as an heuristic for furthering this study. The rows show various aspects or ways of studying and the columns show the involuntary processes and voluntary (...)
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  22. added 2016-06-13
    Stephen C. Van Hedger, Shannon L. M. Heald & Howard C. Nusbaum (2016). What the [Bleep]? Enhanced Absolute Pitch Memory for a 1000Hz Sine Tone. Cognition 154:139-150.
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  23. added 2016-06-13
    Marina C. Wimmer, Katie L. Maras, Elizabeth J. Robinson & Charlotte Thomas (2016). The Format of Children’s Mental Images: Evidence From Mental Scanning. Cognition 154:49-54.
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  24. added 2016-06-13
    Jifan Zhou, Haihang Zhang, Xiaowei Ding, Rende Shui & Mowei Shen (2016). Object Formation in Visual Working Memory: Evidence From Object-Based Attention. Cognition 154:95-101.
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  25. added 2016-06-13
    Lee Walsh, James Critchlow, Brianna Beck, Antonio Cataldo, Lieke de Boer & Patrick Haggard (2016). Salience-Driven Overestimation of Total Somatosensory Stimulation. Cognition 154:118-129.
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  26. added 2016-06-13
    Shilpa Mody & Susan Carey (2016). The Emergence of Reasoning by the Disjunctive Syllogism in Early Childhood. Cognition 154:40-48.
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  27. added 2016-06-13
    Thomas Holtgraves & Audrey Perdew (2016). Politeness and the Communication of Uncertainty. Cognition 154:1-10.
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  28. added 2016-06-13
    Michele Miozzo, Anna Petrova, Simon Fischer-Baum & Francesca Peressotti (2016). Serial Position Encoding of Signs. Cognition 154:69-80.
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  29. added 2016-06-13
    Baptiste Gauthier & Virginie van Wassenhove (2016). Cognitive Mapping in Mental Time Travel and Mental Space Navigation. Cognition 154:55-68.
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  30. added 2016-06-13
    Jessica L. Roeder & F. Gregory Ashby (2016). What is Automatized During Perceptual Categorization? Cognition 154:22-33.
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  31. added 2016-06-13
    Ravi D. Mill, Akira R. O’Connor & Ian G. Dobbins (2016). Pupil Dilation During Recognition Memory: Isolating Unexpected Recognition From Judgment Uncertainty. Cognition 154:81-94.
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  32. added 2016-06-13
    Si On Yoon, Aaron S. Benjamin & Sarah Brown-Schmidt (2016). The Historical Context in Conversation: Lexical Differentiation and Memory for the Discourse History. Cognition 154:102-117.
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  33. added 2016-06-13
    Amit Yashar & Marisa Carrasco (2016). Rapid and Long-Lasting Learning of Feature Binding. Cognition 154:130-138.
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  34. added 2016-06-13
    Janet Geipel, Constantinos Hadjichristidis & Luca Surian (2016). Foreign Language Affects the Contribution of Intentions and Outcomes to Moral Judgment. Cognition 154:34-39.
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  35. added 2016-06-10
    Francesco Ianì, Ilaria Cutica & Monica Bucciarelli (2016). Timing of Gestures: Gestures Anticipating or Simultaneous With Speech as Indexes of Text Comprehension in Children and Adults. Cognitive Science 40 (4).
    The deep comprehension of a text is tantamount to the construction of an articulated mental model of that text. The number of correct recollections is an index of a learner's mental model of a text. We assume that another index of comprehension is the timing of the gestures produced during text recall; gestures are simultaneous with speech when the learner has built an articulated mental model of the text, whereas they anticipate the speech when the learner has built a less (...)
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  36. added 2016-06-09
    Kai Soerfjord, Metacognitively Denying the Antecedent; C. Bereiter and M. Scardamalia's Logically Invalid 1994-Argument for 'Social Learning', with 'the Test-Reading of Logical Doubt', by Dr. Kai Soerfjord (Sørfjord).
  37. added 2016-06-08
    Albert Gatt, Emiel Krahmer, Kees Deemter & Roger P. G. Gompel (2016). Reference Production as Search: The Impact of Domain Size on the Production of Distinguishing Descriptions. Cognitive Science 40 (4):n/a-n/a.
    When producing a description of a target referent in a visual context, speakers need to choose a set of properties that distinguish it from its distractors. Computational models of language production/generation usually model this as a search process and predict that the time taken will increase both with the number of distractors in a scene and with the number of properties required to distinguish the target. These predictions are reminiscent of classic findings in visual search; however, unlike models of reference (...)
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  38. added 2016-06-04
    Emilian Mihailov (2015). Psihologia morala si natura judecarii morale. O examinare critica a modelului social intuitionist. In Bogdan Olaru & Andrei Holman (eds.), Contributii la psihologia morala: evaluari ale rezultatelor si noi cercetari empirice. Pro Universitaria 61-74.
    În acest studiu, îmi propun să arăt că modelul social intuiţionist al judecăţii morale propus de Haidt este la rândul său prea restrictiv faţă de influenţa raţionării morale, poate tot aşa cum modelul raţionalist subestima influenţa emoţiilor morale. Mai întâi, voi prezenta modelul raţionalist despre natura judecăţii morale şi voi evidenţia rezultatele empirice care au contribuit la erodarea sa. Apoi, voi prezenta şi critica modelul social intuiţionist revigorat de revoluţia „afectivă” din psihologia morală, argumentând că rezultatele din psihologia experimentală, neuroştiinţă (...)
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  39. added 2016-06-02
    Laura Lakusta, Paul Muentener, Lauren Petrillo, Noelle Mullanaphy & Lauren Muniz (2016). Does Making Something Move Matter? Representations of Goals and Sources in Motion Events With Causal Sources. Cognitive Science 40 (4).
    Previous studies have shown a robust bias to express the goal path over the source path when describing events. Motivated by linguistic theory, this study manipulated the causal structure of events and measured the extent to which adults and 3.5- to 4-year-old English-speaking children included the goal and source in their descriptions. We found that both children's and adults’ encoding of the source increased for events in which the source caused the motion of the figure compared to nearly identical events (...)
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  40. added 2016-06-02
    Matthew Fisher, Joshua Knobe, Brent Strickland & Frank C. Keil (2016). The Influence of Social Interaction on Intuitions of Objectivity and Subjectivity. Cognitive Science 40 (4).
    We present experimental evidence that people's modes of social interaction influence their construal of truth. Participants who engaged in cooperative interactions were less inclined to agree that there was an objective truth about that topic than were those who engaged in a competitive interaction. Follow-up experiments ruled out alternative explanations and indicated that the changes in objectivity are explained by argumentative mindsets: When people are in cooperative arguments, they see the truth as more subjective. These findings can help inform research (...)
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  41. added 2016-06-02
    Jia E. Loy, Hannah Rohde & Martin Corley (2016). Effects of Disfluency in Online Interpretation of Deception. Cognitive Science 40 (4):n/a-n/a.
    A speaker's manner of delivery of an utterance can affect a listener's pragmatic interpretation of the message. Disfluencies influence a listener's off-line assessment of whether the speaker is truthful or deceptive. Do listeners also form this assessment during the moment-by-moment processing of the linguistic message? Here we present two experiments that examined listeners’ judgments of whether a speaker was indicating the true location of the prize in a game during fluent and disfluent utterances. Participants’ eye and mouse movements were biased (...)
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  42. added 2016-06-02
    Annie Gagliardi, Naomi H. Feldman & Jeffrey Lidz (2016). Modeling Statistical Insensitivity: Sources of Suboptimal Behavior. Cognitive Science 40 (4).
    Children acquiring languages with noun classes have ample statistical information available that characterizes the distribution of nouns into these classes, but their use of this information to classify novel nouns differs from the predictions made by an optimal Bayesian classifier. We use rational analysis to investigate the hypothesis that children are classifying nouns optimally with respect to a distribution that does not match the surface distribution of statistical features in their input. We propose three ways in which children's apparent statistical (...)
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  43. added 2016-06-02
    Helen Susannah Moat, Christopher Y. Olivola, Nick Chater & Tobias Preis (2016). Searching Choices: Quantifying Decision‐Making Processes Using Search Engine Data. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2):n/a-n/a.
    When making a decision, humans consider two types of information: information they have acquired through their prior experience of the world, and further information they gather to support the decision in question. Here, we present evidence that data from search engines such as Google can help us model both sources of information. We show that statistics from search engines on the frequency of content on the Internet can help us estimate the statistical structure of prior experience; and, specifically, we outline (...)
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  44. added 2016-05-28
    Kenneth R. Koedinger, Michael V. Yudelson & Philip I. Pavlik (2016). Testing Theories of Transfer Using Error Rate Learning Curves. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2):n/a-n/a.
    We analyze naturally occurring datasets from student use of educational technologies to explore a long-standing question of the scope of transfer of learning. We contrast a faculty theory of broad transfer with a component theory of more constrained transfer. To test these theories, we develop statistical models of them. These models use latent variables to represent mental functions that are changed while learning to cause a reduction in error rates for new tasks. Strong versions of these models provide a common (...)
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  45. added 2016-05-27
    Victoria A. Bell & P. N. Johnson-Laird (1998). A Model Theory of Modal Reasoning. Cognitive Science 22 (1):25-51.
    This paper presents a new theory of modal reasoning, i.e. reasoning about what may or may not be the case, and what must or must not be the case. It postulates that individuals construct models of the premises in which they make explicit only what is true. A conclusion is possible if it holds in at least one model, whereas it is necessary if it holds in all the models. The theory makes three predictions, which are corroborated experimentally. First, conclusions (...)
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  46. added 2016-05-26
    Gordon Pennycook, Robert M. Ross, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2016). Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective Than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 11 (4):e0153039.
    Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a (...)
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  47. added 2016-05-26
    Qingrong Chen, Jingjing Zhang, Xiaodong Xu, Christoph Scheepers, Yiming Yang & Michael K. Tanenhaus (2016). Prosodic Expectations in Silent Reading: ERP Evidence From Rhyme Scheme and Semantic Congruence in Classic Chinese Poems. Cognition 154:11-21.
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  48. added 2016-05-24
    Julie L. Earles & Alan W. Kersten (2016). Why Are Verbs So Hard to Remember? Effects of Semantic Context on Memory for Verbs and Nouns. Cognitive Science 40 (4).
    Three experiments test the theory that verb meanings are more malleable than noun meanings in different semantic contexts, making a previously seen verb difficult to remember when it appears in a new semantic context. Experiment 1 revealed that changing the direct object noun in a transitive sentence reduced recognition of a previously seen verb, whereas changing the verb had little impact on noun recognition. Experiment 2 revealed that verbs exhibited context effects more similar to those shown by superordinate nouns rather (...)
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  49. added 2016-05-24
    Arnold Groh (2012). Tourism and Indigenous Communities: Implementing Policies of Sustainable Management. In E. A. Fongwa (ed.), Sustainability Assessment: Practice, method and emerging socio-cultural issues for sustainable development. SVH 168-183.
    Culture is a key resource for tourism. Any destabilisation of a local culture makes a destination less attractive for visitors. It is therefore in the interest of tour providers to protect and re-stabilise culture. There is great need for such efforts with regard to indigenous cultures, which are endangered worldwide. In this chapter, it is being elaborated why tourism needs to employ policies that ensure the maintenance of indigenous cultures. In their idiosyn-cratic physical appearance, which, in tropical areas, is often (...)
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  50. added 2016-05-22
    Samuel Sparks, Sheila J. Cunningham & Ada Kritikos (2016). Culture Modulates Implicit Ownership-Induced Self-Bias in Memory. Cognition 153:89-98.
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