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  1. added 2015-05-21
    Elizabeth A. L. Stine‐Morrow (2015). Commentary on Mata and von Helversen: Foraging Theory as a Paradigm Shift for Cognitive Aging. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):n/a-n/a.
    Mata and von Helversen's integrative review of adult age differences in search performance makes a good case that cognitive control may impact certain aspects of self-regulation of search. However, information foraging as a framework also offers an avenue to consider how adults of different ages adapt to age-related changes in cognition, such as in cognitive control.
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  2. added 2015-05-20
    Marco Mazzone (2015). Constructing the Context Through Goals and Schemata: Top-Down Processes in Comprehension and Beyond. Frontiers in Psychology 1 (13).
    My main purpose here is to provide an account of context selection in utterance understanding in terms of the role played by schemata and goals in top-down processing. The general idea is that information is organized hierarchically, with items iteratively organized in chunks—here called “schemata”—at multiple levels, so that the activation of any items spreads to schemata that are the most accessible due to previous experience. The activation of a schema, in turn, activates its other components, so as to predict (...)
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  3. added 2015-05-20
    Jessie Chin, Brennan R. Payne, Wai‐Tat Fu, Daniel G. Morrow & Elizabeth A. L. Stine‐Morrow (2015). Information Foraging Across the Life Span: Search and Switch in Unknown Patches. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2).
    In this study, we used a word search puzzle paradigm to investigate age differences in the rate of information gain and the cues used to make patch-departure decisions in information foraging. The likelihood of patch departure increased as the profitability of the patch decreased generally. Both younger and older adults persisted past the point of optimality as defined by the marginal value theorem , which assumes perfect knowledge of the foraging ecology. Nevertheless, there was evidence that adults were rational in (...)
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  4. added 2015-05-19
    Simon M. Reader (2015). Causes of Individual Differences in Animal Exploration and Search. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):n/a-n/a.
    Numerous studies have documented individual differences in exploratory tendencies and other phenomena related to search, and these differences have been linked to fitness. Here, I discuss the origins of these differences, focusing on how experience shapes animal search and exploration. The origin of individual differences will also depend upon the alternatives to exploration that are available. Given that search and exploration frequently carry significant costs, we might expect individuals to utilize cues indicating the potential net payoffs of exploration versus the (...)
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  5. added 2015-05-19
    Riccardo Fusaroli & Kristian Tylén (2015). Investigating Conversational Dynamics: Interactive Alignment, Interpersonal Synergy, and Collective Task Performance. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, interactive alignment and interpersonal synergy, and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy approach points to structural organization at the level of the interaction—such as complementary patterns straddling speech turns and interlocutors. We develop a general, quantitative method to assess lexical, prosodic, and speech/pause patterns related to the two approaches and their impact on collective (...)
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  6. added 2015-05-19
    Viatcheslav Vetrov (2012). Erwin Ritter von Zach, Gesammelte Rezensionen. Bochumer Jahrbuch Zur Ostasienforschung 36:278-284.
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  7. added 2015-05-18
    Robert Böhm, Hannes Rusch & Özgür Gürerk (2015). What Makes People Go to War? Defensive Intentions Motivate Retaliatory and Preemptive Intergroup Aggression. MPRA Papers 64373.
    Although humans qualify as one of the most cooperative animal species, the scale of violent intergroup conflict among them is unparalleled. Explanations of the underlying motivation to participate in an intergroup conflict, however, remain unsatisfactory. While previous research shows that intergroup conflict increases ‘in-group love’, it fails to identify robust triggers of ‘out-group hate’. Here, we present a controlled laboratory experiment, which demonstrates that ‘out-group hate’ can be provoked systematically. We find direct and causal evidence that the intention to protect (...)
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  8. added 2015-05-16
    Hye Joo Han, Richard Schweickert, Zhuangzhuang Xi & Charles Viau‐Quesnel (2015). The Cognitive Social Network in Dreams: Transitivity, Assortativity, and Giant Component Proportion Are Monotonic. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    For five individuals, a social network was constructed from a series of his or her dreams. Three important network measures were calculated for each network: transitivity, assortativity, and giant component proportion. These were monotonically related; over the five networks as transitivity increased, assortativity increased and giant component proportion decreased. The relations indicate that characters appear in dreams systematically. Systematicity likely arises from the dreamer's memory of people and their relations, which is from the dreamer's cognitive social network. But the dream (...)
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  9. added 2015-05-16
    Eddy J. Davelaar (2015). Semantic Search in the Remote Associates Test. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2).
    Searching through semantic memory may involve the use of several retrieval cues. In a verbal fluency task, the set of available cues is limited and every candidate word is a target. Individuals exhibit clustering behavior as predicted by optimal foraging theory. In another semantic search task, the remote associates task , three cues are presented and a single target word has to be found. Whereas the task has been widely studied as a task of creativity or insight problem solving, in (...)
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  10. added 2015-05-15
    Rainer Bromme & Eva Thomm (2015). Knowing Who Knows: Laypersons' Capabilities to Judge Experts' Pertinence for Science Topics. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Because modern societies are built on elaborate divisions of cognitive labor, individuals remain laypersons in most knowledge domains. Hence, they have to rely on others' expertise when deciding on many science-related issues in private and public life. Even children already locate and discern expertise in the minds of others . This study examines how far university students accurately judge experts' pertinence for science topics even when they lack proficient knowledge of the domain. Participants judged the pertinence of experts from diverse (...)
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  11. added 2015-05-13
    Arash Eshghi & Patrick G. T. Healey (2015). Collective Contexts in Conversation: Grounding by Proxy. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Anecdotal evidence suggests that participants in conversation can sometimes act as a coalition. This implies a level of conversational organization in which groups of individuals form a coherent unit. This paper investigates the implications of this phenomenon for psycholinguistic and semantic models of shared context in dialog. We present a corpus study of multiparty dialog which shows that, in certain circumstances, people with different levels of overt involvement in a conversation, that is, one responding and one not, can nonetheless access (...)
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  12. added 2015-05-12
    Takashi Iida (2015). Indirect Passives and Relational Nouns (III). Keio Gijuku Daigaku Gengo Bunka Kenkyu-Sho Kiyou 46:71-110.
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  13. added 2015-05-12
    Takashi Iida (2013). Indirect Passives and Relational Nouns (II). Keio Gijuku Daigaku Gengo Bunka Kenkyu-Sho Kiyou 44:21-42.
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  14. added 2015-05-12
    Takashi Iida (2012). Indirect Passives and Relational Nouns (I). Keio Gijuku Daigaku Gengo Bunka Kenkyu-Sho Kiyou 43:19-42.
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  15. added 2015-05-12
    Takashi Iida (2011). Japanese Passives and Quantification in Predicate Position. Philosophia Osaka 6:15-40.
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  16. added 2015-05-12
    Takashi Iida (2007). Towards a Semantics of Japanese Existential Sentences. In M. Okada (ed.), Essays in the Foundations of Logical and Phenomenological Studies (Interdisciplinary Series on Reasoning Studies, Vol. 3). Keio University. 67-96.
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  17. added 2015-05-09
    Priscilla Montez, Graham Thompson & Christopher T. Kello (2015). The Role of Semantic Clustering in Optimal Memory Foraging. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Recent studies of semantic memory have investigated two theories of optimal search adopted from the animal foraging literature: Lévy flights and marginal value theorem. Each theory makes different simplifying assumptions and addresses different findings in search behaviors. In this study, an experiment is conducted to test whether clustering in semantic memory may play a role in evidence for both theories. Labeled magnets and a whiteboard were used to elicit spatial representations of semantic knowledge about animals. Category recall sequences from a (...)
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  18. added 2015-05-08
    Gerhard Schurz & Paul D. Thorn (forthcoming). The Revenge of Ecological Rationality: Strategy Selection by Meta-Induction Within Changing Environments. Minds and Machines:1-29.
    ccording to the paradigm of adaptive rationality, successful inference and prediction methods tend to be local and frugal. As a complement to work within this paradigm, we investigate the problem of selecting an optimal combination of prediction methods from a given toolbox of such local methods, in the context of changing environments. These selection methods are called meta-inductive (MI) strategies, if they are based on the success-records of the toolbox-methods. No absolutely optimal MI strategy exists—a fact that we call the (...)
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  19. added 2015-05-08
    Dedre Gentner, Susan C. Levine, Raedy Ping, Ashley Isaia, Sonica Dhillon, Claire Bradley & Garrett Honke (2015). Rapid Learning in a Children's Museum Via Analogical Comparison. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    We tested whether analogical training could help children learn a key principle of elementary engineering—namely, the use of a diagonal brace to stabilize a structure. The context for this learning was a construction activity at the Chicago Children's Museum, in which children and their families build a model skyscraper together. The results indicate that even a single brief analogical comparison can confer insight. The results also reveal conditions that support analogical learning.
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  20. added 2015-05-08
    Richard Montague (1970). English as a Formal Language. In B. Visentini (ed.), Linguaggi Nella Societ\'{a} e Nella Tecnica. Edizioni di Communita. 188-221.
    I reject the contention that an important theoretical difference exists between formal and natural languages.
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  21. added 2015-05-06
    Stefan L. Frank, Thijs Trompenaars & Shravan Vasishth (2015). Cross‐Linguistic Differences in Processing Double‐Embedded Relative Clauses: Working‐Memory Constraints or Language Statistics? Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas both German (...)
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  22. added 2015-05-06
    Mark P. Holden, Nora S. Newcombe, Ilyse Resnick & Thomas F. Shipley (2015). Seeing Like a Geologist: Bayesian Use of Expert Categories in Location Memory. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    Memory for spatial location is typically biased, with errors trending toward the center of a surrounding region. According to the category adjustment model , this bias reflects the optimal, Bayesian combination of fine-grained and categorical representations of a location. However, there is disagreement about whether categories are malleable. For instance, can categories be redefined based on expert-level conceptual knowledge? Furthermore, if expert knowledge is used, does it dominate other information sources, or is it used adaptively so as to minimize overall (...)
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  23. added 2015-05-05
    Heather Sheridan & Erik D. Reichle (2015). An Analysis of the Time Course of Lexical Processing During Reading. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    Reingold, Reichle, Glaholt, and Sheridan reported a gaze-contingent eye-movement experiment in which survival-curve analyses were used to examine the effects of word frequency, the availability of parafoveal preview, and initial fixation location on the time course of lexical processing. The key results of these analyses suggest that lexical processing begins very rapidly and is supported by substantial parafoveal processing . Because it is not immediately obvious that these results are congruent with the theoretical assumption that words are processed and identified (...)
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  24. added 2015-05-03
    Roberto Bottini, Davide Crepaldi, Daniel Casasanto, Virgine Crollen & Olivier Collignon (2015). Space and Time in the Sighted and Blind. Cognition 141:67-72.
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  25. added 2015-05-01
    Tony Manela (forthcoming). Gratitude and Appreciation. American Philosophical Quarterly.
    This article argues that "gratitude to" and "gratitude that" are fundamentally different concepts. The former (prepositional gratitude) is properly a response to benevolent attitudes, and entails special concern on the part of the beneficiary for a benefactor, while the latter (propositional gratitude) is a response to beneficial states of affairs, and entails no special concern for anyone. Propositional gratitude, it is argued, ultimately amounts to a species of appreciation. The tendency to see prepositional gratitude and propositional “gratitude” as two species (...)
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  26. added 2015-04-29
    John Gowdy & Lisi Krall (forthcoming). The Economic Origins of Ultrasociality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences:1-63.
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  27. added 2015-04-28
    Paul Carron, A Case for Virtue: Aristotle’s Psychology and Contemporary Accounts of Emotion Regulation. Images of Europe. Past, Present, Future: ISSEI 2014 - Conference Proceedings.
    This essay argues that recent evidence in neurobiology and psychology supports Aristotle’s foundational psychology and account of self-control and demonstrates that his account of virtue is still relevant for understanding human agency. There is deep correlation between the psychological foundation of virtue that Aristotle describes in The Nicomachean Ethics (NE)—namely his distinction between the rational and nonrational parts of the soul, the way that they interact, and their respective roles in self-controlled action—and dual-process models of moral judgment. Furthermore, Aristotle’s conception (...)
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  28. added 2015-04-28
    Christopher Vredenburgh & Tamar Kushnir (2015). Young Children's Help‐Seeking as Active Information Gathering. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers’ help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the difficulty of each step of the task. We hypothesized that children's help-seeking would be a function of both initial competency and task difficulty. The results confirmed this prediction; all children were more likely to seek assistance (...)
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  29. added 2015-04-28
    Edo Shonin & William Van Gordon, The Hidden Aspects of the Five Precepts. Meditation: Research and Practice.
  30. added 2015-04-28
    Kevin Reuter, Lara Kirfel, Raphael van Riel & Luca Barlassina (2014). The Good, the Bad, and the Timely: How Temporal Order and Moral Judgment Influence Causal Selection. Frontiers in Psychology 5:1-10.
    Causal selection is the cognitive process through which one or more elements in a complex causal structure are singled out as actual causes of a certain effect. In this paper, we report on an experiment in which we investigated the role of moral and temporal factors in causal selection. Our results are as follows. First, when presented with a temporal chain in which two human agents perform the same action one after the other, subjects tend to judge the later agent (...)
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  31. added 2015-04-24
    Valerie G. Hardcastle & Kiah Hardcastle (2015). Marr's Levels Revisited: Understanding How Brains Break. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):259-273.
    While the research programs in early cognitive science and artificial intelligence aimed to articulate what cognition was in ideal terms, much research in contemporary computational neuroscience looks at how and why brains fail to function as they should ideally. This focus on impairment affects how we understand David Marr's hypothesized three levels of understanding. In this essay, we suggest some refinements to Marr's distinctions using a population activity model of cortico-striatal circuitry exploring impulsivity and behavioral inhibition as a case study. (...)
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  32. added 2015-04-23
    Hongjing Lu, Randall R. Rojas, Tom Beckers & Alan L. Yuille (2015). A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that (...)
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  33. added 2015-04-23
    William Bechtel & Oron Shagrir (2015). The Non‐Redundant Contributions of Marr's Three Levels of Analysis for Explaining Information‐Processing Mechanisms. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):312-322.
    Are all three of Marr's levels needed? Should they be kept distinct? We argue for the distinct contributions and methodologies of each level of analysis. It is important to maintain them because they provide three different perspectives required to understand mechanisms, especially information-processing mechanisms. The computational perspective provides an understanding of how a mechanism functions in broader environments that determines the computations it needs to perform . The representation and algorithmic perspective offers an understanding of how information about the environment (...)
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  34. added 2015-04-22
    Wayne D. Gray (2015). Introduction to Volume 7, Issue 2 of topiCS. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):185-186.
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  35. added 2015-04-22
    Wayne D. Gray (2015). Introduction to Volume 7, Issue 2 oftopiCS. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):185-186.
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  36. added 2015-04-22
    Leon Bergen & Noah D. Goodman (2015). The Strategic Use of Noise in Pragmatic Reasoning. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):336-350.
    We combine two recent probabilistic approaches to natural language understanding, exploring the formal pragmatics of communication on a noisy channel. We first extend a model of rational communication between a speaker and listener, to allow for the possibility that messages are corrupted by noise. In this model, common knowledge of a noisy channel leads to the use and correct understanding of sentence fragments. A further extension of the model, which allows the speaker to intentionally reduce the noise rate on a (...)
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  37. added 2015-04-22
    Yunfeng Zhang, Jaehyon Paik & Peter Pirolli (2015). Reinforcement Learning and Counterfactual Reasoning Explain Adaptive Behavior in a Changing Environment. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):368-381.
    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the (...)
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  38. added 2015-04-22
    Maarten Speekenbrink & Emmanouil Konstantinidis (2015). Uncertainty and Exploration in a Restless Bandit Problem. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):351-367.
    Decision making in noisy and changing environments requires a fine balance between exploiting knowledge about good courses of action and exploring the environment in order to improve upon this knowledge. We present an experiment on a restless bandit task in which participants made repeated choices between options for which the average rewards changed over time. Comparing a number of computational models of participants’ behavior in this task, we find evidence that a substantial number of them balanced exploration and exploitation by (...)
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  39. added 2015-04-22
    Thomas L. Griffiths, Falk Lieder & Noah D. Goodman (2015). Rational Use of Cognitive Resources: Levels of Analysis Between the Computational and the Algorithmic. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):217-229.
    Marr's levels of analysis—computational, algorithmic, and implementation—have served cognitive science well over the last 30 years. But the recent increase in the popularity of the computational level raises a new challenge: How do we begin to relate models at different levels of analysis? We propose that it is possible to define levels of analysis that lie between the computational and the algorithmic, providing a way to build a bridge between computational- and algorithmic-level models. The key idea is to push the (...)
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  40. added 2015-04-19
    Benjamin D. Young (2014). Smelling Phenomenal. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Qualitative-consciousness arises at the sensory level of olfactory processing and pervades our experience of smells to the extent that qualitative character is maintained whenever we are aware of undergoing an olfactory experience. Building upon the distinction between Access and Phenomenal Consciousness the paper offers a nuanced distinction between Awareness and Qualitative-consciousness that is applicable to olfaction in a manner that is conceptual precise and empirically viable. Mounting empirical research is offered substantiating the applicability of the distinction to olfaction and showing (...)
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  41. added 2015-04-18
    Robert Henman (2014). Generalized Empirical Method: Is It Needed? Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (1):32-33.
  42. added 2015-04-18
    Owen P. O'Sullivan (2014). Losing Control: The Hidden Role of Motor Areas in Decision-Making. Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (2):45-49.
    Decision-making has traditionally been viewed as detached from the neural systems of sensory perception and motor function. Consequently, motor areas have played a relatively minor role in discussions surrounding the control processes and neural origins of decision-making. Empiric evidence, catalysed by technological advances in the past two decades, has proven that motor areas have an integral role in decision-making. They are involved in the generation, modulation, maintenance and execution of decisions and actions. They also take part in a complex hierarchical (...)
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  43. added 2015-04-18
    Anuj Rastogi (2014). Brain Network Commonality and the General Empirical Method. Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (2).
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  44. added 2015-04-18
    Massimiliano Aragona (2014). Epistemological Reflections About the Crisis of the DSM-5 and the Revolutionary Potential of the RDoC Project. Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (1):11-20.
    This paper tests the predictions of an epistemological model that considered the DSM psychiatric classification (in the neopositivist and neo-Kraepelinian shape introduced by the DSM-III) as a scientific paradigm in crisis. As predicted, the DSM-5 did not include revolutionary proposals in its basic structure. In particular, the possibility of a dimensional revolution has not occurred and early proposals of etiopathogenic diagnoses were not implemented due to lack of specific knowledge in that field. However, conceiving the DSM-5 as a bridge between (...)
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  45. added 2015-04-18
    Robert Henman (2014). Neuroscience and Generalized Empirical Method: A Response to A. Rastogi. Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (2):70-71.
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  46. added 2015-04-18
    Tzofit Ofengenden (2014). Memory Formation and Belief. Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (2).
    In this paper, I deal with the constructive and dynamic nature of memory formation and with the nature of memory belief, whether a memory belief reflects the real past experience or a modified memory representation. That is I grapple with the issue of whether such a belief adheres to the final stage of memory or reflects the whole constructive process of memory. After examining the multiple-trace and reconsolidation theories of memory, I conclude that recent findings in neuroscience fundamentally disturb conventional (...)
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  47. added 2015-04-18
    Bandar AlAqeel & Pierre Assalian (2014). The Meaningfulness of Short Interpretation in Brief Clinical Encounter. Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 7 (1):21-24.
    This case study deals with failure to ejaculate intravaginally during sexual intercourse. The causative factors were thought to be unconscious in nature. The patient showed significant improvement after only one session, when these unconscious factors were interpreted to and accepted by the patient. We discuss briefly the application of psychodynamic theory in sex therapy and possible implementations in training settings.
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  48. added 2015-04-14
    Paola Escudero, Karen E. Mulak & Haley A. Vlach (2015). Cross‐Situational Learning of Minimal Word Pairs. Cognitive Science 39 (4).
    Cross-situational statistical learning of words involves tracking co-occurrences of auditory words and objects across time to infer word-referent mappings. Previous research has demonstrated that learners can infer referents across sets of very phonologically distinct words , but it remains unknown whether learners can encode fine phonological differences during cross-situational statistical learning. This study examined learners’ cross-situational statistical learning of minimal pairs that differed on one consonant segment , minimal pairs that differed on one vowel segment , and non-minimal pairs that (...)
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  49. added 2015-04-11
    Sergeiy Sandler (forthcoming). Fictive Interaction and the Nature of Linguistic Meaning. In Esther Pascual & Sergeiy Sandler (eds.), The conversation frame: Forms and functions of fictive interaction. John Benjamins.
    One may distinguish between three broad conceptions of linguistic meaning. One conception, which I will call “logical”, views meaning as given in reference (for words) and truth (for sentences). Another conception, the “monological” one, seeks meaning in the cognitive capacities of the single mind. A third, “dialogical”, conception attributes meaning to interaction between individuals and personal perspectives. In this chapter I directly contrast how well these three approaches deal with the evidence brought forth by fictive interaction. I examine instances of (...)
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  50. added 2015-04-11
    Amy M. Guthormsen, Kristie J. Fisher, Miriam Bassok, Lee Osterhout, Melissa DeWolf & Keith J. Holyoak (2015). Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations With Real‐World Knowledge: Evidence From Event‐Related Potentials. Cognitive Science 39 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials —N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving task, when participants generated labeled answers to semantically aligned and misaligned arithmetic problems , the second object label in misaligned problems yielded an N400 effect for addition problems. In a verification task, when participants judged (...)
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