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  1. added 2015-07-31
    Justine T. Kao, Roger Levy & Noah D. Goodman (2015). A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns. Cognitive Science 39 (6):n/a-n/a.
    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we propose two information-theoretic measures—ambiguity and distinctiveness—derived from a simple model of sentence processing. We test these measures on a set of puns and regular sentences and show that they correlate significantly with human (...)
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  2. added 2015-07-30
    Myrthe Faber & Silvia P. Gennari (2015). In Search of Lost Time: Reconstructing the Unfolding of Events From Memory. Cognition 143:193-202.
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  3. added 2015-07-30
    Alice De Visscher, Arnaud Szmalec, Lize Van Der Linden & Marie-Pascale Noël (2015). Serial-Order Learning Impairment and Hypersensitivity-to-Interference in Dyscalculia. Cognition 144:38-48.
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  4. added 2015-07-30
    Dušan Vejnović & Sunčica Zdravković (2015). Side Flankers Produce Less Crowding, but Only for Letters. Cognition 143:217-227.
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  5. added 2015-07-30
    Dirk U. Wulff, Thomas T. Hills & Ralph Hertwig (2015). How Short- and Long-Run Aspirations Impact Search and Choice in Decisions From Experience. Cognition 144:29-37.
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  6. added 2015-07-30
    Shelbie L. Sutherland & Andrei Cimpian (2015). An Explanatory Heuristic Gives Rise to the Belief That Words Are Well Suited for Their Referents. Cognition 143:228-240.
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  7. added 2015-07-28
    Richard Moore & Claudio Tennie (2015). Cognitive Mechanisms Matter - but They Do Not Explain the Absence of Teaching in Chimpanzees. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38:e50.
  8. added 2015-07-26
    Dimitria Electra Gatzia, Is the Auditory System Cognitively Penetrable? Multisensory Integration: Brain, Body, and the World.
    While much has been written about whether visual perception is cognitively penetrable, the analogous question with respect to auditory perception has received very little attention. Here we argue that instances of top-down modulation of auditory processing, although extensive, do not constitute cases of cognitive penetration of auditory perception since the changes in the phenomenology of auditory perception caused by top-down influences cannot plausibly be attributed to the listeners’ discursive thoughts (at least not in a semantically-coherent way).
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  9. added 2015-07-25
    Gary Jones & Bill Macken (2015). Questioning Short-Term Memory and its Measurement: Why Digit Span Measures Long-Term Associative Learning. Cognition 144:1-13.
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  10. added 2015-07-25
    Elizabeth A. Gunderson, Elizabet Spaepen, Dominic Gibson, Susan Goldin-Meadow & Susan C. Levine (2015). Gesture as a Window Onto Children’s Number Knowledge. Cognition 144:14-28.
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  11. added 2015-07-25
    Niels Skovgaard‐Olsen (2015). Ranking Theory and Conditional Reasoning. Cognitive Science 39 (6):n/a-n/a.
    Ranking theory is a formal epistemology that has been developed in over 600 pages in Spohn's recent book The Laws of Belief, which aims to provide a normative account of the dynamics of beliefs that presents an alternative to current probabilistic approaches. It has long been received in the AI community, but it has not yet found application in experimental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to derive clear, quantitative predictions by exploiting a parallel between ranking theory and a (...)
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  12. added 2015-07-25
    Franco Pestilli, Gerardo Viera & Marisa Carrasco (2007). How Do Attention and Adaptation Affect Contrast Sensitivity? Journal of Vision 7 (9).
    Attention and adaptation are both mechanisms that optimize visual performance. Attention optimizes performance by increasing contrast sensitivity for and neural response to attended stimuli while decreasing them for unattended stimuli; adaptation optimizes performance by increasing contrast sensitivity for and neural response to changing stimuli while decreasing them for unchanging stimuli. We investigated whether and how the adaptation state and the attentional effect on contrast sensitivity interact. We measured contrast sensitivity with an orientation-discrimination task, in two adaptation conditions—adapt to 0% or (...)
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  13. added 2015-07-25
    Francesca Bordogna (2001). The Physiology and Psychology of Temperament: Pragmatism in Context. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 37:3-25.
    This paper traces William James's famous “temperament thesis” according to which the philosophical stance that individuals take depends on their “temperaments.” It seeks to understand James's conception of temperament by locating James within a set of contemporary investigations that linked the sources of mental, and even higher, intellectual processes to the physiological and organic constitution of the individual. The paper argues that James understood temperament along the reflex-arc model and discusses the implications of that physiological account of temperament for James's (...)
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  14. added 2015-07-24
    Andrew Stumpff Morrison (2013). The Law is a Fractal: The Attempt to Anticipate Everything. Loyola University Chicago Law Journal 44:649-681.
    Define an inappropriate rule as a rule that, if followed literally, would in at least some cases produce results that can be concluded with reasonable certainty to have been unintended by and unacceptable to even the rule’s author. Even under this definition, it is impossible for a rule writer to write an appropriate and objective rule to cover every situation in advance. Rule-writers nonetheless act today as though they were unaware of this long-acknowledged impossibility of perfect advance enumeration, and their (...)
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  15. added 2015-07-23
    Marc Ettlinger, Kara Morgan‐Short, Mandy Faretta‐Stutenberg & Patrick C. M. Wong (2015). The Relationship Between Artificial and Second Language Learning. Cognitive Science 39 (6).
    Artificial language learning experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we considered these questions by examining the relationship between performance in an ALL task and second language learning ability. Participants enrolled in a Spanish language class were evaluated using a number of (...)
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  16. added 2015-07-21
    Elena Hoicka & Jessica Butcher (2015). Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending. Cognitive Science 39 (6):n/a-n/a.
    While separate pieces of research found parents offer toddlers cues to express that they are joking and pretending, and that toddlers and preschoolers understand intentions to joke and pretend, it is not yet clear whether parents and toddlers consider joking and pretending to be distinct concepts. This is important as distinguishing these two forms of non-literal acts could open a gateway to understanding the complexities of the non-literal world, as well as the complexities of intentions in general. Two studies found (...)
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  17. added 2015-07-18
    Christina M. Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden, Erin E. Hannon & Joel S. Snyder (2015). Finding the Music of Speech: Musical Knowledge Influences Pitch Processing in Speech. Cognition 143:135-140.
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  18. added 2015-07-18
    LouAnn Gerken & Sara Knight (2015). Infants Generalize From Just Four Words. Cognition 143:187-192.
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  19. added 2015-07-18
    Boris Granovskiy, Jason M. Gold, David J. T. Sumpter & Robert L. Goldstone (2015). Integration of Social Information by Human Groups. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):n/a-n/a.
    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The “wisdom of crowds” hypothesis states that the average judgment of many individuals can give a good estimate of, for example, the outcomes of sporting events and the answers to trivia questions. Two conditions for the application of wisdom of crowds are that estimates should be independent and unbiased. Here, we study (...)
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  20. added 2015-07-18
    Azzurra Ruggeri & Tania Lombrozo (2015). Children Adapt Their Questions to Achieve Efficient Search. Cognition 143:203-216.
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  21. added 2015-07-18
    Anna J. Cunningham, Caroline Witton, Joel B. Talcott, Adrian P. Burgess & Laura R. Shapiro (2015). Deconstructing Phonological Tasks: The Contribution of Stimulus and Response Type to the Prediction of Early Decoding Skills. Cognition 143:178-186.
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  22. added 2015-07-18
    Chie Nakamura & Manabu Arai (2015). Persistence of Initial Misanalysis With No Referential Ambiguity. Cognitive Science 39 (6).
    Previous research reported that in processing structurally ambiguous sentences comprehenders often preserve an initial incorrect analysis even after adopting a correct analysis following structural disambiguation. One criticism is that the sentences tested in previous studies involved referential ambiguity and allowed comprehenders to make inferences about the initial interpretation using pragmatic information, suggesting the possibility that the initial analysis persisted due to comprehenders' pragmatic inference but not to their failure to perform complete reanalysis of the initial misanalysis. Our study investigated this (...)
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  23. added 2015-07-18
    Desmond C. Ong, Jamil Zaki & Noah D. Goodman (2015). Affective Cognition: Exploring Lay Theories of Emotion. Cognition 143:141-162.
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  24. added 2015-07-17
    Eric Dietrich, Synopsis of Excellent Beauty: The Naturalness of Religion and the Unnaturalness of the World.
    This is a synopsis of my book Excellent Beauty: The naturalness of religion and the unnaturalness of the world (Columbia University Press). The synopsis discusses the book's two main theses: religion is an evolutionary adaptation and, as a consequence, humans are not at the center of the universe. The result of this latter point is that the universe contains profound and beautiful mysteries at which we humans can marvel but which we cannot explain away.
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  25. added 2015-07-17
    Gary Lupyan & Benjamin Bergen (2015). How Language Programs the Mind. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):n/a-n/a.
    Many animals can be trained to perform novel tasks. People, too, can be trained, but sometime in early childhood people transition from being trainable to something qualitatively more powerful—being programmable. We argue that such programmability constitutes a leap in the way that organisms learn, interact, and transmit knowledge, and that what facilitates or enables this programmability is the learning and use of language. We then examine how language programs the mind and argue that it does so through the manipulation of (...)
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  26. added 2015-07-15
    Eric Crawford, Matthew Gingerich & Chris Eliasmith (2015). Biologically Plausible, Human‐Scale Knowledge Representation. Cognitive Science 39 (6):n/a-n/a.
    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony, “mesh” binding, and conjunctive binding. Recent theoretical work has suggested that most of these methods will not scale well, that is, that they cannot encode structured representations using any of the tens of thousands of terms in the adult lexicon without making implausible resource assumptions. Here, we empirically demonstrate that the biologically plausible structured representations employed in the Semantic Pointer Architecture approach (...)
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  27. added 2015-07-10
    Michael J. Beran, Bonnie M. Perdue, Sara E. Futch, J. David Smith, Theodore A. Evans & Audrey E. Parrish (2015). Go When You Know: Chimpanzees’ Confidence Movements Reflect Their Responses in a Computerized Memory Task. Cognition 142:236-246.
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  28. added 2015-07-10
    Luca Rinaldi, Peter Brugger, Christopher J. Bockisch, Giovanni Bertolini & Luisa Girelli (2015). Keeping an Eye on Serial Order: Ocular Movements Bind Space and Time. Cognition 142:291-298.
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  29. added 2015-07-10
    Mindaugas Mozuraitis, Craig G. Chambers & Meredyth Daneman (2015). Privileged Versus Shared Knowledge About Object Identity in Real-Time Referential Processing. Cognition 142:148-165.
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  30. added 2015-07-10
    Gillian Rhodes, Stephen Pond, Nichola Burton, Nadine Kloth, Linda Jeffery, Jason Bell, Louise Ewing, Andrew J. Calder & Romina Palermo (2015). How Distinct is the Coding of Face Identity and Expression? Evidence for Some Common Dimensions in Face Space. Cognition 142:123-137.
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  31. added 2015-07-10
    Will M. Gervais (2015). Override the Controversy: Analytic Thinking Predicts Endorsement of Evolution. Cognition 142:312-321.
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  32. added 2015-07-10
    Miriam A. Novack, Susan Goldin-Meadow & Amanda L. Woodward (2015). Learning From Gesture: How Early Does It Happen? Cognition 142:138-147.
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  33. added 2015-07-10
    Igor Douven & Jonah N. Schupbach (2015). The Role of Explanatory Considerations in Updating. Cognition 142:299-311.
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  34. added 2015-07-10
    Nikola Vukovic & John N. Williams (2015). Individual Differences in Spatial Cognition Influence Mental Simulation of Language. Cognition 142:110-122.
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  35. added 2015-07-10
    Lilia Rissman, Kyle Rawlins & Barbara Landau (2015). Using Instruments to Understand Argument Structure: Evidence for Gradient Representation. Cognition 142:266-290.
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  36. added 2015-07-10
    Albert Costa, Alice Foucart, Inbal Arnon, Melina Aparici & Jose Apesteguia (2015). Corrigendum to ‘ “Piensa” Twice: On the Foreign Language Effect in Decision Making’ [Cognition 130 236–254]. Cognition 142:362-363.
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  37. added 2015-07-10
    Martin L. Jönsson, Ulrike Hahn & Erik J. Olsson (2015). The Kind of Group You Want to Belong To: Effects of Group Structure on Group Accuracy. Cognition 142:191-204.
    There has been much interest in group judgment and the so-called 'wisdom of crowds'. In many real world contexts, members of groups not only share a dependence on external sources of information, but they also communicate with one another, thus introducing correlations among their responses that can diminish collective accuracy. This has long been known, but it has-to date-not been examined to what extent different kinds of communication networks may give rise to systematically different effects on accuracy. We argue that (...)
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  38. added 2015-07-10
    Nicholas K. DeWind, Geoffrey K. Adams, Michael L. Platt & Elizabeth M. Brannon (2015). Modeling the Approximate Number System to Quantify the Contribution of Visual Stimulus Features. Cognition 142:247-265.
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  39. added 2015-07-10
    Cristine H. Legare, Nicole J. Wen, Patricia A. Herrmann & Harvey Whitehouse (2015). Imitative Flexibility and the Development of Cultural Learning. Cognition 142:351-361.
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  40. added 2015-07-10
    Carolyn Ranti, Christopher H. Chatham & David Badre (2015). Parallel Temporal Dynamics in Hierarchical Cognitive Control. Cognition 142:205-229.
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  41. added 2015-07-10
    Matthew R. Longo (2015). Intuitive Anatomy: Distortions of Conceptual Knowledge of Hand Structure. Cognition 142:230-235.
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  42. added 2015-07-10
    Maria C. D’Angelo & Karin R. Humphreys (2015). Tip-of-the-Tongue States Reoccur Because of Implicit Learning, but Resolving Them Helps. Cognition 142:166-190.
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  43. added 2015-07-10
    Fabián A. Soto, Gonzalo R. Quintana, Andrés M. Pérez-Acosta, Fernando P. Ponce & Edgar H. Vogel (2015). Why Are Some Dimensions Integral? Testing Two Hypotheses Through Causal Learning Experiments. Cognition 143:163-177.
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  44. added 2015-07-10
    Ori Friedman (2013). How Do Children Represent Pretend Play? In M. Taylor (ed.), Oxford handbook of the development of imagination. Oxford University Press 186-195.
    How do young children represent pretend play? One possibility is that recognizing and representing pretend play depends on children’s ability to infer the mental states of the person engaged in pretend play (mentalist account). The two dominant alternative possibilities are that children view as a distinctive form of non-representational behavior (behavioral account), and that children represent pretense by temporarily treating objects as though they have fictional or make-believe properties (flagging account). This chapter provides an overview of the debate between these (...)
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  45. added 2015-07-08
    Raj Singh, Evelina Fedorenko, Kyle Mahowald & Edward Gibson (2015). Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts. Cognitive Science 39 (6):n/a-n/a.
    According to one view of linguistic information, a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: by asserting the content as new information; or by presupposing the content as given information which would then have to be accommodated. This distinction predicts that it is conversationally more appropriate to assert implausible information rather than presuppose it. A second view rejects the assumption that presuppositions are accommodated; instead, presuppositions are assimilated into asserted content and both are correspondingly open to (...)
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  46. added 2015-07-07
    Xiaoqing Gao, Daphne Maurer & Hugh R. Wilson (2015). The PCA Learning Effect: An Emerging Correlate of Face Memory During Childhood. Cognition 143:101-107.
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  47. added 2015-07-07
    Isabelle Dautriche, Daniel Swingley & Anne Christophe (2015). Learning Novel Phonological Neighbors: Syntactic Category Matters. Cognition 143:77-86.
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  48. added 2015-07-07
    Stephen Stich & Joshua Tarzia (2015). The Pretense Debate. Cognition 143:1-12.
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  49. added 2015-07-07
    Pierce Edmiston & Gary Lupyan (2015). What Makes Words Special? Words as Unmotivated Cues. Cognition 143:93-100.
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  50. added 2015-07-07
    Hironori Akechi, Timo Stein, Yukiko Kikuchi, Yoshikuni Tojo, Hiroo Osanai & Toshikazu Hasegawa (2015). Preferential Awareness of Protofacial Stimuli in Autism. Cognition 143:129-134.
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